Ness Ziona
Overview
 
Ness Ziona is a city in central
Center District (Israel)
The Central District of Israel is one of six administrative districts, including most of the Sharon region. The district capital is Ramla. It is further divided into 4 sub-districts: Petah Tikva, Ramla, Sharon and Rehovot. The district's largest city is Rishon LeZion. Its population as of 2008 was...

 Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 founded in 1883. At the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 38,100, and its jurisdiction was 15,579 dunam
Dunam
A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum, dynym, dulum was a non-SI unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and representing the amount of land that can be plowed in a day; its value varied from 900–2500 m²...

s.
Ness Ziona was first known as Nahalat Reuben (lit. "Reuben's Estate") after Reuben Lehrer, who owned the land. In 1878, the Templer
Templers (religious believers)
Templers are members of the Temple Society , a German Protestant sect with roots in the Pietist movement of the Lutheran Church. The Templers were expelled from the church in 1858 because of their millennial beliefs. Their aim was to realize the apocalyptic visions of the prophets of Israel in the...

 Reisler purchased lands in Wadi Hunayn
Wadi Hunayn
Wadi Hunayn was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Ramla. It was located 9 km west of Ramla. According to a local tradition, it was named after the Yemeni home of the Qada'a tribe who settled here in the early Islamic period....

, planted an orchard, and lived there with his family. After his wife and children died of malaria, he returned to Europe.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Ness Ziona is a city in central
Center District (Israel)
The Central District of Israel is one of six administrative districts, including most of the Sharon region. The district capital is Ramla. It is further divided into 4 sub-districts: Petah Tikva, Ramla, Sharon and Rehovot. The district's largest city is Rishon LeZion. Its population as of 2008 was...

 Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 founded in 1883. At the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 38,100, and its jurisdiction was 15,579 dunam
Dunam
A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum, dynym, dulum was a non-SI unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and representing the amount of land that can be plowed in a day; its value varied from 900–2500 m²...

s.

Nahalat Reuben

Ness Ziona was first known as Nahalat Reuben (lit. "Reuben's Estate") after Reuben Lehrer, who owned the land. In 1878, the Templer
Templers (religious believers)
Templers are members of the Temple Society , a German Protestant sect with roots in the Pietist movement of the Lutheran Church. The Templers were expelled from the church in 1858 because of their millennial beliefs. Their aim was to realize the apocalyptic visions of the prophets of Israel in the...

 Reisler purchased lands in Wadi Hunayn
Wadi Hunayn
Wadi Hunayn was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Ramla. It was located 9 km west of Ramla. According to a local tradition, it was named after the Yemeni home of the Qada'a tribe who settled here in the early Islamic period....

, planted an orchard, and lived there with his family. After his wife and children died of malaria, he returned to Europe. He travelled to Odessa
Odessa
Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

 in 1882 and met Reuben Lehrer, a Russian Jew with Zionist ideals, who owned farmland there. Reisler traded his parcel of land in Palestine for Lehrer's land in Russia. Lehrer made aliyah
Aliyah
Aliyah is the immigration of Jews to the Land of Israel . It is a basic tenet of Zionist ideology. The opposite action, emigration from Israel, is referred to as yerida . The return to the Holy Land has been a Jewish aspiration since the Babylonian exile...

 with his eldest child Moshe in 1883, bringing his wife and 7 children over the following year.

Lehrer placed advertisements near Jaffa
Jaffa
Jaffa is an ancient port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world. Jaffa was incorporated with Tel Aviv creating the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Jaffa is famous for its association with the biblical story of the prophet Jonah.-Etymology:...

 port asking others to join him. The pioneers established a neighborhood named Tel Aviv (the city of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

 did not yet exist) although the area was still known by its Arabic name, Wadi Hunayn. In 1888, Avraham Yalovsky, a blacksmith
Smith (metalwork)
A metalsmith, often shortened to smith, is a person involved in making metal objects. In contemporary use a metalsmith is a person who uses metal as a material, uses traditional metalsmithing techniques , whose work thematically relates to the practice or history of the practice, or who engages in...

, was killed defending his property from Arab gangs.

In 1891, Michael Halperin bought more land in the wadi. He gathered a group of people on the Hill of Love and unfurled a blue and white flag emblazoned with the words Ness Ziona ("Banner to Zion") written in gold. The name is based on a verse in the Book of Jeremiah
Book of Jeremiah
The Book of Jeremiah is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, following the book of Isaiah and preceding Ezekiel and the Book of the Twelve....

, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
Jeremiah Hebrew:יִרְמְיָה , Modern Hebrew:Yirməyāhū, IPA: jirməˈjaːhu, Tiberian:Yirmĭyahu, Greek:Ἰερεμίας), meaning "Yahweh exalts", or called the "Weeping prophet" was one of the main prophets of the Hebrew Bible...

 4:6. This flag was similar to the official Flag of Israel
Flag of Israel
The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the country's establishment. It depicts a blue Star of David on a white background, between two horizontal blue stripes...

 adopted at the First Zionist Congress
First Zionist Congress
The First Zionist Congress was the inaugural congress of the Zionist Organization held in Basel , Switzerland, from August 29 to August 31, 1897. It was convened and chaired by Theodor Herzl, the founder of the modern Zionism movement...

 seven years later.

Arab attacks

Ness Ziona was attacked by Arab forces in the 1936–39 Arab Revolt, and the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The outlying villages of Kfar Aharon and Tirat Shalom (now part of Ness Ziona) frequently exchanged fire with the Arab villages al-Qubayba
Al-Qubayba
al-Qubayba was a Palestinian village, located 24 kilometers northwest of Hebron.-History:Known in Crusader times as Deirelcobebe, the ruins of the ancient Canaanite city of Lachish lay adjacent to the village, which was subject to extensive archaeological excavations by the British Mandatory...

 and Zarnuqa
Zarnuqa
Zarnuqa was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Ramla.In 1924, the land was sold by Shukri brothers, and Abd al-Rahman al-Taji al-Farouqi....

 (now western Rehovot
Rehovot
Rehovot is a city in the Center District of Israel, about south of Tel Aviv. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , at the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 112,700. Rehovot's official website estimates the population at 114,000.Rehovot was built on the site of Doron,...

). Most of Ness Ziona's youth joined the Haganah
Haganah
Haganah was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948, which later became the core of the Israel Defense Forces.- Origins :...

 to fight off these threats. On May 15, 1948, Sarafand was evacuated of Arab inhabitants, and on May 19, al-Qubayba and Zarnuqa were conquered by the Givati Brigade
Givati Brigade
The Givati Brigade is an infantry brigade of the Israel Defense Forces, and serves as its amphibious force. Givati soldiers are designated by purple berets...

. Much of the territory abandoned by the fleeing Arab residents of nearby villages was added to Ness Ziona, increasing its size from 8 km² to about 15.3 km² immediately after the war.

After the establishment of the state

During the war, Ness Ziona's population almost tripled to become 4,446 (according to an October 23, 1949 survey), and until 1950 the local council absorbed 9,000 olim
Aliyah
Aliyah is the immigration of Jews to the Land of Israel . It is a basic tenet of Zionist ideology. The opposite action, emigration from Israel, is referred to as yerida . The return to the Holy Land has been a Jewish aspiration since the Babylonian exile...

, most of whom were housed in ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
The Ma'abarot were refugee absorption camps in Israel in the 1950s. The Ma'abarot were meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees and new Olim arriving to the newly independent State of Israel, replacing the less habitable immigrant camps or tent cities...

. In 1952 a new industrial zone was approved for the town on an area of 70 dunam
Dunam
A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum, dynym, dulum was a non-SI unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and representing the amount of land that can be plowed in a day; its value varied from 900–2500 m²...

s. In 1955, a second industrial zone was approved.

Geography

Ness Ziona is located on the Israeli coastal plain
Israeli Coastal Plain
The Israeli coastal plain is the narrow coastal plain along Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast which houses 70% of the country's population. The plain extends north to south and is divided into a number of areas; the Plain of Zebulun , Hof HaCarmel , the Sharon plain , and the Plain of Judea The...

 approximately 10 km inland of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

, to the south of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

. The city is bordered to the north by Rishon LeZion, to the east by Be'er Ya'akov, and to the south by Rehovot
Rehovot
Rehovot is a city in the Center District of Israel, about south of Tel Aviv. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , at the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 112,700. Rehovot's official website estimates the population at 114,000.Rehovot was built on the site of Doron,...

. Beit Hanan
Beit Hanan
Beit Hanan is a moshav, south of Tel Aviv, Israel, about two kilometers west of Ness Ziona. It belongs to the Moshavim Movement and Gan Raveh Regional Council...

, Beit Oved
Beit Oved
Beit Oved is a moshav in central Israel. Located on the outskirts of Ness Ziona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gan Raveh Regional Council...

, Ayanot
Ayanot
Ayanot is a youth village in central Israel. Located near Ness Ziona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gan Raveh Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 396....

 youth village
Youth village
A youth village is a boarding school model first developed in Mandate Palestine in the 1930s to care for groups of children and teenagers fleeing the Nazis...

 and Kibbutz
Kibbutz
A kibbutz is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. Today, farming has been partly supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises. Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Zionism...

 Netzer Sereni
Netzer Sereni
Netzer Sereni is a kibbutz in central Israel. Located in the Shephelah between Be'er Ya'akov and Ness Ziona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gezer Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 534....

 also border the city. Ness Ziona is now popular among Tel Aviv residents seeking to leave the city. The rural character has been preserved by urban planning that eschews skyscrapers and buildings higher than eight floors. Property values have risen by 30 percent in recent years.

Neighborhoods

Ness Ziona is composed of a central core and villages that came under its municipal jurisdiction over time. The city also has two industrial zones and a high-tech park, Kiryat Weizmann.

Demographics

According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2005 the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.6% Jewish and other non-Arabs. At the end of 2004 there were 612 immigrants (2.2%), although this rose sharply to 7.8% in 2005.

In 2005 there were 14,400 males and 14,900 females. 31.8% of the population was 19 years of age or younger, 15.2% between 20 and 29, 21% between 30 and 44, 19.1% from 45 to 59, 3.1% from 60 to 64, and 9.7% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2006 was 5.8%.

In 2005, there were 11,830 salaried workers and 984 self-employed. The mean monthly wage
for a salaried worker was NIS 7,597, a 9.2% increase over 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of NIS 9,802 (an 8.4% increase) versus NIS 5,595 for females (a 14% increase). The mean income for the self-employed was 7,064. There were 290 people receiving unemployment benefits and 986 receiving an income guarantee (welfare).

Economy

Ness Ziona is home to the Israel Institute for Biological Research
Israel Institute for Biological Research
Israel Institute for Biological Research is a government defense research institute specializing in biology, medicinal chemistry and environmental science, and is suspected of also developing biological and chemical weapons, as well as defenses against them. It is located in Ness Ziona, 20...

 (IIBR), a chemical and biological research institute with 350 employees, and Zenith Solar
Zenith Solar
Zenith Solar is an Israeli solar energy company based in Ness Ziona. It was founded in 2006 by Roy Segev and Bob Whelen, who is also its chief executive....

, a solar energy company. The Kiryat Weizmann Science Park is a magnet for many Israeli start-ups, among them Indigo Digital Press
Indigo Digital Press
Indigo is a series of digital offset printing presses manufactured by the Hewlett-Packard company in Ness Ziona, Israel.HP Indigo presses are used for general commercial printing, direct mail, photo, publications, labels, flexible packaging, folding cartons and specialty printing...

, which was acquired by Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

 in 2002 and manufactures high-end digital printing presses.

Education

According to CBS figures for 2001, there are 13 schools and 5,019 students in the city: 10 elementary schools with 2,821 students, and 4 high schools with 2,198 students. 62.9% of 12th graders were eligible for a matriculation certificate that year.

Sports

The city has been represented in the top division of Israeli football
Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as an organised sport first developed in the United Kingdom who controlled Israel during the days of the British Mandate. Israel will be hosting the UEFA U-21 Championship in 2013....

 by two different clubs; Maccabi Ness Ziona
Maccabi Nes Tziona F.C.
Maccabi Nes Tziona was an Israeli football club based in Nes Tziona.-History:In 1923 the club won the Magen Shimshon, a cup for Maccabi-affiliated teams, and won it again the following season...

 competed in the top flight in the first post-independence season. However, they lost all 24 games, and were relegated. A new club, Sektzia Ness Ziona was formed in 1956 and reached the top flight in 1966. However, they were relegated after only one season. After folding, they reformed as Ironi Ness Ziona in 2001, and since then have reverted to their former name and reached Liga Leumit
Liga Leumit
Liga Leumit is the second tier in the Israeli football league system below the Premier League.-Structure:There are 16 clubs in the league. At the end of each season, the lowest-placed team are relegated to Liga Alef while the highest-placed team from Liga Alef are promoted in their place...

, the second tier. The club plays at the Ness Ziona Stadium
Ness Ziona Stadium
The Ness Ziona Stadium , is a football stadium in Ness Ziona, Israel. Aside from being the stadium of local side, Sektzia Nes Tziona, it recently hosted the Israel national under-19 football team in its bid to qualify for the under-19 European championship....

, which has also hosted Israel's U-19 team
Israel national under-19 football team
Israel's national Under-19 team , also known as Israel Under-19s or Israel U-19s, is considered to be the feeder team for the Israel national under-21 football team....

.

Transportation

Ness Ziona has two main roads - Highway 42
Highway 42 (Israel)
Highway 42 is a north-south highway in central Israel. It leads from Ashdod interchange in the south to Gan Rave interchange in the north. The road is 19 km long.-Junctions and interchanges on the route:...

 to the west, and Road 412
Route 412 (Israel)
Route 412 , is a regional road in the south-east of the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area in Israel. The road connects Bilu Jucntion south of Rehovot, with Yehud Ma'arav Junction, running through Rehovot, Ness Ziona, Rishon LeZion and Beit Dagan and spanning a distance of approximately 22 km.-Route...

 (Weizmann Street), which goes through the city center and connects to Rishon LeZion and Rehovot. The Ness Ziona Central Bus Station is located on Weizmann Street, although as of 2008 it is operational only for buses heading north, while the platform for buses heading south was moved across the street.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Ness Ziona is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:

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    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

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    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

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    , China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

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