National Democratic Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf
The National Democratic Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf was a guerrilla movement in the Arabian peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...


NDFLOAG was formed in Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 in 1969 by Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

i students (primarily studying in Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

) and other emigrees. Some had been members of leftwing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 organizations (such as the Arab Nationalist Movement
Arab Nationalist Movement
The Arab Nationalist Movement , also known as the Movement of Arab Nationalists and the Harakiyyin, was a pan-Arab nationalist organization influential in much of the Arab world, most famously so within the Palestinian movement.-Origins & Ideology:The Arab Nationalist Movement had its origins in a...

), others were hithero unorganized opponents of the Omani government. In difference to the other, larger, rural guerrilla movement Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf
Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf
The Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf , later renamed the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf , was a Marxist and Arab nationalist revolutionary organisation in the Persian Gulf Arab states. The PFLOAG was organized in 1968 as the successor to the...

 (PFLOAG), NDFLOAG was predominately an urban movement. NDFLOAG was supported by urban intellectuals. Ideologically, PFLOAG was Marxist
Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. Marxism was pioneered in the early to mid 19th...

 whilst NDFLOAG was Ba'ath
Baath Party
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was a political party mixing Arab nationalist and Arab socialist interests, opposed to Western imperialism, and calling for the renaissance or resurrection and unification of the Arab world into a single state. Ba'ath is also spelled Ba'th or Baath and means...

-oriented. When it was publicly launched, NDFLOAG had branches in different towns in Oman and in most of the other parts of the Arab Gulf.

NDFLOAG began guerrilla operations in northern Oman on June 12, 1970 attacking garrisons at the towns of Izki
Izki is a town in the region Ad Dakhiliyah, in northeastern Oman. It is located at about and has a population of 35,173 ....

 and Nizwa
-Attractions:The main tourist attractions in the city are Nizwa Fort, the traditional Souq and Falaj Daris. In the 1990s, the Jama, the fort and the souq which sit next to each other in the centre were renovated using the same traditional materials...

 with mortars. Both attacks failed. The attack on a SAF
Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces
The Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces are the Royal Army of Oman , Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman and other defence forces of the Sultanate of Oman...

 army post outside Izki was repealed, and the entire unit was either killed or captured. Afterwards several arrests were made, based on testimonies from prisoners from the Izki raid, and three NDFLOAG arms caches in Muti, Sur and Matrah had been stored was seized by the state forces. These crack-downs lead to a temporary ceasing of NDFLOAG activities in Oman. The group continued to organize outside Oman, though.

Although the June 12, 1970 attacks had been fought off, they functioned as a catalyst for the groups that conspired against the Sultan
Sultan of Oman
-List of Imams :-Nabhan Dynasty :-Ya'ariba Dynasty :-Banu Ghafir Dynasty :-Ya'ariba Dynasty :-Al Said Dynasty :-See also:...

 Said bin Taimur
Said bin Taimur
Said bin Taimur was the sultan of Muscat and Oman from 10 February 1932 until his overthrow on 23 July 1970. His second wife was Mazoon al-Mashani...

 (which soon thereafter led to the overthrow of the Sultan by his son Qaboos bin Said, with British support). The attacks had caught SAF by surprise, and the attacks contributed to the perception that Said bin Taimur was unable to defeat the insurgency.

In 1971, having suffered military setbacks, NDFLOAG began seeking cooperation with PFLOAG. In December 1971 NDFLOAG and PFLOAG merged, forming the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf. The two groups retained separate organizational structures, though.
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