Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in 1804 in the city of Salem
to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. His ancestors include John Hathorne
, a judge during the Salem Witch Trials
. Nathaniel later added a "w" to make his name "Hawthorne". He entered Bowdoin College
in 1821, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824, and graduated in 1825.
Amid the seeming confusion of our mysterious world, individuals are so nicely adjusted to a system, and systems to one another and to a whole, that, by stepping aside for a moment, a man exposes himself to a fearful risk of losing his place forever.
Long, long may it be, ere he comes again! His hour is one of darkness, and adversity, and peril. But should domestic tyranny oppress us, or the invader's step pollute our soil, still may the Gray Champion come, for he is the type of New England's hereditary spirit; and his shadowy march, on the eve of danger, must ever be the pledge, that New England's sons will vindicate their ancestry.
By the sympathy of your human hearts for sin ye shall scent out all the places — whether in church, bedchamber, street, field, or forest — where crime has been committed, and shall exult to behold the whole earth one stain of guilt, one mighty blood spot.
As the moral gloom of the world overpowers all systematic gaiety, even so was their home of wild mirth made desolate amid the sad forest.
I have not lived, but only dreamed about living.
As far as my experience goes, men of genius are fairly gifted with the social qualities; and in this age, there appears to be a fellow-feeling among them, which had not heretofore been developed. As men, they ask nothing better than to be on equal terms with their fellow-men; and as authors, they have thrown aside their proverbial jealousy, and acknowledge a generous brotherhood.
She poured out the liquid music of her voice to quench the thirst of his spirit.
Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in 1804 in the city of Salem
to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. His ancestors include John Hathorne
, a judge during the Salem Witch Trials
. Nathaniel later added a "w" to make his name "Hawthorne". He entered Bowdoin College
in 1821, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824, and graduated in 1825. Hawthorne anonymously published his first work, a novel titled Fanshawe
, in 1828. He published several short stories in various periodicals which he collected in 1837 as Twice-Told Tales
. The next year, he became engaged to Sophia Peabody. He worked at a Custom House
and joined Brook Farm
, a transcendentalist
community, before marrying Peabody in 1842. The couple moved to The Old Manse
in Concord, Massachusetts
, later moving to Salem, the Berkshires
, then to The Wayside
in Concord. The Scarlet Letter
was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to The Wayside in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, leaving behind his wife and their three children.
Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England
, many works featuring moral allegories
with a Puritan
inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement
and, more specifically, dark romanticism
. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, and a biography of his friend Franklin Pierce
, Massachusetts; his birthplace
is preserved and open to the public. William Hathorne
, the author's great-great-great-grandfather, a Puritan
, was the first of the family to emigrate from England, first settling in Dorchester, Massachusetts
before moving to Salem. There he became an important member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
and held many political positions including magistrate and judge, becoming infamous for his harsh sentencing. William's son and the author's great-great-grandfather, John Hathorne
, was one of the judges who oversaw the Salem Witch Trials
. Having learned about this, the author may have added the "w" to his surname in his early twenties, shortly after graduating from college, in an effort to dissociate himself from his notorious forebears. Hawthorne's father, Nathaniel Hathorne, Sr., was a sea captain who died in 1808 of yellow fever
. After his death, young Nathaniel, his mother and two sisters moved in with maternal relatives, the Mannings, in Salem, where they lived for 10 years. During this time, on November 10, 1813, young Hawthorne was hit on the leg while playing "bat and ball" and became lame and bedridden for a year, though several physicians could find nothing wrong with him.
In the summer of 1816, the family lived as boarders with farmers before moving to a home recently built specifically for them by Hawthorne's uncles Richard and Robert Manning in Raymond, Maine
, near Sebago Lake
. Years later, Hawthorne looked back at his time in Maine fondly: "Those were delightful days, for that part of the country was wild then, with only scattered clearings, and nine tenths of it primeval woods". In 1819, he was sent back to Salem for school and soon complained of homesickness and being too far from his mother and sisters. In spite of his homesickness, for fun, he distributed to his family seven issues of The Spectator in August and September 1820. The homemade newspaper was written by hand and included essays, poems, and news utilizing the young author's developing adolescent humor.
Hawthorne's uncle Robert Manning insisted, despite Hawthorne's protests, that the boy attend college. With the financial support of his uncle, Hawthorne was sent to Bowdoin College
in 1821, partly because of family connections in the area, and also because of its relatively inexpensive tuition rate. On the way to Bowdoin, at the stage stop in Portland, Hawthorne met future president Franklin Pierce
and the two became fast friends. Once at the school, he also met the future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
, future congressman Jonathan Cilley
, and future naval reformer Horatio Bridge
. Years after his graduation with the class of 1825, he would describe his college experience to Richard Henry Stoddard
Early careerIn 1836 Hawthorne served as the editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge
. During this time he boarded with the poet Thomas Green Fessenden on Hancock Street in Beacon Hill in Boston
. He was offered an appointment as weighter and gauger at the Boston Custom House
at a salary of $1,500 a year, which he accepted on January 17, 1839. During his time there, he rented a room from George Stillman Hillard
, business partner of Charles Sumner
. Hawthorne wrote in the comparative obscurity of what he called his "owl's nest" in the family home. As he looked back on this period of his life, he wrote: "I have not lived, but only dreamed about living". He contributed short stories, including "Young Goodman Brown
" and "The Minister's Black Veil
", to various magazines and annuals, though none drew major attention to the author. Horatio Bridge
offered to cover the risk of collecting these stories in the spring of 1837 into one volume, Twice-Told Tales
, which made Hawthorne known locally.
Marriage and familyWhile at Bowdoin, Hawthorne bet his friend Jonathan Cilley a bottle of Madeira wine
that Cilley would get married before him. By 1836 he had won the wager, but did not remain a bachelor for life. After public flirtations with local women Mary Silsbee and Elizabeth Peabody
, he began pursuing the latter's sister, illustrator
Sophia Peabody. Seeking a possible home for himself and Sophia, he joined the transcendentalist Utopia
n community at Brook Farm in 1841 not because he agreed with the experiment but because it helped him save money to marry Sophia. He paid a $1,000 deposit and was put in charge of shoveling the hill of manure referred to as "the Gold Mine". He left later that year, though his Brook Farm adventure would prove an inspiration for his novel The Blithedale Romance
. Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody on July 9, 1842, at a ceremony in the Peabody parlor on West Street in Boston. The couple moved to The Old Manse
in Concord, Massachusetts
, where they lived for three years. His neighbor, Ralph Waldo Emerson
, invited him into his social circle, but Hawthorne was almost pathologically shy and stayed silent when at gatherings. At the Old Manse, Hawthorne wrote most of the tales collected in Mosses from an Old Manse
Like Hawthorne, Sophia was a reclusive person. Throughout her early life, she had frequent migraine
s and underwent several experimental medical treatments. She was mostly bedridden until her sister introduced her to Hawthorne, after which her headaches seem to have abated. The Hawthornes enjoyed a long marriage, often taking walks in the park. Of his wife, whom he referred to as his "Dove", Hawthorne wrote that she "is, in the strictest sense, my sole companion; and I need no other—there is no vacancy in my mind, any more than in my heart... Thank God that I suffice for her boundless heart!" Sophia greatly admired her husband's work. In one of her journals, she wrote: "I am always so dazzled and bewildered with the richness, the depth, the ... jewels of beauty in his productions that I am always looking forward to a second reading where I can ponder and muse and fully take in the miraculous wealth of thoughts".
On the first anniversary of the Hawthornes' marriage, the poet Ellery Channing came to the Old Manse for help. A local teenager named Martha Hunt had drowned herself in the river and Hawthorne's boat, Pond Lily, was needed to find her body. Hawthorne helped recover the corpse, which he described as "a spectacle of such perfect horror... She was the very image of death-agony." The incident later inspired a scene in his novel The Blithedale Romance.
Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne had three children. Their first, a daughter, was born March 3, 1844. She was named Una, a reference to The Faerie Queene
, to the displeasure of family members. Hawthorne wrote to a friend, "I find it a very sober and serious kind of happiness that springs from the birth of a child... There is no escaping it any longer. I have business on earth now, and must look about me for the means of doing it." In 1846, their son Julian
was born. Hawthorne wrote to his sister Louisa on June 22, 1846, with the news: "A small troglodyte made his appearance here at ten minutes to six o'clock this morning, who claimed to be your nephew". Their final child, Rose
, was born in May 1851. Hawthorne called her "my autumnal flower".
Middle yearsIn April 1846, Hawthorne was officially appointed as the "Surveyor for the District of Salem and Beverly and Inspector of the Revenue for the Port of Salem" at an annual salary of $1,200. He had difficulty writing during this period, as he admitted to Longfellow: "I am trying to resume my pen... Whenever I sit alone, or walk alone, I find myself dreaming about stories, as of old; but these forenoons in the Custom House undo all that the afternoons and evenings have done. I should be happier if I could write". Like his earlier appointment to the custom house in Boston, this employment was vulnerable to the politics of the spoils system
. A Democrat, Hawthorne lost this job due to the change of administration in Washington after the presidential election of 1848. Hawthorne wrote a letter of protest to the Boston Daily Advertiser which was attacked by the Whigs
and supported by the Democrats, making Hawthorne's dismissal a much-talked about event in New England. Hawthorne was deeply affected by the death of his mother shortly thereafter in late July, calling it, "the darkest hour I ever lived". Hawthorne was appointed the corresponding secretary of the Salem Lyceum in 1848. Guests that came to speak that season included Emerson, Thoreau, Louis Agassiz
and Theodore Parker
Hawthorne returned to writing and published The Scarlet Letter
in mid-March 1850, including a preface which refers to his three-year tenure in the Custom House and makes several allusions to local politicians, who did not appreciate their treatment. One of the first mass-produced books in America, it sold 2,500 volumes within ten days and earned Hawthorne $1,500 over 14 years. The book was immediately pirated by booksellers in London and became an immediate best-seller in the United States; it initiated his most lucrative period as a writer. One of Hawthorne's friends, the critic Edwin Percy Whipple
, objected to the novel's "morbid intensity" and its dense psychological details, writing that the book "is therefore apt to become, like Hawthorne, too painfully anatomical in his exhibition of them", though 20th century writer D. H. Lawrence
said that there could be no more perfect work of the American imagination than The Scarlet Letter.
Hawthorne and his family moved to a small red farmhouse near Lenox, Massachusetts
at the end of March 1850. Hawthorne became friends with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
and Herman Melville
beginning on August 5, 1850, when the authors met at a picnic hosted by a mutual friend. Melville had just read Hawthorne's short story collection Mosses from an Old Manse
, and his unsigned review of the collection, titled "Hawthorne and His Mosses", was printed in The Literary World on August 17 and August 24. Melville, who was composing Moby-Dick
at the time, wrote that these stories revealed a dark side to Hawthorne, "shrouded in blackness, ten times black". Melville dedicated Moby-Dick (1851) to Hawthorne: "In token of my admiration for his genius, this book is inscribed to Nathaniel Hawthorne."
Hawthorne's time in The Berkshires
was very productive. The House of the Seven Gables
(1851), which poet and critic James Russell Lowell
said was better than The Scarlet Letter and called "the most valuable contribution to New England history that has been made" and The Blithedale Romance
(1852), his only work written in the first person, were written here. He also published in 1851 a collection of short stories retelling myths, A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys
, a book he had been thinking about writing since 1846. Nevertheless, the poet Ellery Channing reported that Hawthorne "has suffered much living in this place". Though the family enjoyed the scenery of The Berkshires, Hawthorne did not enjoy the winters in their small red house. They left on November 21, 1851.
Hawthorne noted, "I am sick to death of Berkshire... I have felt languid and dispirited, during almost my whole residence."
The Wayside and EuropeIn 1852, the Hawthornes returned to Concord. In February, they bought The Hillside, a home previously inhabited by Amos Bronson Alcott
and his family, and renamed it The Wayside
. Their neighbors in Concord included Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
. That year Hawthorne wrote the campaign biography of his friend Franklin Pierce, depicting him as "a man of peaceful pursuits" in the book, which he titled The Life of Franklin Pierce. Horace Mann said, "If he makes out Pierce to be a great man or a brave man, it will be the greatest work of fiction he ever wrote". In the biography, Hawthorne depicted Pierce as a statesman and soldier who had accomplished no great feats because of his need to make "little noise" and so "withdrew into the background". He also left out Pierce's drinking habits despite rumors of his alcoholism and emphasized Pierce's belief that slavery could not "be remedied by human contrivances" but would, over time, "vanish like a dream". With Pierce's election as President, Hawthorne was rewarded in 1853 with the position of United States consul
shortly after the publication of Tanglewood Tales
. The role, considered the most lucrative foreign service position at the time, was described by Hawthorne's wife as "second in dignity to the Embassy in London". In 1857, his appointment ended at the close of the Pierce administration and the Hawthorne family toured France and Italy. During his time in Italy, the previously clean-shaven Hawthorne grew a bushy mustache.
The family returned to The Wayside in 1860, and that year saw the publication of The Marble Faun
, his first new book in seven years. Hawthorne admitted he had aged considerably, referring to himself as "wrinkled with time and trouble".
Later years and death
, Hawthorne traveled with William D. Ticknor to Washington, D.C.. There, he met Abraham Lincoln
and other notable figures. He wrote about his experiences in the essay "Chiefly About War Matters
" in 1862.
Failing health prevented him from completing several more romances. Suffering from pain in his stomach, Hawthorne insisted on a recuperative trip with his friend Franklin Pierce, though his neighbor Bronson Alcott was concerned Hawthorne was too ill. While on a tour of the White Mountains
, Hawthorne died in his sleep on May 19, 1864, in Plymouth, New Hampshire
. Pierce sent a telegram to Elizabeth Peabody
to inform Hawthorne's wife in person; she was too saddened by the news to handle the funeral arrangements herself. Hawthorne's son Julian, at the time a freshman at Harvard College
, learned of his father's death the next day; coincidentally, it was the same day he was initiated into the Delta Kappa Epsilon
fraternity by being placed blindfolded into a coffin. Longfellow wrote a tribute poem to Hawthorne, published in 1866, called "The Bells of Lynn". Hawthorne was buried on what is now known as "Authors' Ridge" in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord
. Pallbearers included Longfellow, Emerson, Holmes, Alcott, James Thomas Fields
, and Edwin Percy Whipple
. Emerson wrote of the funeral: "I thought there was a tragic element in the event, that might be more fully rendered,—in the painful solitude of the man, which, I suppose, could no longer be endured, & he died of it."
After their respective deaths, wife Sophia and daughter Una were originally buried in England. However, in June 2006, they were re-interred in plots adjacent to Hawthorne.
and James Thomas Fields
. Hawthorne once told Fields, "I care more for your good opinion than for that of a host of critics". In fact, it was Fields who convinced Hawthorne to turn The Scarlet Letter into a novel rather than a short story. Ticknor handled many of Hawthorne's personal matters, including the purchase of cigars, overseeing financial accounts, and even purchasing clothes. Ticknor died with Hawthorne at his side in Philadelphia in 1864; Hawthorne was left, according to a friend, "apparently dazed".
Literary style and themesHawthorne's works belong to romanticism
or, more specifically, dark romanticism
, cautionary tales that suggest that guilt, sin, and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humanity. Many of his works are inspired by Puritan New England
, combining historical romance loaded with symbolism and deep psychological themes, bordering on surrealism. His depictions of the past are a version of historical fiction used only as a vehicle to express common themes of ancestral sin, guilt and retribution. His later writings also reflect his negative view of the Transcendentalism
Hawthorne was predominantly a short story writer in his early career. Upon publishing Twice-Told Tales, however, he noted, "I do not think much of them", and he expected little response from the public. His four major romances
were written between 1850 and 1860: The Scarlet Letter
(1850), The House of the Seven Gables
(1851), The Blithedale Romance
(1852) and The Marble Faun
(1860). Another novel-length romance, Fanshawe
was published anonymously in 1828. Hawthorne defined a romance as being radically different from a novel by not being concerned with the possible or probable course of ordinary experience. In the preface to The House of the Seven Gables, Hawthorne describes his romance-writing as using "atmospherical medium as to bring out or mellow the lights and deepen and enrich the shadows of the picture."
Hawthorne also wrote nonfiction. In 2008, The Library of America selected Hawthorne's "A Collection of Wax Figures" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime.
CriticismEdgar Allan Poe
wrote important and somewhat unflattering reviews of both Twice-Told Tales and Mosses from an Old Manse. Poe's negative assessment was partly due to his own contempt of allegory and moral tales, and his chronic accusations of plagiarism, though he admitted, "The style of Hawthorne is purity itself. His tone is singularly effective—wild, plaintive, thoughtful, and in full accordance with his themes... We look upon him as one of the few men of indisputable genius to whom our country has as yet given birth". Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote that "Nathaniel Hawthorne's reputation as a writer is a very pleasing fact, because his writing is not good for anything, and this is a tribute to the man". Henry James
praised Hawthorne, saying, "The fine thing in Hawthorne is that he cared for the deeper psychology, and that, in his way, he tried to become familiar with it". Poet John Greenleaf Whittier
wrote that he admired the "weird and subtle beauty" in Hawthorne's tales. Evert Augustus Duyckinck
said of Hawthorne, "Of the American writers destined to live, he is the most original, the one least indebted to foreign models or literary precedents of any kind".
Contemporary response to Hawthorne's work praised his sentimentality and moral purity while more modern evaluations focus on the dark psychological complexity. Beginning in the 1950s, critics have focused on symbolism and didacticism.
The critic Harold Bloom
has opined that only Henry James
and William Faulkner
challenge Hawthorne's position as the greatest American novelist, although he admits that he favours James as the greatest American novelist. Bloom sees Hawthorne's greatest works to be principally The Scarlet Letter followed by The Marble Faun and certain of his short stories including My Kinsman, Major Molineux, Young Goodman Browne, Wakefield and Feathertop.
- FanshaweFanshawe (novel)Fanshawe is a novel written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne. It was his first published work, which he published anonymously in 1828.-Background:...
(published anonymously, 1828)
- The Scarlet LetterThe Scarlet LetterThe Scarlet Letter is an 1850 romantic work of fiction in a historical setting, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It is considered to be his magnum opus. Set in 17th-century Puritan Boston during the years 1642 to 1649, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an...
- The House of the Seven GablesThe House of the Seven GablesThe House of the Seven Gables is a 1668 colonial mansion in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. The house is now a non-profit museum, with an admission fee charged for tours, as well as an active settlement house with programs for children...
- The Blithedale RomanceThe Blithedale RomanceThe Blithedale Romance is Nathaniel Hawthorne's third major romance. In Hawthorne , Henry James called it "the lightest, the brightest, the liveliest" of Hawthorne's "unhumorous fictions."-Plot summary:...
- The Marble Faun: Or, The Romance of Monte BeniThe Marble FaunThe Marble Faun: Or, The Romance of Monte Beni, also known as Transformation, was the last of the four major romances by Nathaniel Hawthorne, and was published in 1860. The Marble Faun, written on the eve of the American Civil War, is set in a fantastical Italy...
(1860) (as Transformation: Or, The Romance of Monte Beni, UK publication, same year)
- The Dolliver Romance (1863) (unfinished)
- Septimius Felton; or, the Elixir of Life (Published in the Atlantic Monthly, 1872)
- Doctor Grimshawe's Secret: A romance (unfinished), with Preface and Notes by Julian Hawthorne (1882)
Short story collections
- Twice-Told TalesTwice-Told TalesTwice-Told Tales is a short story collection in two volumes by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The first was published in the spring of 1837, and the second in 1842...
- Grandfather's Chair (1840)
- Mosses from an Old ManseMosses from an Old ManseMosses from an Old Manse was a short story collection by Nathaniel Hawthorne, first published in 1846.-Background and publication history:...
- The Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told TalesThe Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told TalesThe Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales was the final collection of short stories published by Nathaniel Hawthorne in his lifetime, appearing in 1852.-Contents:* Preface * "The Snow-Image" * "The Great Stone Face"...
- A Wonder-Book for Girls and BoysA Wonder-Book for Girls and BoysA Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys is a children's book written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne in which he rewrites myths from Greek mythology...
- Tanglewood TalesTanglewood TalesTanglewood Tales for Boys and Girls is a book by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, a sequel to A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys...
- The Dolliver Romance and Other Pieces (1876)
- The Great Stone Face and Other Tales of the White Mountains (1889)
- The Celestial Railroad and Other Short Stories
Selected short stories
- "Roger Malvin's BurialRoger Malvin's Burial"Roger Malvin's Burial" is one of the lesser known short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne, included in the collection Mosses from an Old Manse...
- "My Kinsman, Major MolineuxMy Kinsman, Major Molineux"My Kinsman, Major Molineux" is a short story written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1831. It first appeared in the 1832 edition of The Token and Atlantic Souvenir, published by Samuel Goodrich. It later appeared in The Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales, a collection of short...
- "Young Goodman BrownYoung Goodman Brown"Young Goodman Brown" is a short story by American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne. The story takes place in 17th century Puritan New England, a common setting for Hawthorne's works, and addresses the Calvinist/Puritan belief that humanity exists in a state of depravity, exempting those who are born in...
- "The Gray Champion" (1835)
- "The White Old Maid" (1835)
- "WakefieldWakefieldWakefield is the main settlement and administrative centre of the City of Wakefield, a metropolitan district of West Yorkshire, England. Located by the River Calder on the eastern edge of the Pennines, the urban area is and had a population of 76,886 in 2001....
- "The Ambitious GuestThe Ambitious Guest"The Ambitious Guest" is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. First published in The New-England Magazine in June of 1835, it is better known for its publication in the second volume of Twice-Told Tales in 1841.- Plot :...
- "The Minister's Black VeilThe Minister's Black Veil"The Minister's Black Veil" is a short story written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It was first published in the 1836 edition of The Token and Atlantic Souvenir, edited by Samuel Goodrich...
- "The Man of AdamantThe Man of Adamant"The Man of Adamant" is a short story written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It was first published in the 1837 edition of The Token and Atlantic Souvenir, edited by Samuel Goodrich...
- "The Maypole of Merry MountThe Maypole of Merry Mount"The Maypole of Merry Mount" is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It first appeared in Twice-Told Tales, a collection of short stories, in 1837.- Plot synopsis :...
- "The Great CarbuncleThe Great Carbuncle"The Great Carbuncle" is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It first appeared in Twice-Told Tales, a collection of short stories, in 1837.-Plot synopsis:...
- "Dr. Heidegger's ExperimentDr. Heidegger's Experiment"Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" is a short story by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, about a doctor who claims to have been sent water from the Fountain of Youth. It was eventually published in Hawthorne's collection Twice-Told Tales in 1837.-Plot:...
- "A Virtuoso's CollectionA Virtuoso's Collection"A Virtuoso's Collection" is the final short story in Mosses from an Old Manse by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It was first published in Boston Miscellany of Literature and Fashion, I , 193-200....
" (May 1842)
- "The Birth-MarkThe Birth-Mark"The Birth-Mark" is a romantic short story written by Nathaniel Hawthorne that examines obsession with human perfection. It was first published in the March, 1843 edition of The Pioneer...
" (March 1843)
- "Egotism; or, The Bosom-SerpentEgotism; or, The Bosom-Serpent"Egotism; or, The Bosom-Serpent" is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The author originally intended for the story to appear in a collection entitled Allegories of the Heart. It was first published in the March, 1843 edition of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review...
- "The Artist of the Beautiful" (1844)
- "Rappaccini's DaughterRappaccini's Daughter"Rappaccini's Daughter" is a short story written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1844 concerning a medical researcher in medieval Padua. It was published in the collection Mosses from an Old Manse.-Plot summary:...
- "P.'s CorrespondenceP.'s Correspondence"P.'s Correspondence" is a 1845 short story by the 19th century American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, constituting a pioneering work of alternate history. Some consider it the very first such work in the English language...
- "Ethan BrandEthan Brand"Ethan Brand—A Chapter from an Abortive Romance" is a short story written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1850 and first published by Ticknor, Reed, and Fields in 1852 in The Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales, the author's final collection of short stories...
- "FeathertopFeathertop"Feathertop" is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, first published in 1852.-Plot summary:In seventeenth century New England, the witch Mother Rigby builds a scarecrow to protect her garden...
External linksAbout Hawthorne
- The Hawthorne in Salem website
- Herman MelvilleHerman MelvilleHerman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. He is best known for his novel Moby-Dick and the posthumous novella Billy Budd....
's appreciation, "Hawthorne and His Mosses" (1851)
- Henry JamesHenry JamesHenry James, OM was an American-born writer, regarded as one of the key figures of 19th-century literary realism. He was the son of Henry James, Sr., a clergyman, and the brother of philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James....
's book-length studyHawthorne (book)Hawthorne is a book of literary criticism by Henry James published in 1879. The book was an insightful study of James' great predecessor, Nathaniel Hawthorne. James gave extended consideration to each of Hawthorne's novels and a selection of his short stories. He also reviewed Hawthorne's life and...
, Hawthorne (1879)
- Second copy at Project GutenbergProject GutenbergProject Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". Founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart, it is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books...
- Second copy at Project Gutenberg
- WBUR's celebration of Nathaniel Hawthorne at 200
- Hawthorne Family Papers, ca. 1825–1929, housed in the Department of Special Collections at Stanford University Libraries
- Hawthorne Community Association and boyhood home in Raymond, Maine
- The Wayside in Concord, Massachusetts
- The House of the Seven Gables in Salem, Massachusetts
- The Phillips Library of The Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts owns several well-known Hawthorne related manuscript collections.
- Eldred's Hawthorne site at Eldritch Press
- Legends of the Province House and Other Twice Told Tales, text and images