Natal chart
Overview
 
In astrology, a natal chart is a stylized map of the universe with the "native" (the individual or subject to be studied) at the center. It is calculated for the exact time and location of the native's birth
Birthday
A birthday is a day or anniversary where a person celebrates his or her date of birth. Birthdays are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with a gift, party or rite of passage. Although the major religions celebrate the birth of their founders , Christmas – which is celebrated widely by...

 for the purposes of gaining insight into the native's personality and potential. Commonly used alternative names for the natal chart include birth chart, horoscope, natus, nativity, radix, geniture and genethliac chart, among others.
Encyclopedia
In astrology, a natal chart is a stylized map of the universe with the "native" (the individual or subject to be studied) at the center. It is calculated for the exact time and location of the native's birth
Birthday
A birthday is a day or anniversary where a person celebrates his or her date of birth. Birthdays are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with a gift, party or rite of passage. Although the major religions celebrate the birth of their founders , Christmas – which is celebrated widely by...

 for the purposes of gaining insight into the native's personality and potential. Commonly used alternative names for the natal chart include birth chart, horoscope, natus, nativity, radix, geniture and genethliac chart, among others. The chart shows the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and potentially other celestial objects, all referred to as the native's "planets," within the frames of references defined by the astrological signs
Astrological sign
Astrological signs represent twelve equal segments or divisions of the zodiac. According to astrology, celestial phenomena reflect or govern human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the twelve signs are held to represent twelve basic personality types or characteristic modes...

 and houses.

The accurate birth time (generally agreed upon as the first breath or intake of air) and location are necessary for the calculation of the exact degree of the signs that are rising, setting, culminating up, and culminating down, known respectively the ascendant
Ascendant
The ascendant , or rising sign, is the zodiacal sign and degree that was ascending on the eastern horizon at the specific time and location of an event. According to astrological theory, celestial phenomena reflect or determine human activity on the principle of 'as above so below'...

 (or "rising sign"), descendant
Descendant (astrology)
In astrology, the descendant is the point directly opposite, or 180 degrees away from the ascendant. The descendant forms the cusp of the seventh house of the horoscope and refers to partners or relationships. The descendant is ruled by the seventh sign of the zodiac, Libra, and its ruler planet,...

, medium coeli
Midheaven
The midheaven is a point of definition in the ecliptic coordinate system. It aims to find the part of the ecliptic that corresponds to the highest point in a celestial object's apparent daily traverse of the visible sky, midway between its ascension on the eastern horizon and descension on the...

(or "midheaven"), and imum coeli
Imum Coeli
In astrology, the Imum Coeli , IC, is the point in space where the ecliptic crosses the meridian in the north, exactly opposite the Midheaven...

(or "lower midheaven"). These degrees, also known as the angles
Angle (astrology)
The angles are the four Cardinal points of an astrological chart: the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Descendant and the Imum Coeli.The astrological chart is a schematic representation of the sky at any given moment of time, projected upon the ecliptic--or the apparent path of the Sun as seen from...

, are essential for mapping the positions of the native's twelve houses.

Example

The picture to the above-right is a modern example of a natal chart as a modern Western astrologer
Astrologer
An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. Typically an astrologer draws a horoscope for the time of an event, such as a person's birth, and interprets celestial points and their placements at the time of the event to better understand someone, determine the auspiciousness of an...

 would most likely view it (though there are variants depending on the specific astrological tradition that the astrologer follows and/or their personal preferences). The design, along with the symbols/glyphs used in the chart, can vary widely; some choose to include the Zodiac wheel, while some do not. Also, charts do not have to be round—following the Hellenistic/Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, medieval and/or Vedic styles, they can be square as well.

The astrological aspects (such as conjunctions
Conjunction (astronomy)
Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. It means that, as seen from some place , two celestial bodies appear near one another in the sky...

 or oppositions
Opposition (astronomy)
In positional astronomy, two celestial bodies are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the sky, viewed from a given place . In particular, two planets are in opposition to each other when their ecliptic longitudes differ by 180°.The astronomical symbol for opposition is ☍...

, among others) are delineated in the center of the chart. The twelve signs of the Zodiac
Zodiac
In astronomy, the zodiac is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude which are centred upon the ecliptic: the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year...

 are located at the outer portion of the chart wheel; similarly, twelve segments of arc form astrological house
House (astrology)
Most horoscopic traditions of astrology systems divide the horoscope into a number of houses whose positions depend on time and location rather than on date. In Hindu astrological tradition these are known as Bhāvas. The houses of the horoscope represent different spheres of life, described in...

s which are said to have significance for different areas of life. There are many different systems for calculating the houses. The sample chart uses a quadrant house system of house division whereby the angle
Angle (astrology)
The angles are the four Cardinal points of an astrological chart: the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Descendant and the Imum Coeli.The astrological chart is a schematic representation of the sky at any given moment of time, projected upon the ecliptic--or the apparent path of the Sun as seen from...

s of the chart divide the chart into four quadrant
Quadrant
Quadrant may refer to:* A sector equal to one quarter of a circle, or half a semicircle, see Circular sector* The sectors of a two-dimensional cartesian coordinate system, see Cartesian coordinate system#Quadrants and octants...

s with three houses within each quadrant, and in which the houses usually include portions of more than one astrological sign. Each quadrant has an angular house
Angular house
In astrology, an angular house, or cardinal house, is one of four cardinal houses of the horoscope, which are the houses in which the angles of the chart are found. The angular houses of the horoscope are considered to be the most ardent, or forceful, and are considered to have the greatest impact...

, which includes one of the angle
Angle (astrology)
The angles are the four Cardinal points of an astrological chart: the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Descendant and the Imum Coeli.The astrological chart is a schematic representation of the sky at any given moment of time, projected upon the ecliptic--or the apparent path of the Sun as seen from...

s of the chart; a succedent house
Succedent house
Succedent house is an astrological term for the houses that follow the angular houses in an Astrological chart. “Succedent” derives from the Latin succedens meaning "subsequent" or "succeeding"...

 follows this, with a cadent house
Cadent house
In astrology, a cadent house is the last house of each quadrant of the zodiac. A quadrant begins with an angular house, proceeds to a succedent house and ends with a cadent house...

 at the end of the quadrant.

Place and time of birth

Because the Sun, Moon, planets, and primary angles in the sky are constantly in motion relative to the earth, as each second passes the natal chart/astrological chart
Horoscope
In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth. The word horoscope is derived from Greek words meaning "a look at the hours" In...

 is changing (albeit slowly) and a new chart is created for every moment at each location. A natal chart is extremely personal and unique, depending on the specific date, exact time, and precise location of the birth. Even the birth charts of a pair of twins are often slightly different due to the fact that one of the twins is usually born a few minutes apart from the other (see also: astro-twin
Astro-twin
In astrology, astro-twins are a pair of people that were born on the same day and whose natal chart/horoscope is consequently very similar, even though they may have been born in different places and at different times...

).

The time of birth can usually be found on the birth certificate
Birth certificate
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth...

 in many countries. In some instances, however, the birth times are rounded off by the nurse or doctor that is present to the nearest half or quarter-hour, thus rendering the time only approximately correct. Because of this fairly common practice, the parents should always remember to note the exact time of the child's first breath and not rely on the time given on the birth certificate in the event that they ever plan on having a precisely accurate natal chart calculated for their child. An accurate time of birth is virtually useless if the exact location of birth is not known.

Most charts are geocentric, that is based on the Earth. However, there is no reason in theory why a chart cannot be created for another planet. Some astrologers use Heliocentric
Heliocentric Astrology
Heliocentric astrology is a method of astrology based on birth charts where the Sun is at the center.Standard forms of astrology are geocentric and the geocentric birth chart is drawn with the Earth at the center, and the planets are placed around the cartwheel in the positions that they would...

 - Sun centered - charts. These are theoretical constructions and have a different interpretation to geocentric natal charts. Charts based on other planets would need all the points recalculating from that point of view; for example, "Jovocentric" would be a Jupiter centered view.

Erecting the natal chart

Once the astrologer has ascertained the exact time and place of the subject's birth, the local standard time
Standard time
Standard time is the result of synchronizing clocks in different geographical locations within a time zone to the same time rather than using the local meridian as in local mean time or solar time. Historically, this helped in the process of weather forecasting and train travel. The concept...

 (adjusting for any daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time —also summer time in several countries including in British English and European official terminology —is the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less...

 or war time) is then converted into Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. It is arguably the same as Coordinated Universal Time and when this is viewed as a time zone the name Greenwich Mean Time is especially used by bodies connected with the United...

 or Universal Time
Universal Time
Universal Time is a time scale based on the rotation of the Earth. It is a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time , i.e., the mean solar time on the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, and GMT is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for UTC...

 at that same instant. The astrologer then has to convert this into the local sidereal time
Sidereal time
Sidereal time is a time-keeping system astronomers use to keep track of the direction to point their telescopes to view a given star in the night sky...

 at birth in order to be able to calculate the ascendant
Ascendant
The ascendant , or rising sign, is the zodiacal sign and degree that was ascending on the eastern horizon at the specific time and location of an event. According to astrological theory, celestial phenomena reflect or determine human activity on the principle of 'as above so below'...

 and midheaven
Midheaven
The midheaven is a point of definition in the ecliptic coordinate system. It aims to find the part of the ecliptic that corresponds to the highest point in a celestial object's apparent daily traverse of the visible sky, midway between its ascension on the eastern horizon and descension on the...

. The astrologer will next consult a set of tables called an ephemeris, which lists the location of the sun, moon and planets
Planets in astrology
Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is. Before the age of telescopes, the night sky was thought to consist of two very similar components: fixed stars, which remained motionless in relation to each other, and wandering stars, ,...

 for a particular year, date and sidereal time, with respect to the northern hemisphere vernal equinox or the fixed star
Fixed star
The fixed stars are celestial objects that do not seem to move in relation to the other stars of the night sky. Hence, a fixed star is any star except for the Sun. A nebula or other starlike object may also be called a fixed star. People in many cultures have imagined that the stars form pictures...

s (depending on which astrological system is being used). The astrologer then adds or subtracts the difference between the longitude of Greenwich and the longitude of the place in question to determine the true local mean time (LMT) at the place of birth to show where planets would be visible above the horizon at the precise time and place in question. Planets hidden from view beneath the earth are also shown in the horoscope.

The horoscope is then divided into 12 sectors around the circle of the ecliptic, starting from the eastern horizon with the ascendant
Ascendant
The ascendant , or rising sign, is the zodiacal sign and degree that was ascending on the eastern horizon at the specific time and location of an event. According to astrological theory, celestial phenomena reflect or determine human activity on the principle of 'as above so below'...

 or rising sign. These 12 sectors are called the houses
House (astrology)
Most horoscopic traditions of astrology systems divide the horoscope into a number of houses whose positions depend on time and location rather than on date. In Hindu astrological tradition these are known as Bhāvas. The houses of the horoscope represent different spheres of life, described in...

 and numerous systems for calculating these divisions exist. Tables of houses have been published since the 19th Century to make this otherwise demanding task easier.

Placements of the planets

Having established the relative positions of the signs in the houses, the astrologer positions the sun, moon, and planets at their rightful celestial longitudes. Some astrologers also take note of minor planetary bodies, fixed stars, asteroid
Asteroid
Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

s (for example, Chiron
2060 Chiron
2060 Chiron is a minor planet in the outer Solar System. Discovered in 1977 by Charles T. Kowal , it was the first-known member of a new class of objects now known as centaurs, with an orbit between Saturn and Uranus.Although it was initially classified as an asteroid, it was later found to...

) and other mathematically calculated points and angles such as the vertex, equatorial ascendant, etc. Many astrologers also use what are commonly referred to as Arabic parts (or Greek
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 Lots), the most common of which is the Part of Fortune (Pars Fortuna).

Aspects

To complete the horoscope the astrologer will consider the aspects or relative angles between pairs of planets. Certain aspects are considered more important than others. Those generally recognized by the astrological community are Conjunction (0°), Opposition (180°), Square (90°), Trine (120°), Sextile (60°), Semi-Square (45°), Sesquisquare (135°), and Quincunx (150°). Understandably these aspects are more significant when they are exact, but they are considered to function within an orb of influence, the size of which varies according to the importance of each aspect. Thus conjunctions are believed to operate with a larger orb than sextiles. Most modern astrologers use an orb of 8° or less for aspects involving the Sun, Moon, and Jupiter and smaller orbs for the other points. Some astrologers, such as practitioners of Cosmobiology
Cosmobiology
Historically, the term 'Kosmobiologie' was used by the German medical astrologer Friedrich Feerhow and Swiss statistician Karl Krafft in a more general sense "to designate that branch of astrology working on scientific foundations and keyed to the natural sciences"....

, and Uranian astrology
Uranian astrology
Uranian astrology is a relatively recent methodological approach to astrology based on teachings of German surveyor/astrologer Alfred Witte , founder of the Hamburg School of Astrology. Witte revived and further developed the use of mathematical midpoints...

, use minor aspects (15°, 22.5°, 67.5°, 72°, 75°, 105°, 112.5°).

Rectification

If the birth time cannot be obtained, or is not precise, some astrologers try to find it by rectification. This is usually done by making a list of important events in the person's life, and calculating what birth time would give the most appropriate progressions and/or transits for these dates. Another method, often combined with the former, is to decide what birth time would give a chart that seems to describe the person most accurately - especially as regards physical appearance. Not all astrologers approve of rectification, however.

Interpretation

Once the natal chart has been constructed the process of interpretation can begin. This is a branch of astrology known as natal astrology , which involves building a complete picture of the personality of the subject, or native. Interpretation involves two main steps - chart weighting and chart shaping. Chart weighting involves noting the distribution of zodiac signs and houses
House (astrology)
Most horoscopic traditions of astrology systems divide the horoscope into a number of houses whose positions depend on time and location rather than on date. In Hindu astrological tradition these are known as Bhāvas. The houses of the horoscope represent different spheres of life, described in...

 in the chart, and the significance of this to the overall personality of the native. Signs are assessed by element (Fire, Earth, Air, and Water) and by quality (Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable). Houses are assessed by the significance of Angular, Succedent and Cadent houses.

Chart shaping involves assessing the placement of the planets by aspect and position in the chart, and noting any significant patterns which occur between them. This involves noting significant aspect patterns (or groups of aspects), which may appear in the chart and any other patterns , such as Jones patterns
Marc Edmund Jones
Dr. Marc Edmund Jones was an American astrologer.-Early life:Born October 1, 1888, 8:37 a.m. CST in St...

.

The solar chart

The solar chart is a natal chart erected when the date of birth is known, but not the time of day. The position of the sun at midnight or noon is taken as the time of birth, and the position of the sun, moon and planets plotted in the chart for that time. This leads to a fairly accurate picture of their position (with the exception of the moon) , as most of the planets do not move much in the course of one day. The aspects between each of the planets (except the moon) can therefore be plotted with a high degree of confidence. The sun's position is taken as the ascendant
Ascendant
The ascendant , or rising sign, is the zodiacal sign and degree that was ascending on the eastern horizon at the specific time and location of an event. According to astrological theory, celestial phenomena reflect or determine human activity on the principle of 'as above so below'...

 of the chart and equal sized houses of 30 degrees each are used; or alternatively, the sunrise chart can be used, with the sun's position at sunrise at the latitude in question taken as the ascendant.

Although the solar chart is deficient in that it cannot show the ascendant, midheaven or the houses with any accuracy, it can neverthelss provide a fairly accurate profile of a person's character from examining the position of the planets alone.

See also

  • Astrological symbols
    Astrological symbols
    Astrological symbols are images used in various astrological systems to denote relevant objects. A number of such images are shown below.-History and origin:...


  • Angles of the chart
    Angle (astrology)
    The angles are the four Cardinal points of an astrological chart: the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Descendant and the Imum Coeli.The astrological chart is a schematic representation of the sky at any given moment of time, projected upon the ecliptic--or the apparent path of the Sun as seen from...

    • Ascendant
      Ascendant
      The ascendant , or rising sign, is the zodiacal sign and degree that was ascending on the eastern horizon at the specific time and location of an event. According to astrological theory, celestial phenomena reflect or determine human activity on the principle of 'as above so below'...

    • Descendant
      Descendant (astrology)
      In astrology, the descendant is the point directly opposite, or 180 degrees away from the ascendant. The descendant forms the cusp of the seventh house of the horoscope and refers to partners or relationships. The descendant is ruled by the seventh sign of the zodiac, Libra, and its ruler planet,...

    • Imum coeli
      Imum Coeli
      In astrology, the Imum Coeli , IC, is the point in space where the ecliptic crosses the meridian in the north, exactly opposite the Midheaven...

    • Midheaven
      Midheaven
      The midheaven is a point of definition in the ecliptic coordinate system. It aims to find the part of the ecliptic that corresponds to the highest point in a celestial object's apparent daily traverse of the visible sky, midway between its ascension on the eastern horizon and descension on the...

  • Astro-twin
    Astro-twin
    In astrology, astro-twins are a pair of people that were born on the same day and whose natal chart/horoscope is consequently very similar, even though they may have been born in different places and at different times...

  • Astrological aspects
  • Astrological sign
    Astrological sign
    Astrological signs represent twelve equal segments or divisions of the zodiac. According to astrology, celestial phenomena reflect or govern human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the twelve signs are held to represent twelve basic personality types or characteristic modes...

    • Zodiac
      Zodiac
      In astronomy, the zodiac is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude which are centred upon the ecliptic: the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year...

    • Astronomical symbols
      Astronomical symbols
      Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity. The Byzantine codices in which the Greek papyri were preserved continued and...

  • Composite chart
    Composite chart
    In astrology, a composite chart is a chart that is composed of the planetary midpoints of two or more horoscopes. Practitioners of astrology commonly construct a composite chart when two people meet and form a relationship. According to astrologers, the composite chart will give clues as to the...

  • Electional Astrology
    Electional astrology
    Electional astrology, also known as event astrology, is a branch found in most traditions of astrology in which a practitioner decides the most appropriate time for an event based on the astrological auspiciousness of that time...

  • Event chart
    Event chart
    In electional astrology, an event chart is a horoscope that is cast for the date, time and place of a particular event. Such a chart is interpreted to gain insight into influences surrounding the event and an outlook for possible developments stemming from that event.For example, astrologers can...

  • Horary astrology
    Horary astrology
    Horary astrology is an ancient branch of horoscopic astrology by which an astrologer attempts to answer a question by constructing a horoscope for the exact time at which the question was received and understood by the astrologer...

  • Horoscope
    Horoscope
    In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth. The word horoscope is derived from Greek words meaning "a look at the hours" In...

  • House (astrology)
    House (astrology)
    Most horoscopic traditions of astrology systems divide the horoscope into a number of houses whose positions depend on time and location rather than on date. In Hindu astrological tradition these are known as Bhāvas. The houses of the horoscope represent different spheres of life, described in...

    • Angular house
      Angular house
      In astrology, an angular house, or cardinal house, is one of four cardinal houses of the horoscope, which are the houses in which the angles of the chart are found. The angular houses of the horoscope are considered to be the most ardent, or forceful, and are considered to have the greatest impact...

    • Succedent house
      Succedent house
      Succedent house is an astrological term for the houses that follow the angular houses in an Astrological chart. “Succedent” derives from the Latin succedens meaning "subsequent" or "succeeding"...

    • Cadent house
      Cadent house
      In astrology, a cadent house is the last house of each quadrant of the zodiac. A quadrant begins with an angular house, proceeds to a succedent house and ends with a cadent house...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK