Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic formations. They are built by ejecta from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption...
, Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira, is a dormant volcano in Kilimanjaro National Park
Kilimanjaro National Park
Kilimanjaro National Park is a national park, located 200 miles south of the equater near Moshi, Tanzania. It is centered on Mount Kilimanjaro, and covers an area of from 2°45'–3°25'S, 37°00'–37°43'E....
The United Republic of Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.Tanzania is a state...
and the highest mountain in Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...
at 5895 metres or 19,341 ft above sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...
(the Uhuru Peak/Kibo Peak).
Kilimanjaro is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo 5895 m (19,341 ft); Mawenzi 5149 m (16,893 ft); and Shira 3962 m (12,998.7 ft). Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim.
Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions...
that began forming a million years ago, when lava spilled from the Rift Valley
East African Rift
The East African Rift is an active continental rift zone in eastern Africa that appears to be a developing divergent tectonic plate boundary. It is part of the larger Great Rift Valley. The rift is a narrow zone in which the African Plate is in the process of splitting into two new tectonic plates...