Monopoly (game)
Overview
 
Marvin Gardens, the leading yellow property on the board shown, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens
Marven Gardens
Marven Gardens is a housing area in Margate City, New Jersey, in the United States, located two miles south of Atlantic City. It is famous as a Yellow property on the original Atlantic City version of the Monopoly game board, although the game misspelled the name as Marvin Gardens...

. The misspelling was said to be introduced by Charles Todd and passed on when his home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and thence to Parker Brothers. The Todd board is on display in the Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

 Gallery in New York City. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
Marvin Gardens, the leading yellow property on the board shown, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens
Marven Gardens
Marven Gardens is a housing area in Margate City, New Jersey, in the United States, located two miles south of Atlantic City. It is famous as a Yellow property on the original Atlantic City version of the Monopoly game board, although the game misspelled the name as Marvin Gardens...

. The misspelling was said to be introduced by Charles Todd and passed on when his home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and thence to Parker Brothers. The Todd board is on display in the Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

 Gallery in New York City. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling. Another change made by Todd and duplicated by Darrow, and later Parker Brothers, was the use of North Carolina Avenue, which was substituted for South Carolina Avenue on the board.

Short Line is believed to refer to the Shore Fast Line
Shore Fast Line
The Shore Fast Line was a line of fast trolley cars running from Atlantic City, New Jersey, to Ocean City, New Jersey, by way of the mainland communities of Pleasantville, Northfield, Linwood and Somers Point. The line ran from 1907 until 1948...

, a streetcar line
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 that served Atlantic City. The B&O Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad. It came into being mostly because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which...

 did not serve Atlantic City. A booklet included with the reprinted 1935 edition states that the four railroads that served Atlantic City in the mid 1930s were the Jersey Central
Central Railroad of New Jersey
The Central Railroad of New Jersey , commonly known as the Jersey Central Lines or CNJ, was a Class I railroad with origins in the 1830s, lasting until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroads of the Northeastern United States...

, the Seashore Lines
Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines
Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines was a railroad that operated in southern New Jersey in the 20th century. It was created as a joint venture of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Company .- History :...

, the Reading Railroad
Reading Company
The Reading Company , usually called the Reading Railroad, officially the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road and then the Philadelphia and Reading Railway until 1924, operated in southeast Pennsylvania and neighboring states...

, and the Pennsylvania Railroad
Pennsylvania Railroad
The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Class I railroad, founded in 1846. Commonly referred to as the "Pennsy", the PRR was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania....

.

The Baltimore & Ohio was the parent of the Reading. There is a tunnel in Philadelphia where track to the south was B. & O. and track to the north is Reading. Perhaps this is a reference to that. The Central of N.J. did not have track to Atlantic City but was the daughter of the Reading (and granddaughter of the B. & O.) Their track ran from the New York City area to Delaware Bay and some trains ran on the Reading-controlled track to Atlantic City.

The actual "Electric Company" and "Water Works" serving the city are respectively Atlantic City Electric Company (a subsidiary of Pepco Holdings
Pepco Holdings
Pepco Holdings, Inc. is a holding company incorporated in February of 2001 for the purpose of effecting the acquisition of Conectiv Power Delivery by Potomac Electric Power Company . The acquisition was completed on August 1, 2002 at which time Pepco and Conectiv became wholly owned subsidiaries...

) and the Atlantic City Municipal Utilities Authority.

UK version

In the 1930s, John Waddington Ltd.
Waddingtons
Waddingtons was a publisher of card and board games in the United Kingdom. The company was founded by John Waddington of Leeds, England and Wilson Barratt, under the name Waddingtons Limited...

 (Waddingtons) was a firm of printers from Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

 that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing card
Playing card
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games...

s. Waddingtons had sent the card game Lexicon to Parker Brothers hoping to interest them in publishing the game in the United States. In a similar fashion, Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in 1935 before the game had been put into production in the United States.

The managing director of Waddingtons, Victor Watson, gave the game to his son Norman (who was head of the card games division) to test over the weekend. Norman was impressed by the game and persuaded his father to call Parker Brothers on Monday morning – transatlantic calls then being almost unheard of. This call resulted in Waddingtons obtaining a license to produce and market the game outside of the United States. Watson felt that for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom, the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations. The Angel, Islington
The Angel, Islington
Angel is a district of London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.-History:...

 is not a street in London but an area of North London named after a coaching inn
Coaching inn
In Europe, from approximately the mid-17th century for a period of about 200 years, the coaching inn, sometimes called a coaching house or staging inn, was a vital part of the inland transport infrastructure, as an inn serving coach travelers...

 that stood on the Great North Road. By the 1930s, the inn had become a Lyons Corner House
J. Lyons and Co.
J. Lyons & Co. was a market-dominant British restaurant-chain, food-manufacturing, and hotel conglomerate founded in 1887 as a spin-off from the Salmon & Gluckstein tobacco company....

 (it is now a Co-operative Bank). Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board. In 2003, a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson, who is also named Victor.

The standard British board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 (except Canada, where the U.S. edition with Atlantic City-area names was reprinted), although local variants of the board are now also found in several of these countries (see Licensed and localized versions of the Monopoly game
Licensed and localized editions of Monopoly
The following is a list of game boards of the Parker Brothers/Hasbro board game Monopoly adhering to a particular theme or particular locale. The game is licensed in 103 countries and printed in 37 languages.- Games by locale or theme :...

).

The original income tax choice from the U.S. board is replaced by a flat rate on the UK board, and the $75 Luxury Tax space is replaced with the £100 Super Tax space, the same as the current German board. The U.S. Edition now also uses the flat $200 Income Tax value and the upped $100 Luxury Tax amount since 2008.

In the cases wherein the game was produced under license by a national company, the £ (pound) was replaced by a $ (dollar) sign, but the place names were unchanged.
For a list of some of the localized versions, including the UK "Here and Now" edition, and the names of their properties, see Licensed and localized editions of Monopoly
Licensed and localized editions of Monopoly
The following is a list of game boards of the Parker Brothers/Hasbro board game Monopoly adhering to a particular theme or particular locale. The game is licensed in 103 countries and printed in 37 languages.- Games by locale or theme :...

.

Post-2005 variations

Starting in the UK in 2005, an updated version of the game, titled Monopoly Here and Now, was produced, replacing game scenarios, properties, and tokens with modern equivalents. Similar boards were produced for Germany and France. Variants of these first editions appeared with Visa-branded debit cards taking the place of cash – the later US "Electronic Banking" edition has unbranded debit cards.

The success of the first Here and Now editions caused Hasbro US to allow online voting for 26 landmark properties across the United States to take their places along the game board. The popularity of this voting, in turn, caused the creation of similar websites, and secondary game boards per popular vote to be created in the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and other nations.

Hasbro opened a new website in January 2008, for online voting of the Monopoly Here and Now: World Edition. The colored property spaces are worldwide cities, as determined by the same vote/popularity formula as established for national editions.

In 2006, Winning Moves Games
Winning Moves
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

 released the Mega Edition
Monopoly: The Mega Edition
Monopoly: The Mega Edition is a special variant of the popular board game Monopoly. The game was first published in 2006 by Winning Moves in the US. A UK version was adapted in 2007.The game board is larger than that of regular Monopoly...

, with a 50% larger game board and revised game play. Other streets from Atlantic City (eight, one per a color group) were included, along with a third "utility", the Gas Company. In addition, $1,000 denomination notes (first seen in Winning Moves
Winning Moves
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

' Monopoly: The Card Game) are included. Game play is further changed with bus tickets (allowing non-dice-roll movement along one side of the board), a speed die (itself adopted into variants of the Atlantic City Standard Edition; see below), skyscrapers (after houses and hotels), and train depots that can be placed on the Railroad spaces.

This edition was adapted for the UK market in 2007, and is sold by Winning Moves UK. After the initial US release, critiques of some of the rules caused the company to issue revisions and clarifications on their website.

Monopoly Here and Now

In September 2006, the US edition of Monopoly Here and Now was released. This edition features top landmarks across the US. The properties were decided by votes over the Internet in the spring of 2006.

Monetary values are multiplied by 10,000 (e.g., one collects $2,000,000 instead of $200 for passing Go). Also, the Chance and Community Chest cards are updated. The houses and hotels are blue and silver, not green and red as in most editions of Monopoly. The board uses the traditional US layout; the cheapest properties are purple, not brown, and the "luxury tax" (replaced with "interest on credit card debt") is $750,000, not $75. Despite the updated luxury tax space, this edition uses paper Monopoly money, and not an electronic banking unit like the Here and Now World Edition. However, a similar edition of Monopoly, the Electronic Banking edition, does feature an electronic banking unit, as well as a different set of tokens. Both Here and Now and Electronic Banking feature an updated set of tokens from the Atlantic City edition.

It is also notable that three states (California, Florida and Texas) are represented by two cities each (Los Angeles and San Francisco, Miami and Orlando, and Dallas and Houston respectively). No other state is represented by more than one city (not including the airports). One landmark, Texas Stadium
Texas Stadium
Texas Stadium was a football stadium in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. The stadium opened on September 17, 1971.Built to replace the aging Cotton Bowl, it was the home field of the NFL's Dallas Cowboys, and had a seating capacity of 65,675...

, has been demolished and no longer exists. Another landmark, Jacobs Field, still exists, but was renamed Progressive Field in 2008.

World editions

In 1998, Winning Moves
Winning Moves
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

 procured the Monopoly license from Hasbro
Hasbro
Hasbro is a multinational toy and boardgame company from the United States of America. It is one of the largest toy makers in the world. The corporate headquarters is located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, United States...

 and created new UK city and regional editions
Licensed and localized editions of Monopoly
The following is a list of game boards of the Parker Brothers/Hasbro board game Monopoly adhering to a particular theme or particular locale. The game is licensed in 103 countries and printed in 37 languages.- Games by locale or theme :...

 with sponsored squares.

Winning Moves
Winning Moves
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

 struggled to raise the sponsorship deals for the game boards, but did so eventually. A Nottingham
Nottingham
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire and represents one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group...

 Graphic Design agency, TMA, produced the visual design of the Monopoly packaging. Initially, in December 1998, the game was sold in just a few WHSmith
W H Smith
WHSmith plc is a British retailer, headquartered in Swindon, Wiltshire, England. It is best known for its chain of high street, railway station, airport, hospital and motorway service station shops selling books, stationery, magazines, newspapers, and entertainment products...

 stores, but demand was high, with almost fifty thousand games shipped in the 4 weeks leading up to Christmas. Winning Moves
Winning Moves
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

 still produces new city and regional editions
Licensed and localized editions of Monopoly
The following is a list of game boards of the Parker Brothers/Hasbro board game Monopoly adhering to a particular theme or particular locale. The game is licensed in 103 countries and printed in 37 languages.- Games by locale or theme :...

 annually. Nottingham based designers Guppi have been responsible for the games' visual design since 2001.
Monopoly Here and Now: The World Edition

In 2008, Hasbro released Monopoly Here and Now: The World Edition. This world edition features top locations of the world. The locations were decided by votes over the Internet. The result of the voting was announced on August 20, 2008.

Out of these, Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.Located in Kashubia in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk and suburban communities, which together...

 is especially notable, as it is by far the smallest city of those featured and won the vote thanks to a spontaneous, large-scale mobilization of support started by its citizens. The new game uses its own currency unit, the MMono
Sennacia Banko
Sennacia Banko is a bank issuing the currency Mono intended to become the single world currency. It is organized by unofficial Esperantist organization Heliko , founded by Daniel Salomon...

 (a game-based take on the Euro; designated by M). The game uses said unit in millions and thousands. As seen above, there is no dark purple color-group, as that is replaced by brown, as in the European version of the game.

It is also notable that three cities (Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, and Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

) are from Canada and three other cities (Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai) are from People's Republic of China. No other countries are represented by more than one city.

Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc.’s website for the vote, Jerusalem, was chosen as one of the 20 cities to be featured in the newest Monopoly World Edition. Before the vote took place, a Hasbro employee in the London office eliminated the country signifier “Israel” after the city, in response to pressure from pro-Palestinian
Palestinian people
The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs , are an Arabic-speaking people with origins in Palestine. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one third of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza...

 advocacy group
Advocacy group
Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems...

s. After the Israeli government protested, Hasbro Inc. issued a statement that read: “It was a bad decision, one that we rectified relatively quickly. This is a game. We never wanted to enter into any political debate. We apologize to our Monopoly fans.”

World Championship

Hasbro conducts a worldwide Monopoly tournament. The first Monopoly World Championships took place in Grossinger's Resort in New York, in November 1973. It has been aired in the United States by ESPN
ESPN360
ESPN3 is an online streaming service for WatchESPN to deliver both live streams and replays of global sports events to sports fans in North America, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Middle East, New Zealand, and Europe...

. The current world champion is Bjørn Halvard Knappskog who won the title in Las Vegas, Nevada on October 22, 2009. 41 players competed for the title of Monopoly World Champion and a cash prize of $20,580 USD, which is the total amount of 'Monopoly money' in the current Monopoly set used in the tournament.

List of world champions

Date Location Winner Nationality
1973 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

* Lee Bayrd USA
1975 Washington D.C. John Mair Ireland
1977 Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

Cheng Seng Kwa Singapore
1980 Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

Cesare Bernabei Italy
1983 Palm Beach, FL Greg Jacobs New Zealand
1985 Atlantic City, NJ Jason Bunn United Kingdom
1988 London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

Ikuo Hyakuta Japan
1992 Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

Joost van Orten Netherlands
1995 Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

Christopher Woo Hong Kong
2000 Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

Yutaka Okada Japan
2004 Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

Antonio Fernandez Spain
2009 Las Vegas Bjørn Halvard Knappskog Norway


(*) Due to the championships only being held between players from the USA and Britain, Lee Bayrd was arguably not a true world champion. See the history
History of the board game Monopoly
The history of the board game Monopoly can be traced back to the early 20th century. The earliest known design was by the American Elizabeth Magie created in 1903. A series of board games were developed from 1906 through the 1930s that involved the buying and selling of land and the development of...

 for further information.

Equipment

Each player is represented by a small metal token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two dice
Dice
A die is a small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers...

. The twelve playing pieces currently used are pictured at left (from left to right):
  • a wheelbarrow
    Wheelbarrow
    A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind. The term "wheelbarrow" is made of two words: "wheel" and "barrow." "Barrow" is a...

     (1937b edition)
  • a battleship
  • a sack of money (1999–2007 editions)
  • a man on horseback
    Cavalry
    Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

  • a car (racecar)
  • a train (Deluxe Edition only)
  • a thimble
    Thimble
    A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing.The earliest known thimble was Roman and was found at Pompeii. Made of bronze, its creation has been dated to the 1st century AD...

  • a howitzer
    Howitzer
    A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent...

    , better known as a cannon
  • an old style shoe
  • a Scottie dog
    Scottish Terrier
    The Scottish Terrier , popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog. Initially one of the highland breeds of Terrier that were grouped under the name of Skye Terrier, it is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland, the other four being the modern Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and...

  • an iron
    Ironing
    Ironing is the use of a heated tool to remove wrinkles from fabric. The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 180-220 °Celsius, depending on the fabric. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material...

  • a top hat
    Top hat
    A top hat, beaver hat, high hat silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, predominantly worn from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century...



A koala
Koala
The koala is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia, and the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae....

 is also added in the Australian
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 version of the game.

Many of the tokens were created by companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets. The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict
Conflict (board game)
Conflict is a military board game that was produced by Parker Brothers from about 1940 to about 1972. It had a large board divided into many small squares. The board was 24 squares by 24 squares. The squares representing land were colored two shades of brown. The squares representing the sea were...

 (released in 1940), but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled into Monopoly usage. Hasbro recently adopted the battleship and cannon for Diplomacy
Diplomacy (game)
Diplomacy is a strategic board game created by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released commercially in 1959. Its main distinctions from most board wargames are its negotiation phases and the absence of dice or other game elements that produce random effects...

.

Early localized editions of the standard edition (including some Canadian editions, which used the U.S. board layout) did not include pewter tokens but instead had generic wooden pawns identical to those in Sorry!
Sorry! (game)
Sorry! is a board game that is based on the ancient Cross and Circle game Pachisi. Players try to travel around the board with their pieces faster than any other player. Distributed by Parker Brothers, Sorry! is marketed for two to four players, ages six through adult...

. Parker Brothers
Parker Brothers
Parker Brothers is a toy and game manufacturer and brand. Since 1883, the company has published more than 1,800 games; among their best known products are Monopoly, Cluedo , Sorry, Risk, Trivial Pursuit, Ouija, Aggravation, and Probe...

 also acquired Sorry! in the 1930s.
Other items included in the standard edition are:
  • A pair of six-sided dice
    Dice
    A die is a small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers...

    . (NOTE: Since 2007, a third "Speed Die" has been added for variation—see ADD-ONS below.)
  • A Title Deed
    Deed
    A deed is any legal instrument in writing which passes, or affirms or confirms something which passes, an interest, right, or property and that is signed, attested, delivered, and in some jurisdictions sealed...

     for each property. A Title Deed is given to a player to signify ownership, and specifies purchase price, mortgage value, the cost of building houses and hotels on that property, and the various rent
    Renting
    Renting is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another. A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord pays for all property charges regularly incurred by the ownership from landowners...

     prices depending on how developed the property is. Properties include:
    • 22 streets, divided into 8 color groups of two or three streets. A player must own all of a color group (commonly mistaken for being called a monopoly) in order to build houses or hotels. If a player wants to mortgage one property of a color-group, not only must any houses or hotels be removed from that property, but from the others in the color-group as well.
    • 4 railways. Players collect $25 rent if they own one station, $50 if they own two, $100 if they own three and $200 if they own all four. These are usually replaced by railway stations in non-U.S. editions of Monopoly.
    • 2 utilities
      Public utility
      A public utility is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service . Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to state-wide government monopolies...

      . Rent is four times dice value if player owns one utility, but 10 times dice value if player owns both. Hotels and houses cannot be built on utilities or stations.
  • A supply of paper money
    Monopoly money
    Monopoly money is a type of play money used in the board game Monopoly. It is different from American currency in that it is smaller, one-sided, and different colors until a redesign by the United States Treasury Department of U.S...

    . The supply of money is theoretically unlimited; if the bank runs out of money the players must make do with other markers, or calculate on paper. Additional paper money can be bought at certain locations, notably game and hobby stores, or downloaded from various websites and printed and cut by hand (one such site has created a $1,000 bill for the game; it is not one of the standard denominations). In the original U.S. standard editions, the supply generally starts with $15,140. The winner of the quadrennial Monopoly World Championship receives the same amount in United States dollars. [NOTE: This base money amount has changed—see below.]
  • 32 wooden or plastic houses and 12 wooden or plastic hotels (the original and the current Deluxe Edition have wooden houses and hotels; the current "base set" uses plastic buildings). Unlike money, houses and hotels have a finite supply. If no more are available, no substitute is allowed.
  • A deck of 16 Chance cards
    Chance and Community Chest cards
    Chance cards and Community Chest cards are special cards used in the board game Monopoly. The player draws one of these cards when the player's token lands on one of the respectively named spaces on the Monopoly board and must follow its instructions...

     and a deck of 16 Community Chest cards
    Chance and Community Chest cards
    Chance cards and Community Chest cards are special cards used in the board game Monopoly. The player draws one of these cards when the player's token lands on one of the respectively named spaces on the Monopoly board and must follow its instructions...

    . Players draw these cards when they land on the corresponding squares of the track, and follow the instructions printed on them.


Hasbro also sells a Deluxe Edition, which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive
Locomotive
A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th...

. Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.

In 1978, retailer Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus, formerly Neiman-Marcus, is a luxury specialty retail department store operated by the Neiman Marcus Group in the United States. The company is headquartered in the One Marcus Square building in Downtown Dallas, Texas, and competes with other department stores such as Saks Fifth...

 manufactured and sold an all-chocolate edition of Monopoly through its "Christmas Wish Book" for that year. The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board. The set retailed for $600.

In 2000, the FAO Schwarz store in New York City sold a custom version called One-Of-A-Kind Monopoly for $100,000. This special edition comes in a locking attaché case
Briefcase
A briefcase is a narrow box-shaped bag or case used mainly for carrying papers and other documents and equipped with a handle. Lawyers commonly use briefcases to carry briefs to present to a court, hence the name...

 made with Napolino leather and lined in suede, and features include:
  • 18-carat
    Carat (purity)
    The karat or carat is a unit of purity for gold alloys.- Measure :Karat purity is measured as 24 times the purity by mass:where...

     (75%) gold tokens, houses, and hotels
  • Rosewood
    Rosewood
    Rosewood refers to any of a number of richly hued timbers, often brownish with darker veining, but found in many different hues. All rosewoods are strong and heavy, taking an excellent polish, being suitable for guitars, marimbas, turnery , handles, furniture, luxury flooring, etc.In general,...

     board
  • street names written in gold leaf
    Gold leaf
    right|thumb|250px|[[Burnishing]] gold leaf with an [[agate]] stone tool, during the water gilding processGold leaf is gold that has been hammered into extremely thin sheets and is often used for gilding. Gold leaf is available in a wide variety of karats and shades...

  • emeralds around the Chance icon
  • sapphires around the Community Chest
  • rubies in the brake lights of the car on the Free Parking Space
  • the money is real, negotiable United States currency


The Guinness Book of World Records states that a set worth $2,000,000 and made of 23-carat gold, with rubies and sapphires atop the chimneys of the houses and hotels, is the most expensive Monopoly set ever produced. This set was designed by artist Sidney Mobell to honor the game's 50th anniversary in 1985.

The distribution of cash in the U.S. version has changed with the newer release versions. Older versions had a total of $15,140 in the following amounts/colors:
  • 20 $500 bills (orange)
  • 20 $100 bills (beige)
  • 30 $50 bills (blue)
  • 90 $20 bills (green)
  • 40 $10 bills (yellow)
  • 40 $5 bills (pink)
  • 40 $1 bills (white)


The newer (September 2008) editions have a total of $20,580, with 30 of each bill denomination. In addition, the colors of some of the bills have been changed; $10s are now blue instead of yellow, $20s are a brighter color green than before, and $50s are now purple instead of blue.

Each player begins the game with his or her token on the Go square, and $1,500 (or 1,500 of a localized currency) in play money. Prior to September 2008, the money was divided as follows in the U.S. standard rules:
  • Two each of:
    • $500 bills
    • $100 bills
    • $50 bills
  • Six $20 bills
  • Five each of:
    • $10 bills
    • $5 bills
    • $1 bills


Since then, the US version has taken on the British version's initial cash distributions of:
  • Two x $/£500
  • Four x $/£100
  • One x $/£50
  • One x $/£20
  • Two x $/£10
  • One x $/£5
  • Five x $/£1


Pre-Euro German editions of the game started with 30,000 "Spielmark" in eight denominations (abbreviated as "M."), and later used seven denominations of the "Deutsche Mark" ("DM."). In the classic Italian game, each player receives ₤350,000 ($3500) in a two-player game, but ₤50,000 ($500) less for each player more than two. Only in a six-player game does a player receive the equivalent of $1,500. The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. Both Spanish editions (the Barcelona and Madrid editions) started the game with 150,000 in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.

All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players.

Rules

Players take turns in order, with the initial player determined by chance before the game. A typical turn begins with the rolling of the dice and advancing their piece clockwise around the board the corresponding number of squares.

If a player lands on Chance or Community Chest, they draw the top card from the respective pile and obey its instructions. If the player lands on an unowned property, whether street, railroad, or utility, he can buy the property for its listed purchase price. If he declines this purchase, the property is auctioned off by the bank to the highest bidder. If the property landed on is already owned and unmortgaged, he must pay the owner a given rent, the price dependent on whether the property is part of a set or its level of development. If a player rolls doubles, he rolls again after completing his turn. Three sets of doubles in a row, however, land the player in jail.

If a player is in jail, he does not take a normal turn, and may either pay to be released from jail, or attempt to roll doubles on the dice. If a player fails to roll doubles, he misses his turn. If he fails to roll doubles three times, he must automatically pay the fine to be released. While a player is in jail, he can still buy and sell property and buildings, and collect rents. If a player does roll doubles, he may immediately move according to the roll, but he cannot roll a second time after exiting jail.

During a player's turn, that player may also choose to develop properties, if the player has a "monopoly" of ownership of that property's color. Development involves the construction of houses or hotels on properties, for given amounts of money paid to the bank, and is tracked on the board by adding plastic houses and hotels to the square. Development must be uniform across a monopoly, such that a second house cannot be built on one property in a monopoly until the others have one house.

Although houses and hotels cannot be built on railroads or utilities, the given rent also increases if a player owns multiple railroads or utilities.

Properties can also be mortgaged, although all developments on a monopoly must be sold before any property of that color can be mortgaged or traded. The player receives money from the bank for each mortgaged property, which must be repaid with interest to unmortgage. Houses are returned to the bank for half their purchase price. Property may not be given away to another player.

A player goes bankrupt, and is thus eliminated from the game, if he cannot pay what he owes. If the bankrupt player owes the bank, he must turn all of his assets to the bank. If the debt is instead to another player, all the assets are instead given to that opponent, but the new owner must still pay the bank to unmortgage any such properties received. The winner is the remaining player left after all the others have gone bankrupt.

House rules

Parker Brothers' official instructions have long encouraged the use of house rules
House rules
House rules are rules applying only in a certain location or organization. Bars and pubs in which games take place frequently have house rules posted...

, specific additions to or subtractions from the official rule sets. Many casual Monopoly players are surprised to discover that some of the rules that they are used to are not part of the official rules. Many of these house rules tend to make the game longer by randomly giving players more money. Some common house rules are listed below:
  • No Auctions: Should a player choose not to buy an unowned property they landed on, no auction is held, and the turn passes to the next player. This lengthens the game by increasing the amount of time necessary for all properties to be bought and developed, and by reducing the speed at which money is exchanged.
  • Free Parking jackpot, which usually consists of an initial stake (typically $500, or $5 million in the Here and Now Edition) plus collections of fines and taxes otherwise paid to the bank. A player who lands on Free Parking wins the jackpot, which may then be reset with the initial stake (if any). The jackpot is usually put in the center of the board. Since the jackpot forms an additional income for players in this set of house rules, games can take a much longer time than under normal rules.
  • A bonus for landing directly on Go by dice roll (commonly an additional $200 or $500). This may or may not include cards that send the player to Go.
  • A bonus for rolling snake eyes
    Snake eyes
    In gambling, snake eyes is the outcome of rolling the dice in a game and getting only one pip on each die. The pair of pips resembles a pair of eyes, which is appended to the term 'snake' because of the long-standing association of this word with treachery and betrayal...

     (a pair of ones), often $500, $100, or $686 (which is one of each bill used in the game.)
  • In trades, players may offer "rent immunity" from their own properties (someone does not have to pay rent for landing on that property) as part of a deal (this can be good for a certain number of landings or the entire game).
  • In the Monopoly City game, if someone lands on the chance space and draws the "Steal" card that allows them to steal a district from another player, the Steal card may be played right away or kept to be played later in the game. The player may also decide to attach a fee to this card if kept and played at a later time (e.g. $10,000,000 plus current rent value of stolen district is due when card is played at a later time).


House rules, while unofficial, are not wholly unrecognized by Parker Brothers.

From 1936, the rules booklet included with each Monopoly set contained a short section at the end providing rules for making the game shorter, either by setting a time limit, or by ending the game after the second player goes bankrupt. As well,
an additional rules booklet or sheet was included giving the rules for a short variant with several changes, such as starting each player out with two properties selected at random. A later version of the rules included this variant, along with the time limit game, in the main rules booklet, omitting the second bankruptcy method as a third short game.

Video game and computer game versions of Monopoly have options where popular house rules can be used. House rules that have the effect of randomly introducing more money into the game have a side-effect of increasing the time it takes for players to become bankrupt, lengthening the game considerably, as well as decreasing the effects of strategy and prudent investment. House rules that increase the amount of money in the game may change the strategies of the players, such as changing the relative value of different properties- the more money in the game, the more one may wish to invest in the higher value properties.

Strategy

According to Jim Slater in The Mayfair Set
The Mayfair Set
The Mayfair Set is a series of programmes produced by Adam Curtis for the BBC, first broadcast in the summer of 1999.The programme looked at how buccaneer capitalists of hot money were allowed to shape the climate of the Thatcher years, focusing on the rise of Colonel David Stirling, Jim Slater,...

, the Orange property group is the best to own because players land on them more often, as a result of the Chance cards Go to Jail, Advance to St. Charles Place (Pall Mall), Advance to Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) and Go Back Three Spaces.

In all, during game play, Illinois Avenue (Trafalgar Square), New York Avenue (Vine Street), B&O Railroad (Fenchurch Street Station), and Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) are the most frequently landed-upon properties. Mediterranean Avenue (Old Kent Road) and Baltic Avenue (Whitechapel Road) are the least-landed-upon properties.

The end game

One common criticism of Monopoly is that it has carefully defined, yet almost unreachable, termination conditions. Edward P. Parker, a former president of Parker Brothers
Parker Brothers
Parker Brothers is a toy and game manufacturer and brand. Since 1883, the company has published more than 1,800 games; among their best known products are Monopoly, Cluedo , Sorry, Risk, Trivial Pursuit, Ouija, Aggravation, and Probe...

, is quoted as saying, "We always felt that forty-five minutes was about the right length for a game, but Monopoly could go on for hours. Also, a game was supposed to have a definite end somewhere. In Monopoly you kept going around and around." However, the problem of time can be resolved by playing with a time limit and counting each player's net worth when the time is up. In fact, tournament play calls for a 90-minute time limit. Two hour time limits are used for international play. The Lord of the Rings edition gives players the option of creating a random time limit using the included One Ring
One Ring
The One Ring is a fictional artifact that appears as the central plot element in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy novels. It is described in an earlier story, The Hobbit , as a magic ring of invisibility. The sequel The Lord of the Rings describes its powers as being more encompassing than...

 token and specialized dice. The SpongeBob SquarePants game board includes a Plankton piece that moves every time someone rolls a 1 with the dice (if a player rolls two 1s, the Plankton piece moves two spaces), and the game is over when it reaches the end of the board.

Hasbro states that the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 1,680 hours (70 days or 10 weeks or 2 1/3 months).

Add-ons

Numerous add-ons have been made for Monopoly, both before its commercialization and after. Three such official add-ons are discussed below.

Stock Exchange

The original Stock Exchange add-on was published by Capitol Novelty Co. of Rensselaer, NY in early 1936. It was marketed as an add-on for Monopoly, Finance, or Easy Money games. Shortly after Capitol Novelty introduced Stock Exchange, Parker Brothers bought it from them then marketed their own slightly redesigned version as an add-on specifically for their 'new' Monopoly game and it is known that the Parker Brothers version was available in June, 1936. The Free Parking square is covered over by a new Stock Exchange space and the add-on included three Chance and three Community Chest cards directing the player to "Advance to Stock Exchange".

The add-on also included thirty stock certificates, five for each of the six different stocks, differing only in the purchase price (or Par Value), ranging from $100 to $150. Shares, like properties, are tradeable material, and could also be mortgaged for half their purchase price. Shareholders could increase the value of their shares by buying up more of the same company's shares.

When a player moves onto Free Parking/Stock Exchange, stock dividends are paid out to all players on their non-mortgaged shares. The amount to be paid out to each player is determined based on the number and kind of shares owned. Specifically, a player receives dividends from each stock based on the following formula:
(par value of share / 10) × (number of shares owned)2

Example: Owning one share of "Motion Pictures" (par value $100) pays dividends of $10. Owning two shares pays $40 ($10 x 22), owning three pays $90 ($10 x 32) and owning four pays $160 ($10 x 42). A player owning all five receives $250 ($10 x 52).

The player who lands on Free Parking/Stock Exchange can also choose to buy a share if any remain. Should the player decline, the share is auctioned to the highest bidder by the Bank.

The Stock Exchange add-on serves to inject more money into the game, in a similar manner to railroad properties, as well as changing the relative values of properties. In particular, the Red and Yellow properties are more valuable due to the increased chance of landing on Free Parking.

The Stock Exchange add-on was later redesigned and rereleased in 1992 under license by Chessex, this time including a larger number of new Chance and Community Chest cards. This version included ten new Chance cards (five "Advance to Stock Exchange" and five other related cards) and eleven new Community Chest cards (five "Advance to Stock Exchange" and six other related cards; the regular Community Chest card "From sale of stock you get $45" is removed from play when using these cards). Many of the original rules applied to this new version (in fact, one optional play choice allows for playing in the original form by only adding the "Advance to Stock Exchange" cards to each deck).

A Monopoly Stock Exchange Edition was released in 2001 (although not in the US), this time adding an electronic calculator-like device to keep track of the complex stock figures. This was a full edition, not just an add-on, that came with its own board, money and playing pieces. Properties on the board were replaced by companies on which shares could be floated, and offices and home offices (instead of houses and hotels) could be built.

Playmaster

Playmaster, another official add-on, released in 1982, was an electronic device that kept track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available. It then uses this information to call random auctions and mortgages that are advantageous for some players and a punishment for others, making it easier to free up cards of a color group. It also plays eight short tunes when key game functions occur; for example when a player lands on a railroad it plays I've Been Working on the Railroad
I've Been Working on the Railroad
"I've Been Working on the Railroad" is an American folk song. The first published version appeared as "Levee Song" in Carmina Princetonia, a book of Princeton University songs published in 1894...

.

Speed Die

In 2007, Parker Brothers began releasing its standard version of Monopoly with a new addition to gameplay—the Speed Die. First included in Winning Moves' Monopoly: The Mega Edition
Monopoly: The Mega Edition
Monopoly: The Mega Edition is a special variant of the popular board game Monopoly. The game was first published in 2006 by Winning Moves in the US. A UK version was adapted in 2007.The game board is larger than that of regular Monopoly...

 variant, this third die alters gameplay by allowing players to increase their move up to 3 spaces (rolling one of the 3 numbered sides); move immediately to the next unowned property OR to the next property on which they would owe money (rolling one of 2 "Mr. Monopoly" sides); "Get Off The Bus Early" (rolling the "Bus" side), allowing the player the option to use the total of just one die to move (i.e. A roll of 1-5-BUS would let the player choose from moving 1, 5 or 6 spaces); or even move directly to any space on the board (rolling a triple—all three dice showing the same 1, 2, or 3). The unofficial "Nutmeg" Speed Die innovation, developed and play tested in February 2011, enables players to direct the Bank to seize opponent properties using the power of eminent domain in limited circumstances. Usage of the die in the regular game differs slightly from use in the Mega Edition (i.e. Players use the Speed Die from the beginning in Mega; players can only use the Speed Die in the regular game AFTER their first time going past GO).

Other games

Besides the many variants of the actual game (and the Monopoly Junior
Monopoly Junior
Monopoly Junior is a simplified version of the board game Monopoly, aimed at young children. It has a smaller, rectangular board and instead of being based on street names it is based on a Funfair, to make it more child-friendly.-Board:...

 spin-off) released in either video game or computer game formats (e.g. Windows
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft.Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces . Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal...

-based PC
Personal computer
A personal computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator...

, Macintosh
Macintosh
The Macintosh , or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple's then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a...

, Game Boy
Game Boy
The , is an 8-bit handheld video game device developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It was released in Japan on , in North America in , and in Europe on...

, Super Nintendo, Game Boy Advance
Game Boy Advance
The is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed, manufactured, and marketed by Nintendo. It is the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001; in North America on June 11, 2001; in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001; and in the People's Republic of China...

, Satellaview
Satellaview
The is a satellite modem add-on for Nintendo's Super Famicom system that was released in Japan in 1995. Available for pre-release orders as early as February 13, 1995, the Satellaview retailed for between ¥14,000 and 18,000 and came bundled with the BS-X Game Pak and an 8M Memory Pak.The...

, Sega Genesis
Sega Mega Drive
The Sega Genesis is a fourth-generation video game console developed and produced by Sega. It was originally released in Japan in 1988 as , then in North America in 1989 as Sega Genesis, and in Europe, Australia and other PAL regions in 1990 as Mega Drive. The reason for the two names is that...

, Commodore 64
Commodore 64
The Commodore 64 is an 8-bit home computer introduced by Commodore International in January 1982.Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$595...

, etc.), two spin-off computer games have been created.

Parker Brothers and its licensees have also sold several spin-offs of Monopoly. These are not add-ons, as they do not function as an addition to the Monopoly game, but are simply additional games in the flavor of Monopoly.
  • Monopoly Junior
    Monopoly Junior
    Monopoly Junior is a simplified version of the board game Monopoly, aimed at young children. It has a smaller, rectangular board and instead of being based on street names it is based on a Funfair, to make it more child-friendly.-Board:...

     board game: A simplified version of the original game for young children.
  • Advance to Boardwalk
    Advance to Boardwalk
    Advance to Boardwalk is a spin-off of the Parker Brothers board game Monopoly. Like its progenitor, its setting is the real-estate world in Atlantic City, New Jersey, but focuses only on the boardwalk area. It involves the building of hotels, which are constructed by the various players who place...

     board game: Focusing mainly on building the most hotels along the Boardwalk.
  • Express Monopoly
    Express Monopoly
    Express Monopoly is a card game released by Parker Brothers in 1993. The game consists of 42 playing card and a "game board".40 of the 42 playing cards each represent one of the 40 spaces on the standard Monopoly Board, including cards for Chance, Community Chest, all four corners and both tax...

     card game: Released by Hasbro/Parker Brothers and Waddingtons in the UK in the 1990s, now out of print. Basically a rummy-style card game based on scoring points by completing color group sections of the game board.
  • Monopoly: The Card Game
    Monopoly: The Card Game
    Monopoly: The Card Game is loosely based on its board-game predecessor, Monopoly. The idea of the game is to draw and trade cards and organize them into "color-groups" and any number of bonus cards. Players take turns drawing and discarding until one player announces that he/she has a completed hand...

    : an updated card game released by Winning Moves Games
    Winning Moves
    Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.-History:Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals: Tom Kremer , Philip Orbanes , Mike...

     under license from Hasbro. Similar, but decidedly more complex, gameplay to the Express Monopoly card game.
  • Free Parking
    Free Parking
    Free Parking is a Parker Brothers card game inspired by the "Free Parking" space of the Monopoly board game.The game is played by two to four players, and game play focuses around using time on a parking meter to gain points; the first to 200 points wins. Each player has their own parking meter and...

     card game: A more complex card game released by Parker Brothers, with several similarities to the card game Mille Bornes
    Mille Bornes
    Mille Bornes is a French card game. In the United States, Mille Bornes is manufactured and distributed by Winning Moves Games under license from Hasbro. It was previously produced by Parker Brothers and is commonly available in stores that sell games...

    . Uses cards to either add time to parking meters, or spend the time doing activities to earn points. Includes a deck of Second Chance cards that further alter gameplay. Two editions were made; minor differences in card art and Second Chance cards in each edition.
  • Monopoly Deal
    Monopoly Deal
    Monopoly Deal is a card game derived from the board-game Monopoly, produced and sold by Parker Brothers under a license from Hasbro.Players attempt to collect 3 different complete sets of cards representing the properties from the board game, either by playing them directly, stealing them from...

    : The most recent card game version of Monopoly. Players attempt to complete three property groups by playing property, cash & event cards.
  • Don't Go to Jail
    Don't Go To Jail
    Don't Go to Jail is a Parker Brothers dice game for two or more players inspired by Monopoly. The game is played by rolling ten dice and attempting to roll matches to score points....

    : Dice game originally released by Parker Brothers; roll combinations of dice to create color groups for points before rolling the words "GO" "TO" and "JAIL" (which forfeits all earned points for the turn).
  • Monopoly Express
    Don't Go To Jail
    Don't Go to Jail is a Parker Brothers dice game for two or more players inspired by Monopoly. The game is played by rolling ten dice and attempting to roll matches to score points....

    : A deluxe, travel edition re-release of Don't Go To Jail, replacing the word dice with "Officer Jones" dice and adding an eleventh die, Houses & Hotels, and a self-contained game container/dice roller & keeper.
  • Monopoly Express Casino: A gambling-themed version of the above game, that adds wagering to the gameplay.
  • Here and Now Electronic Edition: Eliminates the need for money, using credit cards instead.
  • Here and Now: The World Edition: Same as above, but based on the whole world (thus needing to use "Monopoly Dollars"), also available in a tin.
  • Monopoly City
    Monopoly City
    Monopoly City is a spin-off of the original Monopoly board game. It was released by Hasbro in 2009, making its first public appearance at the Nuremberg International Toy Fair. It has been named 'Game of the Year 2009' by the British Toy and Hobby association [1] at the 57th London Toy Fair. [2]...

    : Gameplay retains similar flavor but has been made significantly more complex in this version. The traditional properties are replaced by “districts” mapped to the previously underutilized real estate in the center of the board. Once owned by a player a district may be developed with up to eight blocks of residential or industrial buildings. Possession of a complete color suite is not required to build but the number of blocks that may be built during any turn is limited to 1, 2 or 3 by the outcome of a button press to a battery powered gadget (and by the amount of cash to hand). A skyscraper may be built when a full color suite is owned, doubling the rent payable for all districts of that color. Even better is the “Monopoly Tower”. The gadget may also allow the building of a station, now the only building that may occupy a district’s color bar. Once two stations have been built a player landing in a district with a station may choose to end their move at another station. The gadget also times auctions of unowned property initiated by landing upon an auction square. Chance cards remain (and must be stacked off – board) but railroad squares have been replaced by four planning permission spaces. Each of these offers binary choice to build anywhere either a specified hazard (prison, sewage plant, rubbish dump, power station) that makes an opponent’s residential blocks unrentable, or a bonus building (school, park, windfarm, watertower) that prevents placement of a hazard in that district.
  • U-Build Monopoly: A variant of Monopoly City using separate game tiles that allow for construction of custom game board configurations.
  • Monopoly City Streets
    Monopoly City Streets
    Monopoly City Streets was a live massive multiplayer online browser game using the Monopoly board game on real world streets using Google Maps and OpenStreetMap. The game was developed by Tribal DDB, Hasbro's digital agency, with support from Google. The game was launched on September 9, 2009 and...

    : An online version, using Google Maps
    Google Maps
    Google Maps is a web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, free , that powers many map-based services, including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder, Google Transit, and maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API...

     and Open Street Map.
  • Monopoly: The iPhone
    IPhone
    The iPhone is a line of Internet and multimedia-enabled smartphones marketed by Apple Inc. The first iPhone was unveiled by Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, on January 9, 2007, and released on June 29, 2007...

     game designed by Electronic Arts
    Electronic Arts
    Electronic Arts, Inc. is a major American developer, marketer, publisher and distributor of video games. Founded and incorporated on May 28, 1982 by Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers...

    .
  • Monopoly Millionaires The Facebook
    Facebook
    Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. , Facebook has more than 800 million active users. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as...

     game designed by Playfish
    Playfish
    Playfish, currently a property of Electronic Arts, is a developer of free-to-play social network games. Playfish was founded in 2007 by Kristian Segerstråle, Sebastien de Halleux, Sami Lababidi and Shukri Shammas. In October 2008, they secured USD$17 million in venture capital funding from Accel...

    .

Game show versions

A short-lived Monopoly game show aired on Saturday evenings from June 16 to September 1, 1990 on ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

. The show was produced by Merv Griffin
Merv Griffin
Mervyn Edward "Merv" Griffin, Jr. was an American television host, musician, actor, and media mogul. He began his career as a radio and big band singer who went on to appear in movies and on Broadway. From 1965 to 1986 Griffin hosted his own talk show, The Merv Griffin Show on Group W Broadcasting...

 and hosted by Mike Reilly. The show was paired with a summer-long Super Jeopardy! tournament, which also aired during this period on ABC.

Three contestants competed by answering crossword puzzle-style clues to acquire properties and earn money in attempt to build monopolies. After the properties were acquired, players used the money earned to improve them with houses and hotels that would further increase the value of questions when those properties were landed upon. The player with the most money at the end of the game won and played the bonus round for a chance to win $25,000 or $50,000.

Currently, The Hub
The Hub (TV network)
The Hub is an American digital cable and satellite television channel that launched on October 10, 2010. The channel, which replaced Discovery Kids, is a joint venture of Discovery Communications, Inc. and Hasbro...

 airs the game show Family Game Night, where teams earn cash in the form of "Monopoly Crazy Cash Cards" which is inserted to the "Monopoly Crazy Cash Machine" at the end of every episode, although Monopoly is not actually one of the games played on the show. In addition, starting with Season 2, teams win "Monopoly Party Packages" for winning the individual games.

Gambling games

Many Monopoly-themed slot machine
Slot machine
A slot machine , informally fruit machine , the slots , poker machine or "pokies" or simply slot is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed...

s and lotteries
Lottery
A lottery is a form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize.Lottery is outlawed by some governments, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. It is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments...

 have been produced by WMS Gaming
WMS Gaming
WMS Gaming is a manufacturer of slot machines, video lottery terminals and software to help casinos manage their gaming operations. The company is based in Waukegan, Illinois.- History :...

 for land-based casinos. WagerWorks, who have the on-line rights to Monopoly, have created online Monopoly themed games.

London’s Gamesys
Gamesys
The Gamesys Group was founded in 2001 by Noel Hayden, Robin Tombs, Andrew Dixon and four developers.Jackpotjoy, their soft-gaming product, was launched in April 2002...

 Group have also developed a bingo-based online game called "Monopoly Snap!" for the Jackpotjoy online bingo site.

The British quiz machine brand itbox
Itbox
itbox is a networked gambling games terminal which is found in thousands of pubs, leisure centres and amusement arcades in the United Kingdom. Classified as a "skill with prizes" machine, each itbox terminal typically includes 25 different games. Each game costs 50p or £1 to play and lasts between...

 also supports a Monopoly trivia and chance game, which, like most other itbox games, costs 50p (£
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

0.50) to play and has a £
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

20 jackpot.

There was also a live, online version of Monopoly. Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers. When the taxis reach their final destination, the region of London that they are in is displayed on the online board. This version takes far longer to play than board-game monopoly, with one game lasting 24 hours. Results and position are sent to players via e-mail at the conclusion of the game.

Commercial promotions

The McDonald's Monopoly game is a sweepstakes advertising promotion of McDonald's
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

 and Hasbro
Hasbro
Hasbro is a multinational toy and boardgame company from the United States of America. It is one of the largest toy makers in the world. The corporate headquarters is located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, United States...

 that has been offered in the United States, Canada, Germany, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, United Kingdom, France, Romania, Australia, Singapore and Taiwan. The game mimics the game of Monopoly. Originally, customers received a set of two tokens with every purchase, but now tokens only come with certain menu items. Tokens correspond to a property space on the Monopoly board. When combined into color-matched properties, the tokens may be redeemed for money or prizes. There are also "instant win" tokens the recipient can redeem for McDonald's food, money, or other prizes.

Films

In November 2008, Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
Sir Ridley Scott is an English film director and producer. His most famous films include The Duellists , Alien , Blade Runner , Legend , Thelma & Louise , G. I...

 was announced to direct Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
-1920:* White Youth* The Flaming Disc* Am I Dreaming?* The Dragon's Net* The Adorable Savage* Putting It Over* The Line Runners-1921:* The Fire Eater* A Battle of Wits* Dream Girl* The Millionaire...

' film version of the game, based on a script written by Pamela Pettler and Alex Hyner. The film is co-produced by Hasbro's Brian Goldner
Brian Goldner
Brian Goldner is the chief executive officer of the American toy company Hasbro.-Early life:Goldner's father Norman came from Utica, New York, while his mother Marjorie grew up in Mississippi. They married in 1961 after she came north to work for UNICEF, and settled in Huntington...

, as part of a deal with Hasbro to develop movies based on the company's line of toys. The story is being developed by author Frank Beddor
Frank Beddor
Frank Beddor is a former world champion freestyle skier, film producer, actor, stuntman, and author. He is best known for his work as producer on Something About Mary and Wicked and as author of the New York Times best seller The Looking Glass Wars....

.

The 2010 documentary Under the Boardwalk: The MONOPOLY Story, covering the history and players of the game, won an Audience Award for Best Documentary at the Anaheim International Film Festival. The film played theatrically in the US beginning in March 2011 and is scheduled to be released in stores in February 2012. The film is narrated by Zachary Levi
Zachary Levi
Zachary Levi Pugh , better known by his stage name Zachary Levi , is an American television actor, director, and singer known for the roles of Kipp Steadman in Less than Perfect, Chuck Bartowski in Chuck, and Flynn Rider in Tangled.- Early life :Zachary Levi Pugh was born in Lake Charles,...

.

Variants

Because Monopoly evolved in the public domain
Public domain
Works are in the public domain if the intellectual property rights have expired, if the intellectual property rights are forfeited, or if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all...

 before its commercialization, Monopoly has seen many variant games. Most of these are exact copies of the Monopoly games with the street names replaced with locales from a particular town, university, or fictional place. National boards have been released as well. Over the years, many specialty Monopoly editions, licensed by Parker Brothers/Hasbro, and produced by them, or their licensees (including USAopoly and Winning Moves Games) have been sold to local and national markets worldwide. Two well known "families" of -opoly like games, without licenses from Parker Brothers/Hasbro, have also been produced.

Several published games are similar to Monopoly. These include:
  • Anti-Monopoly
    Anti-Monopoly
    Anti-Monopoly is a board game made by San Francisco State University Professor Ralph Anspach, in response to Monopoly. The game was originally to be produced in 1973 as Bust the Trust but the title was changed to Anti-Monopoly.-Gameplay:...

    , one of several games that are a sort of monopoly backwards. The name of this game led to legal action between Anti-Monopoly's creator, Ralph Anspach
    Ralph Anspach
    Ralph Anspach is a retired American economics professor from San Francisco State University. He is a graduate of the University of Chicago, and fought with the Machal in 1948 in support of the independence of Israel. He is best known, though, for creating the game Anti-Monopoly, which resulted in...

    , and the owners of Monopoly.
  • Blue Marble Game
    Blue Marble Game
    Blue Marble Game is a Korean board game similar to Monopoly manufactured by Si-Yat-Sa. Where Monopoly is traditionally played across locations in a single city, the Blue Marble Game features cities from across the world; its title is a reference to the "blue marble" description of the Earth as...

    , a Korean game based on monopoly created in 1982.
  • Chômageopoly, "Unemployment Monopoly", a board game created by the Lip factory
    LIP (clockwork company)
    LIP is a French watch and clock company whose turmoil became emblematic of the conflicts between workers and management in France.The LIP factory, based in Besançon in eastern France, was having financial problems in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and management decided to try to close it...

     in the 1970s.
  • Dinosauropoly, a version using prehistoric motifs and rules.
  • Dallasopoly,a version replacing properties with various locations in Dallas, Texas.Sold by the Dallas Arboretum(which is actually one of the properties one can buy).
  • Easy Money
    Easy Money (board game)
    Easy Money was a board game introduced by Milton Bradley Company in 1935, and bears similarity to Parker Brothers' game Monopoly.-History:...

    , published by Milton Bradley
    Milton Bradley Company
    The Milton Bradley Company is an American game company established by Milton Bradley in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1860. In 1920, it absorbed the game production of McLoughlin Brothers, formerly the largest game manufacturer in the United States, and in 1987, it purchased Selchow and Righter,...

    , also in the 1930s.
  • El Estanciero, an Argentinian boardgame with the same basic mechanics, although the board is six-sided and the properties are Argentinian provinces. The name means "the rancher" in Spanish.
  • The Farming Game
    The Farming Game
    The Farming Game is a board game simulating the economics of a small farm. Published in 1979, it was designed by George Rohrbacher, a rancher in Washington State. The Farming Game painfully reflects the real life difficulties of running a farm...

     is a board game in which the goal is to run a financially successful farm, and like Monopoly the heart of the game is economics. The game's website draws comparisons to Monopoly.
  • Fast Food Franchise
    Fast Food Franchise (board game)
    -Gameplay:Initially, the game looks like Monopoly. There is a board, with spaces around the edges. Some of these spaces can be controlled. Each time you land on a space controlled by an opponent, you pay them money....

     is a board game by TimJim games, which shares Monopoly's core mechanics, but through careful design guarantees it will actually end.
  • Federal Reserve Monopoly, created by Goldstein, Patrick, & Speeduh in 2009, mocks the money-as-debt monetary system and incorporates many of the financial instruments
    Financial instruments
    A financial instrument is a tradable asset of any kind, either cash; evidence of an ownership interest in an entity; or a contractual right to receive, or deliver, cash or another financial instrument....

     that caused the 2008 Wall Street
    Wall Street
    Wall Street refers to the financial district of New York City, named after and centered on the eight-block-long street running from Broadway to South Street on the East River in Lower Manhattan. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, or...

     crash, like "Credit Default Swap
    Credit default swap
    A credit default swap is similar to a traditional insurance policy, in as much as it obliges the seller of the CDS to compensate the buyer in the event of loan default...

    " and "Purchase Options".
  • Finans (and Nya Finans), a Scandinavian board game from 1949 which adds stocks and bonds to the basic Monopoly-style property trading.
  • La gran Capital, published by several Chilean factories, is a Chilean version of the game, with neighborhoods from Santiago de Chile
    Santiago, Chile
    Santiago , also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile, and the center of its largest conurbation . It is located in the country's central valley, at an elevation of above mean sea level...

    . The title means "the big capital", other versions are even named "Metropolis".
  • The Fascinating Game of Finance, later shortened to Finance
    Finance (game)
    Finance is a board game originally released in 1932 by Knapp Electric and later reissued by Parker Brothers. The game, similar to Monopoly, is based on The Landlord's Game in the movement of pieces around the board, the use of "Chance" cards , properties that can be purchased, and houses that can...

    , first marketed in 1932 by Knapp Electric, and later by Parker Brothers.
  • Go For Broke, the exact opposite of Monopoly, has the players trying to spend all their money before anyone else. Bad bets at the casino, real estate, stock market, race track, and giving to the poor house lowers your account balance. This was a Milton Bradley game originally published in the mid-1960s.
  • Ghettopoly
    Ghettopoly
    Ghettopoly is a Monopoly parody released in 2003. Invented by David Chang, it uses Monopoly-like mechanics in the atmosphere of a caricaturized United States ghetto.-Game:...

    , released in 2003, caused considerable offense upon its release. The game, intended to be a humorous rendering of ghetto life, was decried as racist for its unflinching use of racial stereotypes. Hasbro
    Hasbro
    Hasbro is a multinational toy and boardgame company from the United States of America. It is one of the largest toy makers in the world. The corporate headquarters is located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, United States...

     sought and received an injunction against Ghettopoly's designer.
  • Greekopoly, a college-themed version using fraternities and sororities
    Fraternities and sororities
    Fraternities and sororities are fraternal social organizations for undergraduate students. In Latin, the term refers mainly to such organizations at colleges and universities in the United States, although it is also applied to analogous European groups also known as corporations...

     as properties.
  • Potopoly, A marijuana-themed version, using a five-sided board, and bags instead of houses.
  • Itadaki Street
    Itadaki Street
    is a computer board game series originally created by Dragon Quest designer Yuji Horii. The first game was released in Japan on Nintendo's Famicom in 1991. Since then, sequels have been released for the Super Famicom and Sony's PlayStation, PlayStation 2, Playstation Portable and Nintendo DS...

    , a series of board games for video game console
    Video game console
    A video game console is an interactive entertainment computer or customized computer system that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device to display a video game...

    s from Enix
    Enix
    The was a Japanese company that produced video games, anime and manga. The company was founded by Yasuhiro Fukushima on September 22, 1975 as and renamed Enix in 1982...

    .
  • Poleconomy
    Poleconomy
    Poleconomy is a board game invented by New Zealander Bruce E. Hatherley and first published in 1980. It is similar to Monopoly but the board is divided into companies rather than properties. Players compete to acquire properties and investments through stylized economic and political activity. The...

    , a board game designed in New Zealand incorporating real-world companies as well as political and economic strategy.
  • The Mad Magazine Game
    The Mad Magazine Game
    The Mad Magazine Game, titled MAD Magazine: the "What-Me Worry?" game on the cover, is a board game produced by Parker Brothers in 1979. Gameplay is similar, but the goals and directions often opposite to, that of Monopoly; the object is for players to lose all of their money...

    , a Mad Magazine
    Mad (magazine)
    Mad is an American humor magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952. Launched as a comic book before it became a magazine, it was widely imitated and influential, impacting not only satirical media but the entire cultural landscape of the 20th century.The last...

     themed board game in which the object of the game is for player to lose all their money, play is counter-clockwise, and the dice must be rolled with the left hand. Released by Parker Brothers
    Parker Brothers
    Parker Brothers is a toy and game manufacturer and brand. Since 1883, the company has published more than 1,800 games; among their best known products are Monopoly, Cluedo , Sorry, Risk, Trivial Pursuit, Ouija, Aggravation, and Probe...

     in 1979.
  • Saidina, a Malaysia localized version.
  • Solarquest
    Solarquest
    Solarquest is a space-age real estate trading game published in 1985. Patterned after Monopoly, the game replaces pewter tokens with rocketships and hotels with metallic fuel stations. Players travel around the sun acquiring monopolies and fending off attacks...

    , a popular space-age adaptation, was released by Golden in 1986.
  • SpongeBob SquarePants™ Edition by Hasbro
    Hasbro
    Hasbro is a multinational toy and boardgame company from the United States of America. It is one of the largest toy makers in the world. The corporate headquarters is located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, United States...

  • Totopoly
    Totopoly
    Totopoly is a commercial board game, based on the events leading up to, and during, a horse race. Originally made in 1938 by Waddingtons, the game is based on a double-sided board, with each side representing a different half of the game....

    , created by Waddingtons in 1938, is based on horse racing.
  • Strictly Pittsburgh, a variant based on the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Pennsylvania
    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

    . In addition to properties being replaced with local Pittsburgh sites and businesses, it contained a somewhat different board layout and replaced houses and hotels with skyscrapers.
  • Dostihy a sázky, a variant sold in Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

    . This game comes from the totalitarian communist era (1948–1989), when private businesses were forbidden and mortgages didn't exist, so the monopoly theme was changed to a horse racing theme.
  • Petropolis, a copy of Monopoly based in buying into the oil industry, using oilfields. The game uses 'telex messages' instead of Chance cards and the playing board snakes round into the middle before continuing round the edge.
  • Turista, a Mexican copy of Monopoly made by Montecarlo board game manufacturer. It is based in buying Mexican States. In each state it is possible to build gas stations and hotel to increase the rent amount.
  • NFL Version – Where properties are NFL teams (order based on results of that season, with the Denver Broncos being the most expensive property) and the die are shaped like footballs.
  • My Monopoly
    My Monopoly
    My Monopoly is a service offered to citizens of the United Kingdom by the company Hasbro. The service was designed to allow a user of the My Monopoly website to create a personalized Monopoly gameset, which can then be ordered and made for that person. The service was introduced in 2002...

    .
  • Business, an Indian version of a Monopoly like game not associated with Hasbro. In this version the "properties" to be bought are cities of India.
  • Kissopoly is a KISS
    KISS (band)
    Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973. Well-known for its members' face paint and flamboyant stage outfits, the group rose to prominence in the mid to late 1970s on the basis of their elaborate live performances, which featured fire breathing, blood spitting,...

    -themed version of the game where players buy songs in the band's catalog as well as various merchandise in the place of properties. The game also uses gold and platinum records in the place of hotels and houses. Game play is no different than standard Monopoly.
  • Matador – a Danish variant in which the board is shaped as circle and with some minor variations in the rules and design of the game.
  • Millionaire's Game – a variant of the game used in the Philippines created by Mabuhay Boardgames.
  • København
    København (board game)
    København is a board game by the company We Are Sailing.København is a direct spin-off from the classic board game Monopoly by Parker Brothers. The game is set in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark and uses the Danish krone as currency, with each player getting a starting sum of 25 thousand DKK.The...

     – a spin-off themed after Copenhagen
    Copenhagen
    Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

    , Denmark.
  • Pokémon Monopoly

Criticisms

Wired magazine believes Monopoly is a poorly designed game. Former Wall Streeter Derk Solko explains, "Monopoly has you grinding your opponents into dust. It's a very negative experience. It's all about cackling when your opponent lands on your space and you get to take all their money." Most of the 3 to 4 hour average playing time is spent waiting for other players to play their turn. Board game enthusiasts disparagingly call this a "roll your dice, move your mice" format.

See also

  • List of world championships in mind sports
  • Rich Uncle Pennybags
    Rich Uncle Pennybags
    Rich "Uncle" Pennybags aka Frank Moneybags, is the round old man in a top hat who serves as the mascot of the game Monopoly. Rich "Uncle" Pennybags was rechristened Mr. Monopoly in a Hasbro marketing effort in 1999. He also is known as Whiff from all the casino slot machines...

    , also known as "Mr. Monopoly", the game's mascot character

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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