Modal voice
Modal voice is the vocal register used most frequently in speech and singing in most languages. It is also the term used in linguistics for the most common phonation
Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology...

 of vowels. The term "modal" refers to the resonant mode
In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at a greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies...

 of vocal cords; that is, the optimal combination of airflow and glottal
The glottis is defined as the combination of the vocal folds and the space in between the folds .-Function:...

 tension that yields maximum vibration.

In linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

, modal voice is the only phonation found in the vowels and other sonorant
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; fricatives and plosives are not sonorants. Vowels are sonorants, as are consonants like and . Other consonants, like or , restrict the airflow enough to cause turbulence, and...

s (consonants such as m, n, l, and r) of most of the languages of the world, though a significant minority contrast modal voice with other phonations. Among obstruent
An obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing airflow, causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract, such as [k], [d͡ʒ] and [f]. In phonetics, articulation may be divided into two large classes: obstruents and sonorants....

s (consonants such as k, g, ch, j, s, and z), it is very common for languages to contrast modal voice with voiceless
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating. Phonologically, this is a type of phonation, which contrasts with other states of the larynx, but some object that the word "phonation" implies voicing, and that voicelessness is the lack of...

ness, though in English
English phonology
English phonology is the study of the sound system of the English language. Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect...

 many supposedly voiced obstruents do not have modal voice in most environments.

In speech pathology, the modal register is one of the four identifiable registers within the human voice, lying above the vocal fry register
Vocal fry register
The vocal fry register , is the lowest vocal register and is produced through a loose glottal closure which will permit air to bubble through slowly with a popping or rattling sound of a very low frequency...

 and overlapping the lower part of the falsetto register. This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogists, although some vocal pedagogists may view vocal registration
Vocal registration
A vocal register is a particular series of tones in the human voice that are produced by one particular vibratory pattern of the vocal folds and therefore possess a common quality....

 differently. In singing, the modal register may also overlap part of the whistle register
Whistle register
The whistle register is the highest register of the human voice, lying above the modal register and falsetto register...

. A well trained singer or speaker can phonate two octaves or more within the modal register with consistent production, beauty of tone, dynamic variation, and vocal freedom. The modal register begins and ends in different places within the human voice. The placement of the modal register within the individual human voice is one of the key determining factors in identifying vocal type.

Physiological process of the modal register

In the modal register the length, tension, and mass of the vocal folds
Vocal folds
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx...

 are in a state of flux which causes the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds to vary. As pitch
Pitch (music)
Pitch is an auditory perceptual property that allows the ordering of sounds on a frequency-related scale.Pitches are compared as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies,...

 rises, the vocal folds increase in length and in tension and their edges become thinner. If a speaker or singer holds any of these three factors constant and interferes with their progressive state of change the laryngeal
Laryngeal may mean*pertaining to the larynx*in Indo-European linguistics, a consonant postulated in the laryngeal theory*in phonetics, an alternate term for glottal sounds....

 function of the voice becomes static and eventually breaks occur resulting in obvious changes in vocal quality. While some vocal pedagogists identify these breaks as register boundaries or transition areas between registers, other vocal pedagogists maintain that these breaks are a result of vocal problems caused by a static laryngeal adjustment that does not permit the necessary changes to take place within the modal register.

On the lower pitches in the modal register the vocal cords are thick and wedge-shaped. Because of this thickness, large portions of the opposing surfaces of the vocal cords are brought into contact, and the glottis
The glottis is defined as the combination of the vocal folds and the space in between the folds .-Function:...

 remains closed for a considerable time in each cycle. The glottis opens from the bottom first before it opens at the top; this imparts a fluid, wavelike motion to the cords. The modal voice has a broad harmonic spectrum, rich in overtones, because of this rolling motion of the cords. It is comparatively loud to the other vocal registers because of the vibratory energy present, but is capable of dynamic variation.

For the lowest tones, only the thyroarytenoid muscles are active, but as the pitch rises, the cricothyroids enter the action, thus beginning to lengthen the folds. As longitudinal tension increases, the glottis tends to develop a gap in the middle. To counteract this tendency, the lateral cricoarytenoids are brought into action, pulling forward on the muscular process of the arytenoids. This process is sometimes referred to as medial compression.

In addition to the stretching of the vocal folds and the increasing tension on them as the pitch rises, the opposing surfaces of the folds which may be brought into contact becomes smaller and smaller as the edges of the folds become thinner. The basic vibratory or phonatory pattern remains the same, with the whole vocal fold still involved in the action, but the vertical excursions are not as large and the rolling motion is not as apparent as it was on the lower pitches of the modal register. The physical limits of muscular strength of the internal thyroarytenoids or vocalis muscle are being approached. In order to sing or speak above this pitch level the voice must adopt a new phonatory pattern-to change registers.

Further reading

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