Middlesbrough
Overview
 
Middlesbrough is a large town situated on the south bank of the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

 in north east England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, that sits within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

. The local authority is Middlesbrough Borough Council.

Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 part of the North Riding of Yorkshire
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire was one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West Ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a Lieutenancy area. The three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate...

, in 1968 the town became the centre of the County Borough of Teesside
County Borough of Teesside
Teesside was, from 1968 to 1974, a local government district in northern England. It comprised a conurbation that spanned both sides of the River Tees from which it took its name...

, which was absorbed by the non-metropolitan county of Cleveland
Cleveland, England
Cleveland is an area in the north east of England. Its name means literally "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly...

 in 1974. In 1996 Cleveland was abolished, and Middlesbrough became a unitary authority
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

, within the ceremonial county
Ceremonial counties of England
The ceremonial counties are areas of England to which are appointed a Lord Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as counties and areas for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England and Lieutenancies Act 1997...

 of North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

.

Middlesbrough is different from the other districts on Teesside, as the borough is almost entirely urbanised, thus making it the largest town in terms of area and population, but the smallest district.
Encyclopedia
Middlesbrough is a large town situated on the south bank of the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

 in north east England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, that sits within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

. The local authority is Middlesbrough Borough Council.

Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 part of the North Riding of Yorkshire
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire was one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West Ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a Lieutenancy area. The three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate...

, in 1968 the town became the centre of the County Borough of Teesside
County Borough of Teesside
Teesside was, from 1968 to 1974, a local government district in northern England. It comprised a conurbation that spanned both sides of the River Tees from which it took its name...

, which was absorbed by the non-metropolitan county of Cleveland
Cleveland, England
Cleveland is an area in the north east of England. Its name means literally "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly...

 in 1974. In 1996 Cleveland was abolished, and Middlesbrough became a unitary authority
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

, within the ceremonial county
Ceremonial counties of England
The ceremonial counties are areas of England to which are appointed a Lord Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as counties and areas for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England and Lieutenancies Act 1997...

 of North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest...

.

Middlesbrough is different from the other districts on Teesside, as the borough is almost entirely urbanised, thus making it the largest town in terms of area and population, but the smallest district. However, it is locally regarded that the town exceeds the confines of the Middlesbrough Borough to include the areas of Eston
Eston
Eston is a town within the Unitary Authority of Redcar and Cleveland, England. Within the Middlesbrough agglomeration it falls inside the Greater Eston initiative...

, Grangetown
Grangetown, North Yorkshire
Grangetown is a township in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated on the outskirts of Middlesbrough between the town and ICI Wilton. It is approximately 3.3 miles east of Middlesbrough centre and 4.4 miles from Redcar. Although...

, Normanby, Ormesby
Ormesby
Ormesby is a former village, and now suburb, spanning the Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland unitary authorities in north east England, within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. It forms part of the Middlesbrough urban agglomeration...

, and South Bank
South Bank, Middlesbrough
South Bank is a small town which forms part of the Middlesbrough urban area that lies 2.3 miles from Middlesbrough centre, in North East England. As the name suggests, it lies on the south bank of the River Tees. Although it is part of the Middlesbrough conurbation, it is a ward of Redcar and...

 which are wards of the neighbouring borough of Redcar and Cleveland
Redcar and Cleveland
The borough of Redcar & Cleveland is a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England consisting of Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Guisborough, and small towns such as Brotton, Eston, Skelton and Loftus. It had a resident population of 139,132 in 2001, and is part of the Tees...

.

To the northeast of Middlesbrough lies the Tees Estuary
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

, approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) away. A few miles to the south lies the edge of the North York Moors National Park.

Teesport
Teesport
Teesport is a large sea port located in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire in north east England...

, the UK's third largest port, lies 3 miles (4.8 km) to the east, and Durham Tees Valley Airport
Durham Tees Valley Airport
Durham Tees Valley Airport is an international airport in north east England, located southeast of Darlington, about southwest of Middlesbrough and south of Durham. The airport serves County Durham and parts of North Yorkshire, and is in Middleton St George in the borough of Darlington...

 lies 8 miles (12.9 km) to the west, near Darlington
Darlington
Darlington is a market town in the Borough of Darlington, part of the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It lies on the small River Skerne, a tributary of the River Tees, not far from the main river. It is the main population centre in the borough, with a population of 97,838 as of 2001...

.

Toponymy

Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of the name. The element '-burgh', from the Old English burh (meaning 'fort') denotes an ancient fort or settlement of pre-Anglian
Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxon is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of...

 origin. The spelling brough sets Middlesbrough apart from other English towns, which typically use the spelling borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

.

It is not certain if Mydil was someone's name or a reference to its position (middle) in between the centres of Durham
Durham
Durham is a city in north east England. It is within the County Durham local government district, and is the county town of the larger ceremonial county...

 and Whitby
Whitby
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a combined maritime, mineral and tourist heritage, and is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey where Caedmon, the...

. The burgh, though, may have included a monastic cell and was probably situated on the elevated land where the Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 church of St Hilda
Hilda of Whitby
Hilda of Whitby or Hild of Whitby was a Christian saint and the founding abbess of the monastery at Whitby, which was chosen as the venue for the Synod of Whitby...

's (demolished in 1969) was later built.

The town and its sporting teams are commonly referred to as the Boro, which is a common abbreviation for borough despite the fact that the name is spelled with a single "o".

Early history

In 686 a monastic cell was consecrated by St. Cuthbert
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne
Saint Cuthbert was an Anglo-Saxon monk, bishop and hermit associated with the monasteries of Melrose and Lindisfarne in the Kingdom of Northumbria, at that time including, in modern terms, northern England as well as south-eastern Scotland as far as the Firth of Forth...

 at the request of St. Hilda
Hilda of Whitby
Hilda of Whitby or Hild of Whitby was a Christian saint and the founding abbess of the monastery at Whitby, which was chosen as the venue for the Synod of Whitby...

, Abbess of Whitby
Whitby
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a combined maritime, mineral and tourist heritage, and is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey where Caedmon, the...

 and in 1119 Robert Bruce, 1st Lord of Cleveland and Annandale, granted and confirmed the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg to Whitby
Whitby
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a combined maritime, mineral and tourist heritage, and is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey where Caedmon, the...

. Up until its closure on the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland; appropriated their...

 by Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 in 1537, the church was maintained by 12 Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 monks, many of whom became vicars or rectors of various places in Cleveland. The importance of the early church at “Middleburg”, later known as Middlesbrough Priory
Middlesbrough Priory
Middlesbrough Priory was a priory in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England....

, is indicated by the fact that in 1452 it possessed four altars.

After the Angles
Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxon is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of...

 the area became home to Viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

 settlers and it is argued by some that 'old' Cleveland
Cleveland, England
Cleveland is an area in the north east of England. Its name means literally "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly...

 has the highest density of Scandinavian parish names in Britain. Names of Viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

 origin (with the suffix by) are abundant in the area – for example, Thornaby, Ormesby
Ormesby
Ormesby is a former village, and now suburb, spanning the Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland unitary authorities in north east England, within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. It forms part of the Middlesbrough urban agglomeration...

, Stainsby, Lackenby
Lackenby
Lackenby is a small village in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and ceremonially in the county of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated to the immediate east of Eston and Middlesbrough and immediately to the west of Lazenby.-External links:...

, Maltby
Maltby, North Yorkshire
Maltby is a village and civil parish in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is located to the east of the A19....

 and Tollesby
Tollesby
Tollesby, is a residential area within the Acklam ward situated in the town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The local school is Newham Bridge Primary school. There are also 3 secondary schools; King's Manor Specialist Sports...

 were once separate villages that belonged to Vikings called Thormad, Orm, Steinn, Hlakkande, Malti and Toll, but now form suburbs of Middlesbrough. Lazenby
Lazenby
Lazenby is a village in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England.It is located just off the A174, a 2 minute drive away from Eston. Lazenby is very small, and has just one general store, two pubs and a social club....

 was the village belonging to a Leysingr – a freeman; Normanby, a Norseman's village and Danby
Danby, North Yorkshire
Danby is a village and civil parish in the Scarborough district of North Yorkshire, England. According to the 2001 UK census, Danby parish had a population of 1,515. Karl Pearson spent a lot of time there....

, a Dane's village. The name Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of Middlesbrough's name and dates to Anglian
Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxon is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of...

 times (400 to 1000 AD), while many of the aforementioned villages appear in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 of 1086.

Other links persist in the area, often through school and/or road names, to now-outgrown or abandoned local settlements, such as the medieval settlement of Stainsby, deserted
Deserted medieval village
In the United Kingdom, a deserted medieval village is a former settlement which was abandoned during the Middle Ages, typically leaving no trace apart from earthworks or cropmarks. If there are fewer than three inhabited houses the convention is to regard the site as deserted; if there are more...

 by 1757, which amounts to little more today than a series of grassy mounds near the A19 road
A19 road
The A19 is a major road in England running approximately parallel to and east of the A1 road, although the two roads meet at the northern end of the A19, the two roads originally met at the southern end of the A19 in Doncaster but the old route of the A1 was changed to the A638. From Sunderland...

. In 1952 Stainsby Secondary Modern School, now renamed Acklam Grange Secondary School
Acklam Grange Secondary School
Acklam Grange School is a specialist college of mathematics and computing, situated at the end of Lodore Grove, Acklam, Middlesbrough. It opened in 1952 and has gone through many changes, being first Hugh Bell School, then Stainsby School, and currently Acklam Grange Secondary School.Andrea...

, was named after this village.

Industrial history

In 1801 Middlesbrough was a hamlet
Hamlet (place)
A hamlet is usually a rural settlement which is too small to be considered a village, though sometimes the word is used for a different sort of community. Historically, when a hamlet became large enough to justify building a church, it was then classified as a village...

 with a population of just 25 people living in four farmhouses. During the latter half of the 19th century, however, it experienced a growth unparalleled in England. Development began with the purchase of the farm in 1829 by a group of Quaker businessmen, headed by Joseph Pease the Darlington
Darlington
Darlington is a market town in the Borough of Darlington, part of the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It lies on the small River Skerne, a tributary of the River Tees, not far from the main river. It is the main population centre in the borough, with a population of 97,838 as of 2001...

 industrialist, who saw the possibilities of Middlesbrough becoming a port for the transport of northeast coal. Four initial streets, leading into the market square, were duly laid out. This cause was facilitated by an 1830 extension of the Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Stockton and Darlington Railway , which opened in 1825, was the world's first publicly subscribed passenger railway. It was 26 miles long, and was built in north-eastern England between Witton Park and Stockton-on-Tees via Darlington, and connected to several collieries near Shildon...

 to the site, which all but erased the logistical obstacles to ongoing development of the town. Before this, the shipment of coal had been problematic owing to the shallow waters around Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including...

. The opening of the Clarence Railway, in 1833, which shared some of the Stockton and Darlington Railway's track, also provided the stimulus for the growth of Port Clarence
Port Clarence
Port Clarence is a small village now within the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tees, and hosts the northern end of the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge.-History:...

 on the opposite side of the river to Middlesbrough.

From 1840 to 1842 the civil engineer George Turnbull
George Turnbull (civil engineer)
George Turnbull was the Chief Engineer responsible for construction from 1851 to 1863 of the first railway line from Calcutta : the 541-mile line to Benares en route to Delhi...

 built Middlesbrough Dock which was then bought by the Stockton and Darlington Railway
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Stockton and Darlington Railway , which opened in 1825, was the world's first publicly subscribed passenger railway. It was 26 miles long, and was built in north-eastern England between Witton Park and Stockton-on-Tees via Darlington, and connected to several collieries near Shildon...

 Company.

When Prime Minister William Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone FRS FSS was a British Liberal statesman. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times , more than any other person. Gladstone was also Britain's oldest Prime Minister, 84 years old when he resigned for the last time...

 visited the town, he stood under the roof of the original (1846) town hall and famously dubbed Middlesbrough 'an infant Hercules
Hercules
Hercules is the Roman name for Greek demigod Heracles, son of Zeus , and the mortal Alcmene...

' in 'England's enterprise'.

At the very moment when early fortunes showed signs of giving way to decline, another great leap forward took place, with the discovery of ironstone in the Eston Hills
Eston Nab
Eston Nab is a local landmark to those who live along the River Tees, in north-east England.A nab is a rocky promontory, or outcrop, and Eston Nab, marking the highest point – at - on the escarpment which forms Eston Hills, appears as a clear sandstone cliff on the northernmost edge of Eston Moor...

 in 1850. In 1841, Henry Bolckow, who had come to England in 1827, formed a partnership with John Vaughan
John Vaughan (Middlesbrough)
John Vaughan was born in Worcester, he worked as a foreman at Dowlais Ironworks in South Wales. Later he moved to Walker-on-Tyne near Newcastle and became a manager for Losh, Wilson and Bell Ironworks....

, originally of Worcester
Worcester
The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, , is a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some southwest of Birmingham and north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the...

, and started an iron foundry
Iron Foundry
Factory: machine-music , Op. 19, commonly referred to as the Iron Foundry, is the most well-known work by Soviet composer Alexander Mosolov and a prime example of Soviet futurist music. It was composed between 1926 and 1927 as the first movement of the ballet suite...

 and rolling mill at Vulcan Street in the town. It was Vaughan who realised the economic potential of local ironstone deposits. Pig iron
Pig iron
Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal and anthracite have also been used as fuel...

 production rose tenfold between 1851 and 1856.

The importance of the area to the developing iron and steel trade gave it the nickname Ironopolis. Also, a local football team playing in the late 1800s (now defunct), called itself Middlesbrough Ironopolis F. C.
The first ten mayors of Middlesbrough
Year Name of Mayor
1853 Henry William Ferdinand Bolckow
1854 Isaac Wilson
1855 John Vaughan
1856 Henry Thompson
1858 John Richardson
1859 William Fallows
1860 George Bottomley
1861 James Harris
1862 Thomas Brentnall
1863 Edgar Gilkes

On 21 January 1853, Middlesbrough received its Royal Charter
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

 of Incorporation, giving the town the right to have a mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

, aldermen and councillor
Councillor
A councillor or councilor is a member of a local government council, such as a city council.Often in the United States, the title is councilman or councilwoman.-United Kingdom:...

s. Bolckow became mayor in 1853 and Middlesbrough's first Member of Parliament (MP).

On 15 August 1867, a Reform Bill was passed, making Middlesbrough a new parliamentary borough, Bolckow was unanimously elected member for Middlesbrough the following year.

The population of Middlesbrough, as county borough, peaked at almost 165,000 in the late 1960s but has been in decline since the early 1980s. From 2001 to 2004, however, the recorded population jumped significantly, from 134,000 to 142,000, then to 147,000 in 2005. The current population, as of 2010 estimates, is believed to be 139,000.

The Bell brothers opened their great ironworks on the banks of the Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

 in 1853. Steel production began at Port Clarence
Port Clarence
Port Clarence is a small village now within the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tees, and hosts the northern end of the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge.-History:...

 in 1889 and an amalgamation with Dorman Long
Dorman Long
Dorman Long, based in Middlesbrough, North East England, was a major steel producer, which diversified into bridge building, and is now a manufacturer of steel components and construction equipment for bridges and other structures...

 followed. After rock salt was discovered under the site in 1874, the salt-extraction industry on Teesside was founded. By now Bell Brothers had become a vast concern employing some 6,000 people. Isaac Lowthian Bell
Isaac Lowthian Bell
Sir Lowthian Bell, 1st Baronet FRS was a Victorian ironmaster and Liberal Party politician from Washington, County Durham, in the north of England.He was the son of Thomas Bell and his wife Katherine Lowthian....

's own eminence in the field of applied science, where he published many weighty papers, and as an entrepreneur whose knowledge of blast furnaces was unrivalled, led to universal recognition. He was the first president of the Iron and Steel Institute, and the first recipient of the Bessemer Gold Medal in 1874. Bell was Lord Mayor of Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

 in 1854–1855, and again in 1862–1863. He served as MP for Hartlepool
Hartlepool
Hartlepool is a town and port in North East England.It was founded in the 7th century AD, around the Northumbrian monastery of Hartlepool Abbey. The village grew during the Middle Ages and developed a harbour which served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. A railway link from...

 in 1875–1880.

For many years in the 19th century Teesside
Teesside
Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in the north east of England made up of the towns of Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar, Billingham and surrounding settlements near the River Tees. It was also the name of a local government district between 1968 and 1974—the County Borough of...

 set the world price for iron and steel. The steel components of the Sydney Harbour Bridge
Sydney Harbour Bridge
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district and the North Shore. The dramatic view of the bridge, the harbour, and the nearby Sydney Opera House is an iconic...

 (1932) were engineered and fabricated by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough. Fittingly, the words MADE IN MIDDLESBROUGH are stamped on the Bridge. "The golden rivet" was hammered in by Kenneth Johnson Esq, Mechanical Engineer, whose son Christopher was later a pioneer in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry . The company was also responsible for the earlier New Tyne Bridge
Tyne Bridge
The Tyne Bridge is a through arch bridge over the River Tyne in North East England, linking Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. It was designed by the engineering firm Mott, Hay and Anderson, who later designed the Forth Road Bridge, and was built by Dorman Long and Co. of Middlesbrough. At the time...

 across the river at Newcastle.

Via a 1907 Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament. In the Republic of Ireland the term Act of the Oireachtas is used, and in the United States the term Act of Congress is used.In Commonwealth countries, the term is used both in a narrow...

 the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company
Dorman Long
Dorman Long, based in Middlesbrough, North East England, was a major steel producer, which diversified into bridge building, and is now a manufacturer of steel components and construction equipment for bridges and other structures...

 also built the great Transporter Bridge
Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge
The Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge or Tees Transporter Bridge is the furthest downstream bridge across the River Tees, England. It connects Middlesbrough, on the south bank, to Port Clarence, on the north bank. It is a transporter bridge, carrying a travelling 'car', or 'gondola', suspended from...

 (1911) which spans the Tees itself between Middlesbrough and Port Clarence
Port Clarence
Port Clarence is a small village now within the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tees, and hosts the northern end of the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge.-History:...

. At 850 feet (259.1 m) long and 225 feet (68.6 m) high, is one of the largest of its type in the world, and one of only two left in working order in Britain (the other being in Newport
Newport
Newport is a city and unitary authority area in Wales. Standing on the banks of the River Usk, it is located about east of Cardiff and is the largest urban area within the historic county boundaries of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent...

). The bridge remains in daily use and it is worth noting that, contrary to what is suggested by the plot of popular BBC drama/comedy Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Auf Wiedersehen, Pet is a British comedy-drama television programme about seven English migrant construction workers. In the first series, the men live and work on a building site in Düsseldorf....

, the bridge was not at any point dismantled and removed to Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

. It is, indeed, a Grade II* listed building. Another landmark, the Tees Newport Bridge
Tees Newport Bridge
Opened to traffic on 28 February 1934 by the Duke of York, the Tees Newport Bridge spans the River Tees a short distance upriver from Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge, linking Middlesbrough with the borough of Stockton-on-Tees, England....

 opened further along the river in 1934. Newport bridge still stands and is passable by traffic but it no can longer lift the centre section.

Several large shipyards also lined the Tees including the Sir Raylton Dixon & Company
Sir Raylton Dixon
Sir Raylton Dixon , was a shipbuilder at Middlesbrough on the River Tees. He was one of the seven children of Jeremiah Dixon and Mary Frank of Cockfield, County Durham who were married on 21 July 1833 in St. Cuthberts, Darlington...

 which produced hundreds of steam freighters including the infamous SS Mont-Blanc
SS Mont-Blanc
The SS Mont-Blanc was a French freighter which exploded while carrying ammunition in Halifax Harbour on December 6, 1917 causing the Halifax Explosion which killed 2000 people. The explosion was caused by a collision with the Norwegian ship SS Imo...

, the steamship which caused the 1917 Halifax Explosion
Halifax Explosion
The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, which accidentally collided with the Norwegian SS Imo in "The Narrows"...

 in Canada.

The great steelworks, chemical plants, shipbuilding and offshore fabrication yards that followed the original Middlesbrough ironworks, have in the recent past contributed to Britain's prosperity in no small measure and still do to this day.

Second World War

Middlesbrough had the distinction of being the first major British town and industrial target to be bombed during the Second World War. The Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 first visited the town on 25 May 1940 when a lone bomber dropped 13 bombs between South Bank Road and the South Steel Plant. One of the bombs fell on the South Bank football ground making a large crater in the pitch. The bomber was forced to leave after RAF
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 night fighter
Night fighter
A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility...

s were scrambled to intercept. Two months after the first bombing Prime Minister
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

 Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 visited the town to meet the public and inspect coastal defences.

German bombers often flew over Eston Hills
Eston Nab
Eston Nab is a local landmark to those who live along the River Tees, in north-east England.A nab is a rocky promontory, or outcrop, and Eston Nab, marking the highest point – at - on the escarpment which forms Eston Hills, appears as a clear sandstone cliff on the northernmost edge of Eston Moor...

 in an effort to reach targets further inland, such as Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

. On 30 March 1941 a Junkers Ju 88
Junkers Ju 88
The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company through the services of two American aviation engineers in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early...

 was shot down by two Spitfires
Supermarine Spitfire
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s...

 of No. 41 Squadron
No. 41 Squadron RAF
No. 41 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is currently the RAF's Test and Evaluation Squadron , based at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire. Its official title is "41 TES". The Squadron celebrates its 95th anniversary in 2011, and is one of the oldest RAF squadrons in existence.-First World War, 1916–1919:No...

, piloted by Tony Lovell and Archie Winskill, over Middlesbrough. The aircraft dived into the ground at Barnaby Moor, Eston
Eston
Eston is a town within the Unitary Authority of Redcar and Cleveland, England. Within the Middlesbrough agglomeration it falls inside the Greater Eston initiative...

. The engines and most of the airframe being entirely buried upon impact.

On 5 December 1941 a Spitfire of No. 122 Squadron
No. 122 Squadron RAF
No. 122 Squadron was a Royal Air Force fighter squadron during the first and second world wars.-History:The squadron was formed on 1 January 1918 at Sedgeford as a day bomber unit with the Airco DH.4, the intention was to train the squadron for operations on the de Havilland DH.9 but the squadron...

, piloted by Sgt Hutton, crashed into rising ground near Mill Farm, Upsall, on the lower slopes of Eston Hills. Visibility had been poor due to bad weather and low cloud. It is believed this was the cause of the crash.

On 15 January 1942, minutes after being hit by gunfire from a merchant ship anchored off Hartlepool
Hartlepool
Hartlepool is a town and port in North East England.It was founded in the 7th century AD, around the Northumbrian monastery of Hartlepool Abbey. The village grew during the Middle Ages and developed a harbour which served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. A railway link from...

, a Dornier Do 217
Dornier Do 217
The Dornier Do 217 was a bomber used by German Luftwaffe during World War II as a more powerful version of the Dornier Do 17, known as the Fliegender Bleistift . Designed in 1937 and 1938 as a heavy bomber, its design was refined during 1939 and production began in late 1940...

 collided with the cable of a barrage balloon over the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

. The blazing bomber plummeted onto the railway sidings in South Bank leaving a crater twelve feet deep. In 1997 the remains of the Dornier were unearthed by a group of workers clearing land for redevelopment. The remains were put on display for a short while at Kirkleatham museum.

On 4 August 1942 a lone Dornier Do 217 picked its way through the barrage balloon
Barrage balloon
A barrage balloon is a large balloon tethered with metal cables, used to defend against low-level aircraft attack by damaging the aircraft on collision with the cables, or at least making the attacker's approach more difficult. Some versions carried small explosive charges that would be pulled up...

s and dropped a stick of bombs onto the railway station
Middlesbrough railway station
Middlesbrough railway station serves the large town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The station is managed by First TransPennine Express and has two platforms...

. One bomb caused serious damage to the Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 glass and steel roof. A train, also in the station at the time of attack, was badly damaged. Luckily there were no passengers aboard.

By the end of the war over 200 buildings had been destroyed within the Middlesbrough area. Areas of early and mid-Victorian housing were demolished and much of central Middlesbrough was redeveloped. Heavy industry was relocated to areas of land better suited to the needs of modern technology. Middlesbrough itself began to take on a completely different look.

Origin of motto "Erimus"

The rapid growth of the town saw the prophetic words (probably spoken by Pease), 'Yarm
Yarm
Yarm is a small town and civil parish in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees in North East England. It is on the south bank of the River Tees and for ceremonial purposes is in North Yorkshire...

 was, Stockton
Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including...

 is, Middlesbrough will be' come true. Indeed, the motto chosen by the first body of town councillors was in fact 'Erimus; Latin for 'We shall be'. (See also the Pearson
Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson FRS was an influential English mathematician who has been credited for establishing the disciplineof mathematical statistics....

 family grave at Crambe
Crambe, North Yorkshire
Crambe is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. It is near the River Derwent and 6 miles south west of Malton, and is the home of the Karl Pearson family.-External links:*...

, which uses the motto "
ERIMUS".)

“Erimus” or “We shall be”, in Latin was chosen as Middlesbrough’s motto
to signify the town’s will to grow and become great from its foundation in 1830. The arms of Middlesbrough were designed by W. Hylton Longstaffe
in 1853, the year of incorporation. The arms were modified in 1911. They
show an azure (blue) lion beneath a row of 2 ships to represent the
shipping trade of Middlesbrough. The design is based on that of the Brus
family who owned the site on which Middlesbrough is built. Their motto
“Fuimus” means “We have been”.

Green Howards

The Green Howards
The Green Howards
The Green Howards was an infantry regiment of the British Army, in the King's Division...

 was a British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 infantry regiment very strongly associated with Middlesbrough and the area south of the River Tees. Originally formed at Dunster Castle, Somerset in 1688 to serve King William of Orange, later King William III
William III of England
William III & II was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland...

, this famous regiment became affiliated to the North Riding of Yorkshire
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire was one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West Ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a Lieutenancy area. The three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate...

 in 1782. As Middlesbrough grew, its population of men came to be a group most targeted by the recruiters. The Green Howards were part of the King's Division
King's Division
The King's Division is a British Army command, training and administrative apparatus designated for infantry regiments in the North of England. The King's Division was formed in 1968 with the union of the Lancastrian Brigade, Yorkshire Brigade and North Irish Brigade...

. On 6 June 2006, this famous regiment was merged into the new Yorkshire Regiment
Yorkshire Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment is one of the largest infantry regiments of the British Army. The regiment is currently the only line infantry or rifles unit to represent a single geographical county in the new infantry structure, serving as the county regiment of Yorkshire covering the historical areas...

 and are now known as 2 Yorks – The 2nd Battalion The Yorkshire Regiment (Green Howards). There is also a Territorial Army (TA) company at Stockton Road in Middlesbrough, part of 4 Yorks which is wholly reserve.

One of the most well-known soldiers of this historic regiment was WO2 (Company Sergeant Major) Stanley Hollis. He was the only soldier in all of the British and Empire armies to be awarded a Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

 (VC) in the D-Day landings at Normandy, France in June 1944. Other well-known Green Howards have included the TV magician Paul Daniels
Paul Daniels
Paul Daniels, born Newton Edward Daniels on 6 April 1938, is a British magician and television performer. He achieved international fame through his television series The Paul Daniels Magic Show, which ran on the BBC from 1979 to 1994.-Early life:...

, Middlesbrough F.C.
Middlesbrough F.C.
Middlesbrough Football Club , also known as Boro, are an English football club based in Middlesbrough, who play in the Football League Championship. Formed in 1876, they have played at the Riverside Stadium since August 1995, their third ground since turning professional in 1889...

's Wilf Mannion
Wilf Mannion
Wilfred James Mannion was an English professional footballer who played as an inside forward, making over 350 senior appearances for Middlesbrough. He also played international football for England...

, General Sir Richard Dannatt (who was appointed Chief of the General Staff
Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)
Chief of the General Staff has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964. The CGS is a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Army Board...

 of the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 in August 1996), former England rugby player Tim Rodber
Tim Rodber
Timothy Andrew Keith Rodber formerly a rugby union footballer who played at Number eight, flanker or lock for Northampton Saints, England, and the British and Irish Lions...

, and Yorkshire and England cricketer Hedley Verity
Hedley Verity
Hedley Verity was a professional cricketer who played first-class cricket for Yorkshire and England between 1930 and 1939. A slow left arm orthodox bowler, he took 1,956 wickets in first-class cricket at an average of 14.90 and in 40 Tests he took 144 wickets at an average of 24.37...

, killed in action in 1943.

Governance

Middlesbrough was incorporated as a municipal borough
Municipal borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002...

 in 1853. It extended its boundaries in 1866 and 1887, and became a county borough
County borough
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in...

 under the Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
The Local Government Act 1888 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales...

. A Middlesbrough Rural District
Middlesbrough Rural District
Middlesbrough Rural District was a rural district in the North Riding of Yorkshire from 1894 to 1932.It was based on the Middlesbrough rural sanitary district created in 1875, which consisted of the Middlesbrough poor law union, except those parts in urban sanitary districts .The rural district...

 was formed in 1894, covering a rural area to the south of the town. It was abolished in 1932, partly going to the county borough; but mostly going to the Stokesley Rural District
Stokesley Rural District
Stokesley was a rural district in the North Riding of Yorkshire from 1894 to 1974. It was named after the town of Stokesley, which it contained....

.

Middlesbrough gained a "twin" in 1890 when the town of Middlesborough, Kentucky
Middlesborough, Kentucky
Middlesboro, also spelled Middlesborough, is a city in Bell County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 10,384 at the 2000 census. The estimated July 1, 2009 population of the city is 14,835. The entire micropolitan area has a population of 69,060 which includes all of Bell County...

 was incorporated in the United States; it was named after its English namesake due to the discovery of ironstone deposits in the region.

Middlesbrough is twinned with Oberhausen
Oberhausen
Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen . The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. It is also well known for the...

 in Germany, Masvingo
Masvingo
Masvingo is a town in south-eastern Zimbabwe and the capital of Masvingo Province. The town is close to Great Zimbabwe, the national monument from which the country takes its name.- History :...

 in Zimbabwe and Dunkerque ('Dunkirk' in English) in France. This last association resulted from the Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force
British Expeditionary Force (World War II)
The British Expeditionary Force was the British force in Europe from 1939–1940 during the Second World War. Commanded by General Lord Gort, the BEF constituted one-tenth of the defending Allied force....

 during World War II, in which one quarter of the ships involved were from Teesport
Teesport
Teesport is a large sea port located in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire in north east England...

.

The district in England and Wales with the lowest healthy life expectancy, according to the Office for National Statistics study, is Middlehaven, the dockside area of Middlesbrough, which is currently undergoing major regeneration and will soon become a flagship regeneration project in the UK, with plans from the architect Will Alsop.

Crime

Middlesbrough uses combined installations of CCTV
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors....

 cameras and loudspeakers to reprimand citizens when they are committing infringements (throwing cigarette ends on the ground, littering etc.). Middlesbrough was the first place in the UK to install CCTV
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors....

 with loudspeakers which inspired other towns to use this idea. The crime rate in Middlesbrough is nearly twice the UK average and was 4th highest in England in 2007 despite seeing year on year reductions according to the Cleveland Police crime statistics.

Politics

Middlesbrough and the surrounding area has two Members of Parliament (MPs): Tom Blenkinsop
Tom Blenkinsop
Thomas Francis Blenkinsop is a British Labour Party politician and Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland....

 and Sir Stuart Bell
Stuart Bell
Sir Stuart Bell is a British Labour Party politician, who has been the Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough since 1983.-Early life:...

. Middlesbrough has been a traditionally safe Labour
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 seat, largely due to its industrial, working class history. The first Conservative MP for Middlesbrough was Sir Samuel Alexander Sadler
Samuel Alexander Sadler
Sir Samuel Alexander Sadler Knight M.P. J.P. V.D. was an eminent industrialist, public servant and the first Conservative Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, the town with which his name is associated....

, elected in 1900. The Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland
Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland (UK Parliament constituency)
Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland is a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election....

 seat is also Labour but incorporates surrounding towns including Guisborough
Guisborough
Guisborough is a market town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England....

 and Saltburn
Saltburn-by-the-Sea
Saltburn-by-the-Sea is a seaside resort in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The town is around east of Middlesbrough, and had a population of 5,912 at the 2001 Census.-Old Saltburn:...

 and is a more marginal seat and a Conservative
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

 target (the Conservatives having held the Langbaurgh
Langbaurgh (UK Parliament constituency)
Langbaurgh was a parliamentary constituency in the Langbaurgh area of North East England to the east of Middlesbrough. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system, and existed from 1983 to...

 predecessor seat until 1997).

In 2002, Middlesbrough voted to have a directly elected
Elected mayors in the United Kingdom
Directly elected mayors are council leaders elected by the general electorate of a council area for local government, instead of being appointed by members of a local authority, which is common in the United Kingdom. The Elected Mayor is elected from a number of candidates who put themselves up for...

 mayor as head of the council. The current mayor is Ray Mallon
Ray Mallon
Ray Mallon is the directly elected Mayor of Middlesbrough.-Early life:Ray Mallon was raised in Thornaby-on-Tees, Yorkshire, a working-class town near Middlesbrough and Stockton-On-Tees, the only child of Joe and Pauline Mallon...

 (independent), a former senior, and somewhat controversial, figure in the local police force. Mallon was voted in as the first directly elected mayor in 2002, re-elected for a second term in office in May 2007 and re-elected again for a third term in May 2011 in the local and mayoral elections.

Geography

The following is a table of the different wards, districts and suburbs in the Middlesbrough area.
Acklam Ayresome
Ayresome Park
-External links:**-References:...

Beckfield Beechwood Berwick Hills
Berwick Hills
Berwick Hills is a neighbourhood in east Middlesbrough, England with a population of 4,465.-Notable people from Berwick Hills:* Phil Stamp - footballer* Peter McCormick - football lawyer* Keith Harris - Match Angler...

Brambles Farm
Brambles Farm
Brambles Farm is a small housing estate in east Middlesbrough, England with a population of 3,200. It lies to the north of Thorntree and east of Pallister.-Brambles Farm FC:...

Brookfield Clairville Coulby Newham
Coulby Newham
Coulby Newham is a large housing estate in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England, with a resident population of 10,700....

Easterside
Easterside
-Introduction:Easterside is a small housing estate towards the geographical centre of Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England, with a population of around 3,200. It is bounded to the east by Marton Road A172 and to the south by Ladgate Lane B1380...

Eston
Eston
Eston is a town within the Unitary Authority of Redcar and Cleveland, England. Within the Middlesbrough agglomeration it falls inside the Greater Eston initiative...

Gresham
Grangetown
Grangetown, North Yorkshire
Grangetown is a township in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated on the outskirts of Middlesbrough between the town and ICI Wilton. It is approximately 3.3 miles east of Middlesbrough centre and 4.4 miles from Redcar. Although...

Grove Hill
Grove Hill, Middlesbrough
Grove Hill is a housing estate and is in the Clairville ward of Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England.- Notable residents :*Brian Clough , footballer, manager...

Hemlington
Hemlington
Hemlington is a settlement within the town of Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. In 2005, it had a population of approximately 4,200...

Kader Ladgate Lazenby
Lazenby
Lazenby is a village in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England.It is located just off the A174, a 2 minute drive away from Eston. Lazenby is very small, and has just one general store, two pubs and a social club....

Linthorpe
Linthorpe
Linthorpe is an inner-suburb, and former village in the unitary authority of Middlesbrough, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, in north east England.- Development :...

Marton-in-Cleveland
Marton, Middlesbrough
Marton — officially Marton-in-Cleveland — was a village in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which is now within the town boundaries of Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Originally, the parish of Marton extended down to the River...

Marton Grove
Marton Grove
Marton Grove is an area in the town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is to the east side of the town and home of Marton Grove Primary School....

Marton West Middlehaven Netherfields
Netherfields
Netherfields is a housing estate in Ormesby, within the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Located in the TS3 Postcode area, it has three schools: Ormesby Comprehensive School, Priory Woods School and Pennyman Primary School...

Normanby North Ormesby
North Ormesby
North Ormesby is an area in the town and unitary authority of Middlesbrough, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated just to the south of the River Tees and the A66, and is adjacent to the Cargo Fleet and South Bank areas of Middlesbrough. The Teesdale Way long distance...

Nunthorpe
Nunthorpe
Nunthorpe is a small outer suburb of the town of Middlesbrough, England. Nunthorpe is served by Nunthorpe and Gypsy Lane railway stations, both of which are on the Esk Valley Line from Middlesbrough to Whitby...

Ormesby
Ormesby
Ormesby is a former village, and now suburb, spanning the Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland unitary authorities in north east England, within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. It forms part of the Middlesbrough urban agglomeration...

Pallister
Pallister
Pallister is a housing estate in east Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Located within the TS3 postcode area, it is also known as Pallister Park or Pally Park because of the public park located at the estates northern edge...

Park End
Priestfields Saltersgill
Saltersgill
Saltersgill, is a residential area within the Beechwood ward situated in the town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The local school is Trinity Catholic College. The local pub is the Saltersgill Hotel....

South Bank
South Bank, Middlesbrough
South Bank is a small town which forms part of the Middlesbrough urban area that lies 2.3 miles from Middlesbrough centre, in North East England. As the name suggests, it lies on the south bank of the River Tees. Although it is part of the Middlesbrough conurbation, it is a ward of Redcar and...

St. Hilda's Stainton-in-Cleveland
Stainton, Middlesbrough
Stainton is a village in Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is in the local ward and civil parish of Stainton and Thornton, and had a population of approximately 2,300 as of 2005....

Thorntree
Thorntree
Thorntree is a housing estate in east Middlesbrough within the unitary authority of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England.It is so called because it was built on land which was Thorntree Farm....

Teesville
Teesville
Teesville is an area in the Middlesbrough agglomeration in the north east of England, and part of the Unitary Authority of Redcar and Cleveland and in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. It has a population of approximately 7,000 residents...

Tollesby
Tollesby
Tollesby, is a residential area within the Acklam ward situated in the town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The local school is Newham Bridge Primary school. There are also 3 secondary schools; King's Manor Specialist Sports...

Town Farm University West Lane
West Lane
West Lane is a neighbourhood in West Central Middlesbrough. Bounded by Whinney Banks to the south, Newport & Gresham to the north, Linthorpe to the east and the A19 to the west, it is within the Ayresome ward and within the TS5 postcode area. Along with Whinney Banks the Ayresome ward has just...

Whinney Banks
Whinney Banks
Whinney Banks is a neighbourhood in the west of Central Middlesbrough, England. Its is within the TS5 postcode area and part of the Ayresome ward and bounded by West Lane and Newport to the north, the A19 Dual-Carriageway to the west, Linthorpe to the east and Acklam and Beckfield to the south...



Middlesbrough's contemporary townscape is largely workaday, it being no longer a heavy industrial town, though there are areas around which still support chemical, fertiliser and iron and steel production.

Street layout

Unlike some English towns where there was an older market town around which a larger industrial town grew, Middlesbrough was laid out starting from scratch. The result of this can be seen in the grid-like pattern of streets. Although there is no overall grid plan
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

 of the sort found in many American cities, there are areas in which side streets are laid out at right angles to major thoroughfares, with other side streets crossing them at right angles. These streets are continuous over three or four blocks of buildings. In the main shopping area, and on the east side of Linthorpe Road, streets were laid out in rectangular grid which seems to be based on Corporation Road, which runs from east to west. To the west of Linthorpe Road a grid pattern is based on Linthorpe Road itself, but after a few blocks the layout changes to a grid based on Newport Road, which runs north-east to south-west. South of Albert Park there are other smaller grids, but the long continuous streets are all north of Parliament Road and Albert Park. Further out of town there are more recent suburban streets with various layouts.

Climate

Middlesbrough has an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 typical for the United Kingdom.
Being sheltered by both the Lake District
Lake District
The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes and its mountains but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth...

 and Pennines
Pennines
The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more-or-less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of...

 to the west, Middlesbrough is in one of the relatively drier parts of the country, receiving on average 25 inches of rain a year. It has more of a continental climate than other parts of the UK, with above average summer temperatures, and below average winter temperatures. Summer highs are typically 20/21°C, winter lows typically dropping several degree's C below freezing.

Transport

Middlesbrough is served well by public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

. The Arriva North East
Arriva North East
Arriva North East is a division of the transport group Arriva. It is a major provider of bus services around north east England, alongside Stagecoach North East, and Go North East...

, Stagecoach on Teesside
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

, Leven Valley, Alrite Travel and Go North East
Go North East
Go North East is the largest operator of bus services in North East England, United Kingdom. Go North East operates services in the counties of Tyne and Wear, County Durham and Northumberland...

 bus lines provide local transport mainly in Middlesbrough and to Durham Tees Valley Airport
Durham Tees Valley Airport
Durham Tees Valley Airport is an international airport in north east England, located southeast of Darlington, about southwest of Middlesbrough and south of Durham. The airport serves County Durham and parts of North Yorkshire, and is in Middleton St George in the borough of Darlington...

, Sunderland, Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including...

, Darlington
Darlington
Darlington is a market town in the Borough of Darlington, part of the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It lies on the small River Skerne, a tributary of the River Tees, not far from the main river. It is the main population centre in the borough, with a population of 97,838 as of 2001...

 and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. National Express
National Express
National Express Coaches, more commonly known as National Express, is a brand and company, owned by the National Express Group, under which the majority of long distance bus and coach services in Great Britain are operated,...

 and Megabus
Megabus (United Kingdom)
Megabus is a UK coach service operated by Stagecoach Group. It started in 2003 and as of February 2010 operated 19 UK coach routes serving 41 destinations in England, Scotland and Wales. Some services link with Megatrain services which are also operated by Stagecoach...

 operate long distance coach travel from the bus station
Middlesbrough bus station
Middlesbrough bus station serves the town of Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England.The bus station is situated in Middlesbrough Town Centre off Newport Road....

. Middlesbrough has recently benefited from an upgrade in bus services; with digital displays having being fitted at selected bus shelters in the town and many bus shelters being renovated.

Until the 1970s Middlesbrough bus services consisted of the blue buses of Middlesbrough Corporation Transport, or the red buses of the United Bus Company, with an occasional green bus from Stockton Corporation Transport. The merger to form Teesside resulted in a unified Teesside Corporation Transport, with Stockton's green merging with Middlesbrough's blue to give a turquoise-liveried fleet, a colour which was not universally popular. The United Bus Company, which had operated fewer services than the other two, but tended to cover longer distances, began operating under the National Bus Company brand at about the same time.

Train services are operated by Northern Rail
Northern Rail
Northern Rail is a British train operating company that has operated local passenger services in Northern England since 2004. Northern Rail's owner, Serco-Abellio, is a consortium formed of Abellio and Serco, an international operator of public transport systems...

 and Transpennine Express, the latter of which provides direct rail services to cities such as Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

, York
York
York is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence...

, Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 and Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, departing from Middlesbrough railway station
Middlesbrough railway station
Middlesbrough railway station serves the large town of Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The station is managed by First TransPennine Express and has two platforms...

. Currently there are no direct rail services to London King's Cross from Middlesbrough, however, open access operator Grand Central Trains operate four weekday return journeys from nearby Eaglescliffe
Eaglescliffe
Eaglescliffe is a small town in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees in North East England. It is on the north bank of the River Tees and for ceremonial purposes is in County Durham. The bridge at Eaglescliffe on the border with Yarm marked the last crossing point of tidal section of the River Tees...

. Northern Rail connect with the East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a long electrified high-speed railway link between London, Peterborough, Doncaster, Wakefield, Leeds, York, Darlington, Newcastle and Edinburgh...

 at Darlington
Darlington
Darlington is a market town in the Borough of Darlington, part of the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. It lies on the small River Skerne, a tributary of the River Tees, not far from the main river. It is the main population centre in the borough, with a population of 97,838 as of 2001...

 providing an interchange for direct services to many areas of the UK. Northern also operate the Saltburn
Saltburn-by-the-Sea
Saltburn-by-the-Sea is a seaside resort in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The town is around east of Middlesbrough, and had a population of 5,912 at the 2001 Census.-Old Saltburn:...

 route as well as the beautiful Esk Valley Line
Esk Valley Line
The Esk Valley Line is the railway line from Middlesbrough to Whitby in North Yorkshire, England. The route follows the course of the River Esk for much of its eastern half....

 to Whitby
Whitby
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a combined maritime, mineral and tourist heritage, and is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey where Caedmon, the...

. The Tees Valley Metro
Tees Valley Metro
The Tees Valley Metro is a project to upgrade the Tees Valley Line and sections of the Esk Valley Line and Durham Coast Line to provide a faster and more frequent service. In the initial phases the services will be heavy rail mostly along existing alignments. The later phase may introduce...

 scheme intends to improve railway services from Middlesbrough to Darlington, Saltburn, Nunthorpe
Nunthorpe
Nunthorpe is a small outer suburb of the town of Middlesbrough, England. Nunthorpe is served by Nunthorpe and Gypsy Lane railway stations, both of which are on the Esk Valley Line from Middlesbrough to Whitby...

 and Hartlepool and open new stations at Teesside Park, Middlehaven, James Cook University Hospital
James Cook University Hospital
The James Cook University Hospital is a 1010 bed major tertiary referral hospital and district general hospital in Middlesbrough, England, lying on Marton Road, a major route into the centre of Middlesbrough . It forms part of the South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, along with the Friarage...

 and Nunthorpe Parkway. The first stages of the scheme were approved by the Department for Transport
Department for Transport
In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland which are not devolved...

 in 2009.

Landmarks

Located in the suburb and former village of Acklam and by some distance Middlesbrough's oldest domestic building is Acklam Hall
Acklam Hall
Acklam Hall is a Restoration mansion in the former village, and now suburb, of Acklam in Middlesbrough, in the unitary authority of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is a Grade I listed building....

 of c.1680–83. Built by Sir William Hustler
William Hustler (draper)
William Hustler was an English draper of the Hustler family. He built Acklam Hall in Cleveland in the early 1680s; it is now one campus of a further education institution, Middlesbrough College.-External links:*...

, it is also Middlesbrough's sole Grade I listed building. The Restoration
English Restoration
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms...

 mansion
Mansion
A mansion is a very large dwelling house. U.S. real estate brokers define a mansion as a dwelling of over . A traditional European mansion was defined as a house which contained a ballroom and tens of bedrooms...

, accessible through an avenue of trees off Acklam Road, has seen progressive updates through the centuries, such that it makes for a captivating document of varying trends in English architecture.

Built on extensive grounds by the Pennyman family now under the jurisdiction of the National Trust
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

, Ormesby Hall
Ormesby Hall
Ormesby Hall is a predominantly 18th century mansion house built in the Palladian style, situated in Ormesby, near Middlesbrough, in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, in the North East of England....

, a Palladian mansion actually technically located within the neighbouring borough of Redcar and Cleveland
Redcar and Cleveland
The borough of Redcar & Cleveland is a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England consisting of Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Guisborough, and small towns such as Brotton, Eston, Skelton and Loftus. It had a resident population of 139,132 in 2001, and is part of the Tees...

, but within one of the town's seven conservation areas, was largely built around 1740, although an older wing dating from around 1599, still exists.

There is also a group of interesting churches, for example at Acklam, Marton and Stainton (c. 12th century), as well as the modern St. Mary's R.C. Cathedral
Middlesbrough Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of St Mary the Virgin, usually known as Middlesbrough Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Coulby Newham, Middlesbrough, England...

 at Coulby Newham
Coulby Newham
Coulby Newham is a large housing estate in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England, with a resident population of 10,700....

, replacing in the 1980s the previous structure on Sussex Street that was left gutted and at the mercy of arsonists in 2000.

A modest tally of pre-1900 buildings remain in the town centre, however; the priory, farmhouse and any other elements of the town's pre-industrial landscape (such as the Restoration
English Restoration
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms...

 Newport House and its associated Hustler Granary, which submitted to demolition in the 1930s by virtue of its vicinity to the then-recently opened Tees Newport Bridge
Tees Newport Bridge
Opened to traffic on 28 February 1934 by the Duke of York, the Tees Newport Bridge spans the River Tees a short distance upriver from Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge, linking Middlesbrough with the borough of Stockton-on-Tees, England....

, and the locally famous "White Cottages" on St. Barnabas Road in Linthorpe
Linthorpe
Linthorpe is an inner-suburb, and former village in the unitary authority of Middlesbrough, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, in north east England.- Development :...

) have long since been banished to history. Indeed, incorporation of the town itself did not occur until 1853. Even so, the urban centre remains home to a variety of architecture ranging from the Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, or mima, is a contemporary art gallery based in the centre of Middlesbrough, England. The gallery was formally launched on Sunday 27 January 2007...

, opened in January 2007 to replace a number of former outlying galleries; and Centre North East
Centre North East
Centre North East, formerly Corporation House as of its construction in 1974, is at 19 storeys and 70.7 m , the tallest building in Middlesbrough...

, formerly Corporation House, which opened in 1971. Many believe that there is a beauty to be found in the surrounding landscape of industry along the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

 from Billingham
Billingham
Billingham is a town in the unitary authority of Stockton on Tees, in north east England, with a population of 35,765 . It was founded circa 650 by a group of Saxons known as Billa's people, which is where the name Billingham is thought to have originated...

 to Wilton. The terraced Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 streets surrounding the town centre are characterful elements of Middlesbrough's social and historical identity, and the vast streets surrounding Parliament Road and Abingdon Road a reminder of the area's wealth and rapid growth during industrialisation.

The town hall, designed by George Gordon Hoskins
George Gordon Hoskins
George Gordon Hoskins FRIBA , was an English architect responsible for the design of several public buildings in the North East of England...

 and built between 1883 and 1887 is a Grade II listed building, and a very imposing structure. Of comparable grandeur alongside these municipal buildings is the erstwhile Empire Palace of Varieties of 1897, the finest surviving theatre edifice designed by Ernest Runtz in the UK. The first artist to star there in its guise as a music hall
Music hall
Music Hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960. The term can refer to:# A particular form of variety entertainment involving a mixture of popular song, comedy and speciality acts...

 was Lillie Langtry
Lillie Langtry
Lillie Langtry , usually spelled Lily Langtry when she was in the U.S., born Emilie Charlotte Le Breton, was a British actress born on the island of Jersey...

. Later it became an early nightclub (1950s), then a bingo hall and is now once again a nightclub in the form of 'The Empire'. It has recently, as of 2005, had the missing ornate glass and steel over-canopy to the front entrance fully restored. Further afield, in Linthorpe, can be found the Middlesbrough Theatre
Middlesbrough Theatre
Middlesbrough Theatre was opened by Sir John Gielgud in 1957 and was one of the first new theatres built in England after the Second World War...

 (formerly the Little Theatre), which was opened by Sir John Gielgud
John Gielgud
Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH was an English actor, director, and producer. A descendant of the renowned Terry acting family, he achieved early international acclaim for his youthful, emotionally expressive Hamlet which broke box office records on Broadway in 1937...

 in 1957 and was one of the first new theatres built in England after the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.
The town can also boast this country’s only public sculpture by the celebrated modern American artist Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg is a Swedish sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects...

, the "Bottle O' Notes" of 1993, which relates to Captain James Cook
James Cook
Captain James Cook, FRS, RN was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer who ultimately rose to the rank of captain in the Royal Navy...

. Based alongside it today in the town's Central Gardens is the Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, or mima, is a contemporary art gallery based in the centre of Middlesbrough, England. The gallery was formally launched on Sunday 27 January 2007...

 (MIMA), the successor to previous art galleries
Art gallery
An art gallery or art museum is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art.Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection...

 on Linthorpe Road and Gilkes Street. Refurbished in 2006 is the Carnegie library
Carnegie library
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems...

 dating from 1912. The Dorman Long office on Zetland Road, constructed between 1881 and 1891, is the only commercial building ever designed by Philip Webb
Philip Webb
Another Philip Webb — Philip Edward Webb was the architect son of leading architect Sir Aston Webb. Along with his brother, Maurice, he assisted his father towards the end of his career....

, the great architect who worked for Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell.

The town centre has been undergoing modernisation in recent years; this includes the addition in 2004 of 'Spectra-txt,' a 10 metres (32.8 ft) high interactive tower of metal and fibre-optics inspired by Blade Runner
Blade Runner
Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is loosely based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K...

 (whose own industrial scenery was inspired by that of Teesside, by virtue in part of the experiences of its director, the South Shields
South Shields
South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, located at the mouth of the River Tyne to Tyne Dock, and about downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne...

-born Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
Sir Ridley Scott is an English film director and producer. His most famous films include The Duellists , Alien , Blade Runner , Legend , Thelma & Louise , G. I...

, a former art college student up the coast in nearby industrialised West Hartlepool
West Hartlepool
This article refers to the place; for the Rugby Football Club see West Hartlepool R.F.C.West Hartlepool refers to the western part of the what has since the 1960s been known as the borough of Hartlepool in North East England...

). 'Spectra-txt' allows a member of the public to send an SMS
Short message service
Short Message Service is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices...

 (text) message via a mobile phone to change the colours of the lights. Texting various codes, such as 'Chromapop' produce a display of changing colour lights.

Economy

There is a large and comprehensive shopping district made up of several separate shopping centres, which include 'The Mall Middlesbrough
The Mall Middlesbrough
The Mall Middlesbrough, formerly Cleveland Shopping Centre, is a shopping centre that serves the town of Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England and is owned by The Mall Company.- Transport links :...

' renamed in 2005 from 'Cleveland Shopping Centre,' which has undergone a major refurbishment. 'Dundas Street Shopping' renamed in 2005 from 'Dundas Shopping Arcade', 'Hill Street Shopping Centre' and 'Captain Cook Square'. Linthorpe Road is home to several independent and national fashion shops. A four-part BBC3 documentary "The Secret Life of the Shop" was made in 2005 about the clothing store Psyche, which highlighted how seriously Teessiders take fashion.

Future developments

As part of its £1.5 billion investment programme, Tees Valley Regeneration
Tees Valley Regeneration
Tees Valley Regeneration was an urban regeneration company covering the Tees Valley area of North East England and at one time was the largest urban development agency in England...

 has started work on reclaiming Middlesbrough Docklands with the £500 million Middlehaven scheme to bring new business and homes to a 250 acres (1 km²) area. The first phase around the former docklands has already begun and is visible from the Riverside Stadium
Riverside Stadium
The Riverside Stadium is a football stadium in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England, which has been the home of Middlesbrough F.C. since it opened in 1995...

. The master plan drawn up by Will Alsop
Will Alsop
Will Allen Alsop, OBE RA is a British architect based in London. He is responsible for several distinctive and controversial modernist buildings, most in the United Kingdom. Alsop's buildings are usually distinguished by their use of bright colour and unusual forms...

 in 2004, includes proposals for the relocation of Middlesbrough College
Middlesbrough College
Middlesbrough College, located on one campus at Middlehaven, Middlesbrough, England, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, is the largest college in the Tees Valley.-Admissions:...

 and the building of a virtual reality centre by Teesside University as part of the DigitalCity development, in addition to numerous offices, hotels, bars, restaurants and leisure attractions. Tees Valley Regeneration now has a shortlist of five developers seeking to build at Middlehaven, the list includes some of the most prestigious and groundbreaking names in development and regeneration, and a decision on the chosen developer is due to be made in the next few months.

The Stockton-Middlesbrough Initiative is a 20 year vision for regenerating the urban core of the Tees Valley
Tees Valley
The Tees Valley is an area in the North East of England. It can be described as "greater Teesside" and consists of the four unitary authorities created by the breakup of the County of Cleveland in 1996: Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar & Cleveland, and Stockton-On-Tees along with the borough of...

, the main focus being the 30 km² area along the banks of the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

 between the two centres of Stockton
Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including...

 and Middlesbrough. The master plan has been drawn up by environmental design specialists Gillespies, the eventual aim being to bring distinctive high-quality city-scale assets to the centre of the Tees Valley, including the town centres of Stockton and Middlesbrough. The project will include not only the existing developments at North Shore, Stockton and Middlehaven, Middlesbrough, but many others over a 15-20 year period.

Private local developers have recently announced plans to build a 360 feet (109.7 m) tower on the site of the old Odeon Cinema
Odeon Cinemas
Odeon Cinemas is a British chain of cinemas, one of the largest in Europe. It is owned by Odeon & UCI Cinemas Group whose ultimate parent is Terra Firma Capital Partners.-History:Odeon Cinemas was created in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch...

 (more recently a nightclub named "the Jumpin' Jack") which collapsed during demolition work in July 2006. The site is in central Middlesbrough at the eastern end of Newport Road and was proposed to be the tallest building in the North East, although the plan was later, as of 2007, downscaled.

One of Middlesbrough's finest buildings, Kirby College, set in the inner suburb of Linthorpe is currently in the process of being brought back to life by local developer Green Lane Capital. The building will become known as The Old College.

Middlesbrough, along with other towns and cities in the UK, will be granted a licence to build a new large casino. Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

 won the bid to host the 'Super Casino'
Regional casino
A Regional Casino, more commonly known as a Super Casino , is the term given to the largest category of casino that was to have been permitted under UK law - equivalent in size to the larger casinos in Las Vegas...

.

Just announced is a plan to turn one of the area's most impressive yet under-used buildings into a top specification office location. Cleveland House on Cleveland Street was built in 1872 by John Gibson – a renowned architect who worked with Sir Charles Barry designing the Houses of Parliament. The building's new owners have renamed it Gibson House and plan to spend £1m on the grade II listed construction. It is thought that the developers are planning to capitalise on the success of the huge regeneration project at nearby Middlehaven district of town.

Culture and leisure

The long-awaited flagship art gallery project, the Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, or mima, is a contemporary art gallery based in the centre of Middlesbrough, England. The gallery was formally launched on Sunday 27 January 2007...

 opened its doors in January 2007. It currently holds the second largest collection of Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

s in the United Kingdom. It also holds works by Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andrew Warhola , known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art...

, Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

 and Damien Hirst
Damien Hirst
Damien Steven Hirst is an English artist, entrepreneur and art collector. He is the most prominent member of the group known as the Young British Artists , who dominated the art scene in Britain during the 1990s. He is internationally renowned, and is reportedly Britain's richest living artist,...

 among others. Its considerable arts and crafts collections span from 1900 to the present day. Surrounding it is the town's overhauled Victoria Square and Central Gardens, in tandem producing "the largest civic space in Europe".

Middlesbrough has two major recreational park spaces in Albert Park
Albert Park, Middlesbrough
Albert Park is an open access, free public park, located in Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England....

 and Stewart Park, Marton
Marton, Middlesbrough
Marton — officially Marton-in-Cleveland — was a village in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which is now within the town boundaries of Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Originally, the parish of Marton extended down to the River...

. The former, originally hailed as the 'People's Park', was donated to the town by Bolckow in 1866. It was formally opened by Prince Arthur
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was a member of the shared British and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha royal family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the 10th since Canadian Confederation.Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and...

, youngest son of the monarch, on 11 August 1868 and comprises a 30 hectare (70 acre) site accessible from Linthorpe Road. The park underwent a considerable period of restoration from 2001 to 2004, during which a number of the park's most well-known landmarks, including a fountain
Fountain
A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air either to supply drinking water or for decorative or dramatic effect....

, bandstand
Bandstand
A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, pier, or indoor space, designed to accommodate musical bands performing concerts...

 and sundial
Sundial
A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. In common designs such as the horizontal sundial, the sun casts a shadow from its style onto a surface marked with lines indicating the hours of the day. The style is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, often a thin rod or a...

 saw either restoration or revival. The latter park was donated to the people of Middlesbrough in 1928 by Councillor Thomas Dorman Stewart and encompasses Victorian stable buildings, lakes and animal pens. During 2011 and 2012, the park is to undergo major refurbishment of many of its features. Alongside these two parks are two of the town's premier cultural attractions, the century-old Dorman Memorial Museum and the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum
Captain Cook Birthplace Museum
Captain Cook Birthplace Museum is a free-entry public museum located in Stewart Park in Marton, Middlesbrough within the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England....

. The former was given the honour of displaying the Middlesbrough meteorite
Middlesbrough meteorite
The Middlesbrough Meteorite fell in Middlesbrough, England on 14 March 1881.The meteorite fell on the afternoon of 14 March 1881, impacting the ground around 3.35 pm...

 in March 2011 (loaned from the Yorkshire museum). This was the first time the 1.5 kg meteorite had been put on display in the town since it fell to Earth in 1881. Close to the latter museum can be found a granite urn marking the supposed spot of the world famous explorer's birthplace.

Newham Grange Leisure farm
Newham Grange Leisure Farm
Newham Grange Leisure Farm is a farm park and conservation centre located in Coulby Newham, Middlesbrough in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is one of only 16 nationally approved by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust...

 in Coulby Newham, one of the most southerly districts of the town, has operated continuously in this spot since the 17th century, becoming a leisure farm with the first residential development of the suburb in the 1970s. It is now a burgeoning tourist attraction: the chance to view its cattle, pigs, sheep and other farm animals is complemented by exhibitions of the farming history of the area.

Back in the 'Old Town' or St Hilda's, is the Transporter Bridge Visitor Centre, opened in 2000 and offering its own exhibitions charting the stirring past of the surrounding industrial powerhouse, as well as that of the singular structure it commemorates.

Nightlife

During university term time, Middlesbrough is busy throughout the week with student nights taking place throughout the bars and clubs. During the holidays, the town is especially busy from Thursday to Sunday.

One of the most popular venues is The Empire in the centre of town. Several famous bands and DJs have played at this venue, from the likes of Roger Sanchez, Eric Prydz to DJ Disciple. The Crown, Basement, Blu, Cornerhouse, Walkabout, Aruba, Onyx, Barracuda and the Arena, now re-opened with a seven o'clock license are also popular. A Cineworld
Cineworld
Cineworld Group plc is a cinema chain operating in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Jersey. The chain consists of 78 cinemas; 76 of which are located in the UK and one each in Ireland and Jersey. It is the second-largest cinema operator in the UK with 801 screens, and the owner of...

 cinema is located at Middlesbrough Leisure Park, as well as a Showcase Cinema
Showcase Cinemas
Showcase Cinemas is a movie theater chain owned and operated by National Amusements. Operating more than 1,354 indoor screens in the United States, United Kingdom and Latin America.-USA:* Connecticut* Massachusetts* Ohio* New Jersey* Rhode Island...

 in the Middlesbrough part of Teesside Park
Teesside Park
Teesside Park is a retail superstore and leisure development in north east England, built in 1988. Located just off the A66 near the A66/A19 interchange, it is split between the unity authorities of Stockton-on-Tees and Middlesbrough with the line of the Old River Tees, which runs down the middle...

.

The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band, formed in London in April 1962 by Brian Jones , Ian Stewart , Mick Jagger , and Keith Richards . Bassist Bill Wyman and drummer Charlie Watts completed the early line-up...

, iconic and internationally famous rock-band, played their first gig outside of London on 13 July 1963 at The Outlook, Corporation Road, Middlesbrough. The present Teesside Combined Law Courts now stand on the site of these premises which were built as a small department store featuring fashion, hair-styling and record sales. The small 'club' was actually a coffee and snack-bar (unlicensed) in the basement. Manchester band, The Hollies
The Hollies
The Hollies are an English pop and rock group, formed in Manchester in the early 1960s, though most of the band members are from throughout East Lancashire. Known for their distinctive vocal harmony style, they became one of the leading British groups of the 1960s and 1970s...

 appeared the same night. In 1966 both Stevie Wonder, and rock-band The Who, played a tiny 200 capacity, unlicensed club-venue called Mr McCoy's, a former Electrical wholesalers warehouse, which until 1970, stood on the site of 'The Mall' indoor shopping centre.

Sport

Middlesbrough is home to the Championship football team, Middlesbrough F.C.
Middlesbrough F.C.
Middlesbrough Football Club , also known as Boro, are an English football club based in Middlesbrough, who play in the Football League Championship. Formed in 1876, they have played at the Riverside Stadium since August 1995, their third ground since turning professional in 1889...

, owned by local haulage entrepreneur Steve Gibson. The club is based at the Riverside Stadium
Riverside Stadium
The Riverside Stadium is a football stadium in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England, which has been the home of Middlesbrough F.C. since it opened in 1995...

 on the banks of the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

, where they have played since relocating from Ayresome Park
Ayresome Park
-External links:**-References:...

 (their home for 92 years) near to Linthorpe Road in 1995. The club was a founder member of the FA Premier League in 1992
FA Premier League 1992-93
The 1992–93 FA Premier League was the first season of the Premier League, the top division of English football. The league was made up of the 22 clubs that broke away from The Football League at the end of the 1991–92 season. The new league was backed up by a five-year, £305 million deal with...

, and moved from its previous home at Ayresome Park
Ayresome Park
-External links:**-References:...

 in 1995. Having endured 128 years without a major trophy, Middlesbrough finally won the Carling Cup
2004 Football League Cup Final
The 2004 Football League Cup Final was played between Bolton Wanderers and Middlesbrough at the Millennium Stadium on 29 February 2004. Middlesbrough won the game 2-1 to clinch their first major trophy...

 under then-manager Steve McClaren
Steve McClaren
Stephen "Steve" McClaren is an English football manager and former player.McClaren was previously manager of VfL Wolfsburg in Germany between May 2010 and February 2011, having left his post at Dutch side FC Twente, with whom he won the club's first Eredivisie championship in the 2009–10 season...

, on 29 February 2004, beating Bolton Wanderers
Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is an English professional association football club based in the area of Horwich in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester. They began their current spell in the Premier League in 2001....

 2–1 in the final at the Millennium Stadium
Millennium Stadium
The Millennium Stadium is the national stadium of Wales, located in the capital, Cardiff. It is the home of the Wales national rugby union team and also frequently stages games of the Wales national football team, but is also host to many other large scale events, such as the Super Special Stage...

 in Cardiff
Cardiff
Cardiff is the capital, largest city and most populous county of Wales and the 10th largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for...

. This also qualified them for another club first: competitive European football, with the first of two consecutive UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 campaigns. The second resulted in them reaching the final, which they lost 4–0 to Sevilla of Spain. Other notable successes of the club include a string of promotions to the top flight (the most recent in 1998) and being runners-up in both domestic cup finals in 1997 (the first two cup finals they ever reached). In 1905 they made history with Britain's first £1,000 transfer when they signed Alf Common
Alf Common
Alf Common was an English footballer who played at inside forward or centre forward. He is most famous for being the first player to be transferred for a fee of £1,000 on his transfer to Middlesbrough from Sunderland in 1905.-Club career:Common played for South Hylton and Jarrow in North East...

 from local rivals Sunderland
Sunderland A.F.C.
Sunderland Association Football Club is an English association football club based in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear who currently play in the Premier League...

. Other notable players to have worn the Middlesbrough shirt include Steve Bloomer
Steve Bloomer
Steve Bloomer was an English footballer and manager who played for Derby County, Middlesbrough and England during the 1890s and 1900s. Bloomer remains a legend at Derby County and the club anthem, Steve Bloomer's Watchin', is played before every home game...

, Wilf Mannion
Wilf Mannion
Wilfred James Mannion was an English professional footballer who played as an inside forward, making over 350 senior appearances for Middlesbrough. He also played international football for England...

, George Camsell
George Camsell
George Henry Camsell was an English football player, most notably for Middlesbrough.Born in Framwellgate Moor, Durham City in 1902, Camsell played for Durham City before signing for Middlesbrough on 6 October 1925 for the sum of £500. His debut was against Nottingham Forest on 31 October 1925...

, George Hardwick
George Hardwick
George Hardwick was an English football player and coach. During his time as an active player, he played left defender for Middlesbrough...

, Brian Clough
Brian Clough
Brian Howard Clough, OBE was an English footballer and football manager. He is most notable for his success with Derby County and Nottingham Forest. His achievement of winning back-to-back European Cups with Nottingham Forest, a traditionally moderate provincial English club, is considered to be...

, Bernie Slaven
Bernie Slaven
Bernard Joseph "Bernie" Slaven is a Scottish-born former Republic of Ireland international footballer. A striker, with 162 goals in 423 league games, in a 12 year career, he also earned seven caps for the Republic of Ireland....

, Gary Pallister
Gary Pallister
Gary Andrew Pallister is an English former footballer, most noted for his nine-year spell at Manchester United from 1989 until 1998...

, Juninho
Juninho Paulista
Osvaldo Giroldo Júnior , better known as Juninho Paulista or simply Juninho, is a former Brazilian footballer...

, Fabrizio Ravanelli
Fabrizio Ravanelli
Fabrizio Ravanelli is a former international Italian football player, who won five titles with Juventus, including a Serie A championship in 1995 and a Champions League title in 1996....

 and Graeme Souness
Graeme Souness
Graeme James Souness is a Scottish former professional football player and manager.Souness was the captain of the successful Liverpool team of the early 1980s and player-manager of Rangers in the late 1980s as well as captain of the Scottish national team. He also played for Tottenham Hotspur,...

. Notable former managers include Jack Charlton
Jack Charlton
John "Jack" Charlton, OBE, DL is a former footballer and manager who played for Leeds United in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and was part of the England team who won the 1966 World Cup...

, Bruce Rioch
Bruce Rioch
Bruce David Rioch is an English-born football manager and former player. He was manager of Aalborg BK in the Danish Superliga, until his sacking on 23 October 2008....

, Lennie Lawrence
Lennie Lawrence
Robin Michael Lawrence, commonly known as Lennie Lawrence, is a British football manager who is assistant manager of Crystal Palace. He has managed a number of English clubs and one Welsh club in a coaching career spanning over 30 years...

, Bryan Robson
Bryan Robson
Bryan Robson OBE is an English football manager and a former player. He is best known for playing in midfield for Manchester United, where he was the longest serving captain in club history. He was the manager of Sheffield United, being relieved of his first team duties at the club in February 2008...

 and Steve McClaren
Steve McClaren
Stephen "Steve" McClaren is an English football manager and former player.McClaren was previously manager of VfL Wolfsburg in Germany between May 2010 and February 2011, having left his post at Dutch side FC Twente, with whom he won the club's first Eredivisie championship in the 2009–10 season...

.

Another league club, Middlesbrough Ironopolis F.C.
Middlesbrough Ironopolis F.C.
Middlesbrough Ironopolis Football Club were an English association football club which briefly played in the Football League in the 1890s. Their entire history was played out during the Victorian era in Middlesbrough....

, was briefly based in the town during the 1890s, but folded within a few years.

During the 2005–2006
FA Premier League 2005-06
The 2005–06 season of the FA Premier League began on 13 August 2005, and concluded on 7 May 2006. The season saw Chelsea F.C retain their title after defeating Manchester United 3–0 at Stamford Bridge towards the end of April...

 season, Middlesbrough was the only north eastern team involved in European competition, having qualified for the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup 2005-06
The UEFA Cup 2005–06 season was won by Sevilla FC, beating Middlesbrough FC in the final. It was the first victory for Sevilla in a European competition, and the first appearance by Middlesbrough in a European final. The final took place at Philips Stadion, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. The match was...

 through a club-record seventh-placed finish in the 2004–2005
FA Premier League 2004-05
The 2004–05 season of the FA Premier League began on 14 August 2004 and ended on 15 May 2005. Arsenal were the defending champions after going unbeaten the previous season....

 FA Premier League. Having beaten FC Basel
FC Basel
Fussball Club Basel 1893, widely known as FC Basel is a Swiss football club based in Basel. They are one of the most successful clubs in Swiss football, having won the Swiss Super League 14 times, the third most for any Swiss club. They were most successful in the late 1960s and 1970s, winning the...

 and Steaua Bucureşti 4–3 in previous rounds (coming back from three goals down on both occasions), Middlesbrough F.C. arrived at its first UEFA Cup final
2006 UEFA Cup Final
The 2006 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place at Philips Stadion, Eindhoven, on 10 May 2006. The match was contested by Middlesbrough of England and Sevilla of Spain. Sevilla won the UEFA Cup with a 4–0 win.-Match details:...

. They lost 4–0 to Sevilla FC
Sevilla FC
Sevilla Fútbol Club S.A.D. is a Spanish professional football club based in Seville, Spain that plays in the Spanish La Liga championship.They are one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football having won a 1 La Liga title, 5 Spanish "Copa del Rey" Cups, 1 Spanish Super Cup and 2 UEFA...

 at the Philips Stadion
Philips Stadion
Philips Stadion is the 35,000 seater stadium of football club, PSV Eindhoven. It was first inaugurated on 31 August 1913. The stadium is located in the Philipsdorp part of the Eindhoven borough of Strijp, close to Eindhoven's city centre....

 on 10 May 2006, although three of Sevilla's four goals were scored in the last fourteen minutes. The efforts of McClaren, however, were recognised in his appointment as Sven-Göran Eriksson
Sven-Göran Eriksson
Sven-Göran Eriksson , in Sweden commonly referred to just by his nickname Svennis, is a Swedish ex-football manager. From October 2010 to October 2011 he managed Football League Championship side Leicester City....

's successor at the helm of the England national team
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

 after that summer's World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

, albeit only remaining in the role until November the following year. He was replaced as Middlesbrough manager by long-serving defender Gareth Southgate
Gareth Southgate
Gareth Southgate in Crawley, West Sussex is a retired English footballer and ex-manager. He is known as the "Penalty Misser of '96." He served as manager of Middlesbrough from June 2006, until he was dismissed in October 2009...

, in an appointment that was controversial owing to Southgate's initial lack of the coaching qualifications required by English Premier League rules. The appointment was unsuccessfully opposed by various Football Association
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known as simply The FA, is the governing body of football in England, and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. It was formed in 1863, and is the oldest national football association...

 officials.

Speedway racing was staged at Cleveland Park Stadium from the pioneer days of 1928 until the 1990s. The post-war
Post-war
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the ending of a war and enduring as long as war does not resume. A post-war period can become an interwar period or interbellum when a war between the same parties resumes at a later date...

 team, known as The Bears, and for a time, The Teessiders, and the Teesside Tigers operated at all levels. The immediate post war Bears team, which operated between 1945 and 1948, was reputed to be a victim of its own success. The track operated for amateur speedway in the 1950s before re-opening in the Provincial League of 1961. The track closed for a spell later in the 1960s but returned in as members of the Second Division as The Teessiders. Speedway returned to the Middlesbrough area in 2006 and the team is known as the Redcar Bears
Redcar Bears
The Redcar Bears are a British Speedway team. They currently compete in the Premier League. Captain of the team is 1992 World Champion Gary Havelock. In 2007 the Bears won their first major honour, beating the Birmingham Brummies to win the Young Shield...

.

Middlesbrough is also represented nationally in Futsal
Futsal
Futsal is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller pitch and mainly played indoors. Its name is a portmanteau of the Portuguese futebol de salão and the Spanish fútbol de salón , which can be translated as "hall football" or "indoor football"...

. Middlesbrough Futsal Club
Middlesbrough Futsal Club
Middlesbrough Futsal Club is an English futsal club based in Middlesbrough in the North East of England, playing in The FA Futsal League North. The club was founded in 2007 and play their home matches in Thornaby-on-Tees a town in the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees....

 play in the FA Futsal League
FA Futsal League
The FA Futsal League began in 2008 and features 24 teams in 3 regions: North, Midlands and South. It is the highest level of futsal within England...

 North, the national championship and their home games are played in Thornaby at Thornaby Pavilion.

Education

Middlesbrough became a university town in 1992, after a concerted campaign for a distinct 'Teesside University' which had run since the 1960s. Prior to its establishment, extramural classes had been provided by the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
The University of Leeds is a British Redbrick university located in the city of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England...

 Adult Education Centre
Adult education
Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace, through 'extension' school or 'school of continuing education' . Other learning places include folk high schools, community colleges, and lifelong learning centers...

 on Harrow Road, from 1958 to 2001. Teesside University has more than 20,000 students. It dates back to 1930 as Constantine Technical College (although teaching formalities had begun in the then-new building as early as September 1929). Current departments of the university include Teesside University Business School as well as the Schools of Arts and Media, Computing, Health and Social Care, Science & Engineering and Social Sciences & Law. The university is internationally recognised as a leading institute for computer animation
Computer animation
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics. The more general term computer generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images....

 and games design and along with Arc arts centre at Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including...

, Cineworld
Cineworld
Cineworld Group plc is a cinema chain operating in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Jersey. The chain consists of 78 cinemas; 76 of which are located in the UK and one each in Ireland and Jersey. It is the second-largest cinema operator in the UK with 801 screens, and the owner of...

 cinema in Middlesbrough, and the Riverside Stadium
Riverside Stadium
The Riverside Stadium is a football stadium in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England, which has been the home of Middlesbrough F.C. since it opened in 1995...

, hosts the annual Animex International Festival of Animation
Animex
The Animex International Festival of Animation and Computer Games takes place every year in Middlesbrough in the North East of England. The festival has its roots firmly planted in the creative side of the animation and computer games industries and acts to provide animators, directors, students,...

.

The university is not alone in providing further
Further education
Further education is a term mainly used in connection with education in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is post-compulsory education , that is distinct from the education offered in universities...

 and higher education in the town. There are also a number of modern schools, colleges and sixth forms, the largest of which is Middlesbrough College
Middlesbrough College
Middlesbrough College, located on one campus at Middlehaven, Middlesbrough, England, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, is the largest college in the Tees Valley.-Admissions:...

 with 16,000 students, which once covered the four campuses of Acklam, Kirby, Longlands and Marton, including the one-time Acklam Hall until July 2008. From September 2008 Middlehaven is now the new home of further education in the town. Others include St. David's School in Acklam, Newlands School F.C.J. in Saltersgill and Macmillan Academy
Macmillan Academy
Macmillan Academy is an academy in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England.The school was founded in 1989 as the Macmillan City Technology College, one of the first of 15 City Technology Colleges established in England...

 on Stockton Road, which was recently declared the best state school in England. Two of three campuses of Cleveland College of Art and Design
Cleveland College of Art and Design
Cleveland College of Art & Design is a further and higher education art and design college, based in the north east of England. The college draws its name from the former non-metropolitan county of Cleveland, operational from 1974 to 1996.-Regional coverage:...

 are also based in Middlesbrough, with its primary site on Green Lane having been officially opened in 1960. It remains the only such college remaining in the North East, and one of only four specialist art and design further education colleges in the United Kingdom, the others being in Herefordshire
Herefordshire College of Art and Design
Hereford College of Arts is an art school based in the English West Midlands, on the cusp of the Anglo-Welsh border. It offers art and design specialist courses in both further and higher education fields....

, Leeds and Plymouth
Plymouth College of Art and Design
Plymouth College of Art - formerly called Plymouth College of Art and Design - is a specialist arts college located in Plymouth, England. It was founded as the Plymouth Drawing School in 1856,, and remains one of a few specialist art colleges in the United Kingdom. The college provides vocational...

.

Secondary schools

Middlesbrough also includes some very competitive secondary schools.
  • Acklam Grange Secondary School
    Acklam Grange Secondary School
    Acklam Grange School is a specialist college of mathematics and computing, situated at the end of Lodore Grove, Acklam, Middlesbrough. It opened in 1952 and has gone through many changes, being first Hugh Bell School, then Stainsby School, and currently Acklam Grange Secondary School.Andrea...

     is also a specialist mathematics and computing college. Its also home to the Acorn Sports Centre and Middlesbrough City Learning Centre. It opened its new school building in September 2010. In July 2011 the long time headmaster of the school, John Bate, retired, after over 2 decades of service.
  • Oakfields Community College
    Oakfields Community College
    Oakfields Community College is A New Multi-Million Pound Arts And Sports College in Acklam, Middlesbrough with effect as from September 2010 with the new building opening in September 2012 as part of Middlesbrough's £100 million Building Schools for the Future scheme.The SchoolThe school is...

     Speciality Sports And Arts College is open as of September 2010 due to be rebuilt elsewhere on site and open in September 2012, with a multi-million pound college building located in Acklam on Hall Drive opposite Acklam Hall
    Acklam Hall
    Acklam Hall is a Restoration mansion in the former village, and now suburb, of Acklam in Middlesbrough, in the unitary authority of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is a Grade I listed building....

    .
  • The King's Academy
    The King's Academy
    The King's Academy is an 11–19 secondary school and academy located in Coulby Newham in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England, serving the community of South Middlesbrough. Established in 2003, it is run by the Emmanuel Schools Foundation...

    , in Coulby Newham, was opened in 2003 by Tony Blair
    Tony Blair
    Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a former British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. He was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007...

     and is part of a group of schools built by Peter Vardy (businessman). It has a sixth form, and the total number of students the school has at the moment is 1000, with roughly 150–200 staff. It has a high pass rate at both GCSE and A-level. The academy specialises in business, but has excellent sport facilities. It is the top school in Middlesbrough for its teaching of deaf and visually impaired students.
  • The £17 million Unity City Academy
    Unity City Academy
    Unity City Academy is a city academy in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England which opened in 2002, sponsored by support services company Amey plc...

    , which replaced the Langbaurgh and Keldholme schools in east Middlesbrough, was one of the first schools to open as part of the government's £5 billion City Academy programme for failing comprehensives. In 2005, an unusually large proportion of pupils gained no GCSEs, and only 14% of pupils gained 5 A*–C grades, compared with a national average of 51%. However, in 2006 the school had new management in place, and achieved pass rates of 33%. In 2009, Unity City Academy was named the most improved school in Middlesbrough by Ofsted.
  • In 2007, Ofsted
    Ofsted
    The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is the non-ministerial government department of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools In England ....

     reported that Macmillan Academy
    Macmillan Academy
    Macmillan Academy is an academy in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England.The school was founded in 1989 as the Macmillan City Technology College, one of the first of 15 City Technology Colleges established in England...

     was grade 1, outstanding, in overall effectiveness.

Christianity

Middlesbrough is a deanery
Deanery
A Deanery is an ecclesiastical entity in both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England. A deanery is either the jurisdiction or residence of a Dean.- Catholic usage :...

 of the Archdeaconry of Cleveland
Archdeaconry of Cleveland
The Archdeaconry of Cleveland is an archdeaconry, or subdivision, of the Church of England Diocese of York in the Province of York. It stretches west from Thirsk, north to Middlesbrough, east to Whitby and south to Pickering...

, a subdivision of the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 Diocese of York
Diocese of York
The Diocese of York is an administrative division of the Church of England, part of the Province of York. It covers the city of York, the eastern part of North Yorkshire, and most of the East Riding of Yorkshire....

 in the Province of York
Province of York
The Province of York is one of two ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England, and consists of 14 dioceses which cover the northern third of England and the Isle of Man. York was elevated to an Archbishopric in 735 AD: Ecgbert of York was the first archbishop...

. It stretches west from Thirsk
Thirsk
Thirsk is a small market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. The local travel links are located a mile from the town centre to Thirsk railway station and to Durham Tees Valley Airport...

, north to Middlesbrough, east to Whitby
Whitby
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a combined maritime, mineral and tourist heritage, and is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey where Caedmon, the...

 and south to Pickering
Pickering, North Yorkshire
Pickering is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Ryedale district of the county of North Yorkshire, England, on the border of the North York Moors National Park. It sits at the foot of the Moors, overlooking the Vale of Pickering to the south...

.

Middlesbrough is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough
Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough is a Latin Rite Roman Catholic diocese based in Middlesbrough, England and is part of the province of Liverpool. It was founded on 20 December 1878, with the splitting of the Diocese of Beverley which had covered all of Yorkshire...

, which was created on 20 December 1878 from the Diocese of Beverley
Diocese of Beverley
The Diocese of Beverley is an historical diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in England. It took its name after the town of Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The diocese was established in 1850 and was replaced by two dioceses in 1878...

. Middlesbrough is home to the Mother-Church of the diocese, St. Mary's Cathedral, which is located in the suburb of Coulby Newham. The present bishop is the Right Reverend Terence Patrick Drainey, 7th Bishop of Middlesbrough, who was ordained on Friday 25 January 2008.

St. Stephen's, Middlesbrough, near the university campus, is an evangelical congregation, worshipping in the style of the Church of England, but which is in the Evangelical Connexion.

Islam

The Islamic community is represented in several mosques in Middlesbrough. Muslim sailors visited Middlesbrough from about 1890. and, in 1961, Azzam Din opened the first Halal butcher’s shop. The first mosque was a house in Grange Road in 1962. The Al-Madina Jamia Mosque, on Waterloo Road, the Dar ul Islam Central Mosque, on Southfield Road, and the Abu Bakr Mosque & Community Centre, which is on Park Road North, are among the best known mosques in Middlesbrough today.

Sikhism

The Sikh community established their first Temple, or Gurdwara, in Milton Street, in 1967. After a time in Southfield Road, the centre is now in Lorne Street and was opened in 1990.

Hinduism

There is a Hindu Cultural Centre in Westbourne Road, North Ormesby, which was opened in 1990.

Television and filmography

Middlesbrough has featured in many television programmes, including The Fast Show
The Fast Show
The Fast Show, known as Brilliant in the US, was a BBC comedy sketch show programme that ran for three series from 1994 to 1997 with a special Last Fast Show Ever in 2000. The show's central performers were Paul Whitehouse, Charlie Higson, Simon Day, Mark Williams, John Thomson, Arabella Weir and...

, Steel River Blues
Steel River Blues
Steel River Blues is a British television drama serial first broadcast in September 2004 on ITV. Produced by Ken Horn, it was based on the working and private lives of a group of firefighters in Middlesbrough...

, Spender
Spender
Spender is a BBC television drama set in Newcastle upon Tyne, written by Ian La Frenais and Jimmy Nail, who also starred. The series was produced by Martin McKeand . The series was broadcast on BBC between 1991 and 1993...

, Play for Today
Play for Today
Play for Today is a British television anthology drama series, produced by the BBC and transmitted on BBC1 from 1970 to 1984. During the run, more than three hundred programmes, featuring original television plays, and adaptations of stage plays and novels, were transmitted...

(The Black Stuff; latterly the drama Boys from the Blackstuff
Boys from the Blackstuff
Boys from the Blackstuff is a British television drama series of five episodes, originally transmitted from 10 October to 7 November 1982 on BBC2....

) and Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Auf Wiedersehen, Pet is a British comedy-drama television programme about seven English migrant construction workers. In the first series, the men live and work on a building site in Düsseldorf....

.

Some of the Movie
Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot is a 2000 British drama film written by Lee Hall and directed by Stephen Daldry. Set in the fictional town of "Everington" in the real County Durham, UK, it stars Jamie Bell as 11-year-old Billy, an aspiring dancer, Gary Lewis as his coal miner father, Jamie Draven as Billy's older...

 was filmed on the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge.

Tyne Tees Television
Tyne Tees Television
Tyne Tees Television is the ITV television franchise for North East England and parts of North Yorkshire. As of 2009, it forms part of a non-franchise ITV Tyne Tees & Border region, shared with the ITV Border region...

 used to broadcast its news for the South regions from its studios located at the base of Corporation House (now Walkabout bar), before moving to its new premises in Billingham
Billingham
Billingham is a town in the unitary authority of Stockton on Tees, in north east England, with a population of 35,765 . It was founded circa 650 by a group of Saxons known as Billa's people, which is where the name Billingham is thought to have originated...

.

On 17 December 2007, at about 1 p.m. local time, the American television network NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 broadcast live from the Transporter Bridge, where presenter Ann Curry
Ann Curry
Ann Curry is an American television news journalist and co-anchor on NBC's morning television program Today. She is the former news anchor on Today, a role she began in March 1997, and was the host of Dateline NBC from 2005-2011.Curry is a Board Member at the IWMF .-Biography:Curry was born in...

 performed a bungee jump above the river, as part of a fundraising effort for charities such as Save the Children
Save the Children
Save the Children is an internationally active non-governmental organization that enforces children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries...

 and United Way. Despite advance publicity in the Evening Gazette and the BBC, the occasion did not attract many spectators other than the members of the UK Bungee Club supervising the jump, and the recovery party in a river boat. Despite recent adverse publicity for the town, including a poll conducted by a Channel 4
Channel 4
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...

 television programme,
Location, Location, Location
Location, Location, Location
Location, Location, Location is a Channel 4 property programme, presented by Kirstie Allsopp and Phil Spencer and produced by IWC Media, part of the RDF Media Group. The reality show follows Kirstie and Phil as they try to find the perfect home for a different set of buyers each week. It first...

, making use of criteria questioned by the mayor Ray Mallon, which listed Middlesbrough as the country's supposed 'worst place to live' in 2007, no local politicians attempted to capitalise on the occasion.

In May 2008 Middlesbrough was chosen as one of the sites in the BBC’s Public Space Broadcasting Project. Like other towns participating in the project, Middlesbrough was offered a large 27 m² (290.6 sq ft) television screen by the BBC and the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games. The screen was installed on 11 July 2008 and is located at the western end of Centre Square.

In November 2009, the mima art gallery was used by the presenters of Top Gear as part of a challenge. The challenge was to see if car exhibits would be more popular than normal art.

Middlesbrough is also the home of the award-winning series of short films called Cold Up North. Made by local people, with no formal training and with local bands providing the soundtrack, they have won two Best Film Awards at film festivals, two awards on YouTube, numerous awards and accolades from Middlesbrough Council and recently worked with the North East Film Council. There is a story attached to the film crew that they once received an e mail from Sir Ridley Scott (who has connections to the area) complimenting their work and encouraging them into the future. Some of their short films are available on YouTube.

Notable people

The world-famous explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook
James Cook
Captain James Cook, FRS, RN was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer who ultimately rose to the rank of captain in the Royal Navy...

 was born in Marton
Marton, Middlesbrough
Marton — officially Marton-in-Cleveland — was a village in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which is now within the town boundaries of Middlesbrough, in the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. Originally, the parish of Marton extended down to the River...

, which is now a suburb in the south-east of Middlesbrough.
Other famous people from Middlesbrough include:
  • Sports
    • Rob Smedley
      Rob Smedley
      Rob Smedley is a race engineer for Formula One driver Felipe Massa at Scuderia Ferrari....

      , Formula One race engineer for Felipe Massa
      Felipe Massa
      Felipe Massa is a Brazilian Formula One racing driver. He finished second in the Drivers' World Championship, and is under contract to race for Scuderia Ferrari until the end of the season.-Early years:...

    • Footballers Brian Clough
      Brian Clough
      Brian Howard Clough, OBE was an English footballer and football manager. He is most notable for his success with Derby County and Nottingham Forest. His achievement of winning back-to-back European Cups with Nottingham Forest, a traditionally moderate provincial English club, is considered to be...

      , Wilf Mannion
      Wilf Mannion
      Wilfred James Mannion was an English professional footballer who played as an inside forward, making over 350 senior appearances for Middlesbrough. He also played international football for England...

      , Jacky Carr
      Jacky Carr
      John "Jackie" Carr was an English professional footballer. He made 449 league appearances for Middlesbrough, scoring 81 times. He was also capped twice for England.-Club career:...

      , Don Revie
      Don Revie
      Donald George 'Don' Revie, OBE, , was an English footballer who played for Leicester City, Hull City, Sunderland, Manchester City and Leeds United as a deep-lying centre forward. After managing Leeds United he managed England from 1974 until 1977...

      , Alan Peacock
      Alan Peacock
      Alan Peacock is a former English footballer.He spent the majority of his career at Middlesbrough, also playing for Leeds United and Plymouth Argyle. He joined Middlesbrough in 1954 and became a regular in the side in 1958 alongside Brian Clough. Clough scored the majority of the goals, partly due...

      , Peter Beagrie
      Peter Beagrie
      Peter Sidney Beagrie is a former English footballer who played as a left-winger. He played for ten different clubs at professional level notably Everton, Manchester City, Bradford City and Scunthorpe United...

      , Chris Kamara
      Chris Kamara
      Chris Kamara is a retired English footballer. He ended his playing career in 1995 and last managed a club in 1998. He is now a presenter and football analyst on Sky Sports.-Playing career:...

      , Mark Proctor
      Mark Proctor (footballer)
      Mark Proctor is an English former footballer and former football manager. He is currently first team coach of Middlesbrough.-Playing career:...

      , Stuart Ripley
      Stuart Ripley
      Stuart Edward Ripley is a retired English footballer, who played as a winger.With speed as his main asset, he also scored numerous goals, especially in his early career at Middlesbrough.-Football career:...

      , Gary Gill
      Gary Gill
      Gary Gill is an English retired footballer who now co-hosts the Middlesbrough match coverage on BBC Tees with Alister Brownlee, and Mark Drury. Gill started his playing days at his hometown club Middlesbrough but his appearances were limited as he struggled with injuries...

      , Phil Stamp
      Phil Stamp
      Philip Lawrence "Phil" Stamp is an English football midfielder. He made his first-team league debut, aged 17 for Middlesbrough on 10 October 1993, in a 2–0 defeat to Watford. He started for Middlesbrough in the 1997 FA Cup Final...

      , Keith Houchen
      Keith Houchen
      Keith Morton Houchen is an English former footballer and football manager. A forward, he score 162 goals in 509 league games....

       and Jonathan Woodgate
      Jonathan Woodgate
      Jonathan Simon Woodgate is an English footballer who plays for Stoke City in the Premier League.Woodgate started his football career at Leeds United where he established himself in the starting eleven. However, Woodgate was sold to Newcastle United for £9 million in January 2003. He impressed...

      , as well as current England
      England national football team
      The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

       players Stewart Downing
      Stewart Downing
      Stewart Downing is an English footballer who plays for Liverpool and the England national team. Primarily a winger, Downing has previously played for Aston Villa, Middlesbrough and Sunderland.-Middlesbrough:...

       and Matt Jarvis.
    • Middlesbrough Football Club Chairman Steve Gibson
    • Rugby union players Rory Underwood
      Rory Underwood
      Rory Underwood MBE is a former English rugby union footballer who played wing for, most notably, Leicester Tigers and Bedford. He represented England and the British Lions and is a former Royal Air Force pilot....

       and Alan Old
      Alan Old
      Alan Gerald Bernard Old is an English Rugby Union player who had 16 caps for England.Old made his debut for England against Wales in 1972 and made a further 15 appearances with his final one being against France in 1978. His 16 caps included only 4 wins, but these were against New Zealand, South...

    • Cricketers Liam Plunkett
      Liam Plunkett
      Liam Edward Plunkett is an English cricketer, who plays for Durham and England. In the 2005 season he was Durham's leading first-class wicket-taker, with 51 wickets at a bowling average of 30.84, including eight for 88 in his first game of the season against Leicestershire.-Test cricket:Plunkett...

      , Geoff Cook
      Geoff Cook
      Geoff Cook is a former English cricketer, who played in seven Tests and six ODIs from 1981 to 1983...

      , Bill Athey
      Bill Athey
      Charles William Jeffrey Athey was an English first-class cricketer, who played for England, and first class cricket for Gloucestershire, Yorkshire and Sussex; he also played a solitary one-day game for Worcestershire. His bulldog spirit was exemplified by the Union Jack tattooed on his arm...

       and Chris Old
      Chris Old
      Chris Old is an English former cricketer, who played in forty six Tests and thirty two ODIs from 1972 to 1981....

    • Boxer Paul Truscott
      Paul Truscott
      Paul Truscott is an English professional boxer from Middlesbrough. He is a former Commonwealth featherweight champion.-Early career:Truscott made his professional debut in June 2006 at the Winter Gardens in Blackpool, with a win over experienced journeyman Billy Smith...

    • Darts players Glenn Moody
      Glenn Moody
      Glenn Moody is an English darts player.Glenn had tried to qualify for the Lakeside nine times before finding success in the 2008 BDO World Darts Championship. He has been described as a "geek" by the press but he is received warmly by the crowds...

       and Colin Osborne
      Colin Osborne
      Colin Osborne is an English darts player currently playing in Professional Darts Corporation events.-Darts career:Osborne has won two PDC Pro Tour events and he also managed to hit two perfect nine dart finishes in 2005...

    • Billiards player Mike Russell
    • Olympic swimmer Jack Hatfield
      Jack Hatfield
      John Gatenby "Jack" Hatfield was a competitive swimmer, who won medals for Great Britain in the early Olympic Games....

       and Commonwealth Games
      Commonwealth Games
      The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

       swimmer Alyson Jones
      Alyson Jones
      Dr. Alyson Jones is a British GP and former swimming champion. She was born in Middlesbrough in North-East England and attended local schools. She began training as a competitive swimmer at local clubs such as Eston and Hartlepool, winning several titles in the Northumberland and Durham Swimming...

    • Olympic cyclist Chris Newton
      Chris Newton
      Christopher Malcolm Newton is a successful road and track racing cyclist. Newton is a multiple world champion and Olympian.-Biography:Newton is an alumnus of the University of Teesside in Middlesbrough...

    • Former British long jump
      Long jump
      The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point...

       record holding athlete Chris Tomlinson
      Chris Tomlinson
      Christopher George Tomlinson is an English long jumper.Tomlinson began competing for Middlesbrough AC at the age of 10, mostly over 100m and 200m. He attended Nunthorpe Secondary School and to this day holds many of its year group records for triple and long jump...

    • Former Premiership referee Jeff Winter
      Jeff Winter
      Jeff Winter is a former FA Premier League referee from Middlesbrough in the north-east of England.-Refereeing career:Winter took charge of the 2004 FA Cup Final between Manchester United and Millwall, his final game as a professional referee before retirement...

    • Junior World and European Track Cycling Champion David Daniell
      David Daniell (cyclist)
      David Daniell is an English competitive cyclist, specialising in track sprinting. A member of the British Cycling Olympic Academy, he is a Junior World Team Sprint Champion for the second year running....

    • The Football Association's Director of Communications Adrian Bevington
      Adrian Bevington
      Adrian Bevington is the director of communications for the Football Association , a position he has held since 2004.-Career:...


  • The Arts
    • Models Jade McSorley
      Jade McSorley
      Jade McSorley is a British female model, most notable for placing third on the fifth series of Britain's Next Top Model. McSorley's place in the competition sparked major media controversy, as she had previously suffered with the eating disorder, anorexia.-Britain's Next Top Model:McSorley first...

       and Preeti Desai
      Preeti Desai
      Preeti Desai is a Indian Actress who was Miss Great Britain 2006. A British Indian, she made history by becoming the first British woman of Indian origin to ever win the title. She speaks English, Gujarati and Hindi and is based in London, England and Mumbai, India.-Early life and...

      , who was Miss Great Britain 2006
    • Comedians Dave Morris
      Dave Morris (comedian)
      Dave Morris was a music hall comedian who made a successful transition to radio and television. He was born on 5 July 1896, son of Samuel Morris and Lily Reubens. Samuel, a tailor, lived at 110 Wilson Street, Middlesbrough....

      , Bob Mortimer
      Bob Mortimer
      Robert "Bob" Renwick Mortimer is an English comedian and actor, who is best known for his double act with Vic Reeves...

      , Roy Chubby Brown and Kevin Connelly
      Kevin Connelly
      Kevin Connelly was born in Middlesbrough, England. He is an impressionist comedian, and after dinner speaker and is probably most famous for his role on the popular BBC television programme 'Dead Ringers'....

    • Musicians Cyril Smith
      Cyril Smith (pianist)
      Cyril James Smith OBE was a virtuoso concert pianist of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, and a piano teacher.-Personal life:...

      , Chris Rea
      Chris Rea
      Chris Rea is an English singer-songwriter, recognisable for his distinctive, husky voice and slide guitar playing. The British Hit Singles & Albums stated that Rea was "one of the most popular UK singer-songwriters of the late 1980s. He was already a major European star by the time he finally...

      , Paul Rodgers
      Paul Rodgers
      Paul Bernard Rodgers is an English rock singer-songwriter, best known for his success in the 1970s as a member of Free and Bad Company. After stints in two less successful bands in the 1980s and early 1990s, The Firm and The Law, he became a solo artist. He has recently toured and recorded with...

      , Micky Moody
      Micky Moody
      Michael Joseph "Micky" Moody is an English guitarist, and a former member of the rock bands Juicy Lucy and Whitesnake. He was also a founder-member of Snafu. Together with his former Whitesnake colleague Bernie Marsden he founded the Moody Marsden Band, and later, The Snakes...

      , Alistair Griffin
      Alistair Griffin
      Alistair Richard Griffin is an English singer/songwriter and musician. Already an established songwriter, he first became famous as a solo artist through his appearances on the BBC television show Fame Academy 2 in 2003, where he was "spotted" and championed by Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees...

      , Vin Garbutt
      Vin Garbutt
      Vin Garbutt , though second generation Irish, is an English folk singer and songwriter...

      , Chris Corner
      Chris Corner
      Chris Corner is an English musician and songwriter. He was a founding member of the band Sneaker Pimps and is now active with the IAMX solo project.He has been living in Berlin since 2006, where he has set up his new IAMX studio for music and visual work....

       and Stephen Mark Barchan
      Stephen Mark Barchan
      Stephen Mark Barchan is a British composer and conductor.-Career:Barchan studied composition with Richard Steinitz and Edwin Roxburgh .Organisations who have presented his music include London Sinfonietta Collective, LSO Discovery, Park Lane...

    • Actors Wendy Richard
      Wendy Richard
      Wendy Richard, MBE was an English actress best known for playing Miss Brahms in Are You Being Served? and Pauline Fowler in EastEnders...

      , Thelma Barlow
      Thelma Barlow
      Thelma Barlow is an English television actress and writer, most famous for her roles as Mavis Wilton in the long-running ITV soap opera Coronation Street and as Dolly Bellfield in the sitcom Dinnerladies....

      , Christopher Quinten
      Christopher Quinten
      Christopher Quinten is a British actor, best known for his role as Brian Tilsley on Coronation Street, which he played from 1978 to 1989.-Career:...

      , Elizabeth Carling
      Elizabeth Carling
      Elizabeth Carling is an English actress and singer best known for her performances in Boon, Goodnight Sweetheart, Barbara, and Casualty...

      , Mark Benton
      Mark Benton
      Mark Benton is an English actor, perhaps most famous for his roles as Eddie in Early Doors and Howard in Northern Lights.-Life and career:Benton was born in Guisborough, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England....

      , Jerry Desmonde
      Jerry Desmonde
      Jerry Desmonde was an English stage musical, film, and television actor principally in comedies and drama. He is probably best known as a straight man to Norman Wisdom.Jerry is sometimes credited as Jerry Desmond....

      , Jamie Parker
      Jamie Parker
      Jamie Parker is an English actor and singer.-Biography:He trained in acting at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art , from which he graduated in 2002.Parker originated the role of Scripps in Alan Bennett's play The History Boys...

       and Neil Grainger
      Neil Grainger
      Neil Grainger is an English actor and comedian. Appearing in television and theatre, Grainger first rose to prominence after appearing as a main character in the soap opera Crossroads. As well as acting, Grainger performs stand-up comedy and co-runs a comedy club in London.- Early life and...

      .
    • Writers Ann Jellicoe
      Ann Jellicoe
      Ann Jellicoe is a British actor, theatre director and playwright. Although her work has covered many areas of theatre and film, she is best known for "pushing the envelope" of the stage play, devising new forms which challenge and delight unconventional audiences...

       – playwright and theatre director, novelists Ernest William Hornung
      Ernest William Hornung
      Ernest William Hornung , known as Willie, was an English author, most famous for writing the Raffles series of novels about a gentleman thief in late Victorian London....

      , Richard Milward
      Richard Milward
      Richard Milward is an English writer born in Middlesbrough, in 1984. His debut novel Apples was published by Faber and Faber in 2007. He has also recently published his 2nd novel Ten Storey Love Song....

       and Wally K Daly, TV and radio scriptwriter
    • Visual artists Fred Appleyard
      Fred Appleyard
      Fred Appleyard was a British landscape artist. He had 41 works exhibited during his lifetime by the Royal Academy and painted the mural 'Spring driving out Winter' in the Academy Restaurant....

      , Robert Nixon
      Robert Nixon (artist)
      Robert Nixon was an artist who worked on several British comics.Bob was born in South Bank, Middlesbrough, in North Yorkshire on July 7, 1939. He was the fifth of six children born to Arthur Nixon and Phylis Thompson. Robert's mother Phylis worked as a housewife while his father worked locally...

      , Mackenzie Thorpe
      Mackenzie Thorpe
      Mackenzie Thorpe is a British artist. Born as the first of seven children into the post-war industrial town, Thorpe initially took on work in the shipyards, such were his familial origins...

      , Chris Dooks
      Chris Dooks
      Chris Dooks is a Scottish-based artist and musician.-Biography:Dooks was born in Middlesbrough and studied sound design and film first there from 1989–1991 and later at the Edinburgh College of Art, from 1991–1994, studying film and video art...

       and William Tillyer
      William Tillyer
      William Tillyer is an English artist. His work has been shown frequently in London and New York since 1970.He studied art in his home town from 1956-9, moving south to London in the 1960s to study at the Slade School of Art. It was there where he encountered William Coldstream and Anthony Gross,...

    • Author, educator, historian and lecturer Paul C. Doherty
    • Roman Catholic and Dominican priest, theologian and philosopher, Herbert McCabe
      Herbert McCabe
      Herbert McCabe was an English Dominican priest, theologian and philosopher, who was born in Middlesbrough in the North Riding of Yorkshire. After studying chemistry and philosophy at Manchester University, he joined the Dominicans in 1949, where under Victor White he began his life-long study of...


  • Other Entertainers:
    • Magician Paul Daniels
      Paul Daniels
      Paul Daniels, born Newton Edward Daniels on 6 April 1938, is a British magician and television performer. He achieved international fame through his television series The Paul Daniels Magic Show, which ran on the BBC from 1979 to 1994.-Early life:...

    • TV Presenter Kirsten O'Brien
      Kirsten O'Brien
      Kirsten O'Brien is an English television presenter and stand-up comic.She is known for presenting SMart, and presented Smile and Totally Doctor Who alongside Barney Harwood on CBBC....

    • X Factor
      The X Factor (UK)
      The X Factor is a British television music competition to find new singing talent. Created by Simon Cowell, it began in September 2004 and is contested by aspiring singers drawn from public auditions. It is the originator of the international X Factor franchise. The seven series of the show to date...

      third place contestants Journey South
      Journey South
      Journey South are an English singing duo, consisting of brothers Andy and Carl Pemberton. They are originally from Middlesbrough, Teesside, and performed in pubs and clubs throughout the United Kingdom for over eight years, prior to achieving third place on the second UK series of television talent...

    • X Factor
      The X Factor (UK)
      The X Factor is a British television music competition to find new singing talent. Created by Simon Cowell, it began in September 2004 and is contested by aspiring singers drawn from public auditions. It is the originator of the international X Factor franchise. The seven series of the show to date...

      finalist Amelia Lily
    • Any Dream Will Do
      Any Dream Will Do
      Any Dream Will Do may refer to:*"Any Dream Will Do" , from the musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice...

       third place contestant Lewis Bradley
      Lewis Bradley
      Lewis Bradley is a British musical theatre actor, who came third place in the BBC reality talent show Any Dream Will Do. He was later chosen by Andrew Lloyd Webber to understudy the winning role of Joseph....

    • Magician Pete Firman
      Pete Firman
      Pete Firman is an English magician and television presenter.He has appeared in British television magic shows on Channel 4, Five, and Sky1. He is also the presenter of two gameshows on CBBC: Stake Out and Wait For It..!....

    • Magician/Comedian John Archer


Other eminent sons and daughters of Middlesbrough and its environs include Martin Narey
Martin Narey
Martin Narey was the Chief Executive Officer of Barnardo's from October 2005 before stepping down in January 2011 to spend more time with his family...

 (1955–present), chief executive of Barnardo's, Professor Sir Liam Donaldson
Liam Donaldson
Sir Liam Joseph Donaldson was the Chief Medical Officer for England, the 15th occupant of the post since it was established in 1855...

, Chief Medical Officer for England, E. W. Hornung
Ernest William Hornung
Ernest William Hornung , known as Willie, was an English author, most famous for writing the Raffles series of novels about a gentleman thief in late Victorian London....

, the creator of the gentleman-crook Raffles (who was fluent in three Yorkshire dialects), and Naomi Jacob
Naomi Jacob
Naomi Eleanor Clare Jacob was an English author, actress and broadcaster.-Biography:...

 novelist. Florence Easton
Florence Easton
Florence Easton was a popular English dramatic soprano in the early 20th century. She was one of the most versatile singers of all time. She sang more than 100 parts, covering a wide range of styles and periods, from Mozart, Meyerbeer, Gounod, Verdi, Wagner, Puccini, Strauss, Schreker and Krenek...

, the Wagnerian soprano at the New York Met and Cyril Smith
Cyril Smith (pianist)
Cyril James Smith OBE was a virtuoso concert pianist of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, and a piano teacher.-Personal life:...

 (1909–1974), the concert pianist, were also natives. The famous M.P. Ellen Wilkinson
Ellen Wilkinson
Ellen Cicely Wilkinson was the Labour Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough and later for Jarrow on Tyneside. She was one of the first women in Britain to be elected as a Member of Parliament .- History :...

 wrote a novel Clash (1929) which paints a very positive picture of ‘Shireport’ (Middlesbrough). The classic study, At The Works (1907), by Florence Bell
Florence Bell
Competitor for CanadaFlorence Jane Bell was a Canadian track and field athlete who competed mainly in the 100 metres.-Career:...

 (1851–1930), gives a striking picture of the area at the turn-of-the-century. She also edited the letters of her stepdaughter Gertrude Bell
Gertrude Bell
Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, CBE was an English writer, traveller, political officer, administrator, and archaeologist who explored, mapped, and became highly influential to British imperial policy-making due to her extensive travels in Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Arabia. Along...

 (1868–1926), which has been continuously in print since 1927. Pat Barker
Pat Barker
Pat Barker CBE, FRSL is an English writer and novelist. She has won many awards for her fiction, which centres around themes of memory, trauma, survival and recovery. Her work is described as direct, blunt and plainspoken.-Personal life:...

's debut novel
Union Street was set on the thoroughfare of the same name in the town, its central theme of prostitution still associated with the area around it to this day. The Jonny Briggs series of books, written by Joan Eadington
Joan Eadington
Joan Eadington is an author from the United Kingdom best known for her books for children. Eadington lived in Middlesbrough and several of her books are set there.-Works:Eadington has written a number of books for children from the 1970s onwards...

 (and later to become a BBC Children's TV series
Jonny Briggs
Jonny Briggs is a Children's BBC television programme first broadcast in 1985. It revolves around the exploits of a young boy, the eponymous hero, his pet dog, Razzle, and his eccentric family members: Mam and Dad, older sister Rita and older brothers Albert and Humph . Another older sister is...

 of the same name, was also based in the town.

Ford Madox Ford
Ford Madox Ford
Ford Madox Ford was an English novelist, poet, critic and editor whose journals, The English Review and The Transatlantic Review, were instrumental in the development of early 20th-century English literature...

 (1873–1939) was billeted in Eston
Eston
Eston is a town within the Unitary Authority of Redcar and Cleveland, England. Within the Middlesbrough agglomeration it falls inside the Greater Eston initiative...

 during the Great War (1914–18) and his great novel sequence Parade's End is partly set in Busby Hall, Carlton-in-Cleveland
Carlton, Hambleton
Carlton-in-Cleveland is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England, on the edge of the North York Moors National Park. It is about 12 miles south of Middlesbrough. According to the 2001 census, it had a population of 301...

.

Adrian 'Six Medals' Warburton
Adrian Warburton
Wing Commander Adrian "Warby" Warburton DSO & Bar, DFC & Two Bars was a Royal Air Force pilot during World War II. He became legendary in the RAF for his role in the defence of Malta...

, air photographer, was played by Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
Sir Alec Guinness, CH, CBE was an English actor. He was featured in several of the Ealing Comedies, including Kind Hearts and Coronets in which he played eight different characters. He later won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Colonel Nicholson in The Bridge on the River Kwai...

 in
'Malta Story
Malta Story
Malta Story is a 1953 British war film based on the heroic defence of Malta, the island itself, its people and the RAF aviators who fought to defend it...

.

The great model maker Richard Old
Richard Old
Richard Old , was an English woodcraftsman and prolific model maker, specialising in fretwork. He was born in Staithes, though for most of his life he lived at 6 Ruby Street in Middlesbrough and it was in that small terraced house that he made all of the models - over 750 of them - for which he is...

 (1856–1932) resided for most of his life at 6 Ruby Street.

Twin towns

Middlesbrough is twinned with the following places:
Middlesboro, Kentucky, USA Dunkirk, France, since 12 April 1976 Oberhausen
Oberhausen
Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen . The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. It is also well known for the...

, Germany, since 1974 Masvingo
Masvingo
Masvingo is a town in south-eastern Zimbabwe and the capital of Masvingo Province. The town is close to Great Zimbabwe, the national monument from which the country takes its name.- History :...

, Zimbabwe, since 1990

Further Reading

Yasumoto, Minoru. The Rise of a Victorian Ironopolis: Middlesbrough and Regional Industrialization. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2011. ISBN 9781843836339.

External links

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