Melon
Overview
 
This list of melons includes members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
The plant family Cucurbitaceae consists of various squashes, melons, and gourds, including crops such as cucumber, pumpkins, luffas, and watermelons...

 with edible, fleshy fruit e.g. gourds or cucurbits. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit. Many different cultivars have been produced, particularly of muskmelon
Muskmelon
Muskmelon is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties. These include smooth skinned varieties such as honeydew, crenshaw and casaba, and different netted cultivars...

s.
Although the melon is a botanical fruit, some varieties may be considered culinary vegetables rather than fruits.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
This list of melons includes members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
The plant family Cucurbitaceae consists of various squashes, melons, and gourds, including crops such as cucumber, pumpkins, luffas, and watermelons...

 with edible, fleshy fruit e.g. gourds or cucurbits. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit. Many different cultivars have been produced, particularly of muskmelon
Muskmelon
Muskmelon is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties. These include smooth skinned varieties such as honeydew, crenshaw and casaba, and different netted cultivars...

s.
Although the melon is a botanical fruit, some varieties may be considered culinary vegetables rather than fruits. The word melon derives from Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 melopepo, which is the latinization
Latinisation (literature)
Latinisation is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style. It is commonly met with for historical personal names, with toponyms, or for the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than Romanisation, which is the writing of a word in the Latin alphabet...

 of the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 μηλοπέπων (mēlopepon), meaning "melon", itself a compound of μῆλον (mēlon), "apple" + πέπων (pepōn), amongst others "a kind of gourd or melon".

History

Melons originated in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

, but they gradually began to appear in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 toward the end of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

. Melons were among the earliest plants to be domesticated in both the Old
Old World
The Old World consists of those parts of the world known to classical antiquity and the European Middle Ages. It is used in the context of, and contrast with, the "New World" ....

 and New World
New World
The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

s. Early American settlers are recorded as growing honeydew
Honeydew (melon)
Honeydew is a cultivar group of the muskmelon, Cucumis melo Inodorus group, which includes crenshaw, casaba, Persian, winter, and other mixed melons.-Characteristics:...

 and casaba melons as early as the 1600s.

Melons by genus

Benincasa

  • Winter melon
    Winter melon
    The winter melon, also called white gourd, ash gourd, or "fuzzy melon", is a vine grown for its very large fruit, eaten as a vegetable when mature. It is the only member of the genus Benincasa. The fruit is fuzzy when young. The immature melon has thick white flesh that is sweet when eaten...

     (B. hispida) is the only member of the genus Benincasa. The mature winter melon is a culinary vegetable, widely used in Asia
    Asia
    Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

     and India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    . The immature melons are used as a culinary fruit, for example to make a distinctive fruit drink.

Citrullus
Citrullus
Citrullus is a small genus of desert vines, among which Citrullus lanatus is an important crop.- Classifications of Citrullus :A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms- Citroides Group :...

  • Egusi
    Egusi
    Egusi seeds are the fat- and protein-rich seeds of certain cucurbitaceous plants. Authorities disagree whether the word is used more properly for the seeds of the colocynth, those of a particular large-seeded variety of the watermelon, or generically for those of any cucurbitaceous plant...

     (C. lanatus) is a wild melon, identical in appearance to the watermelon
    Watermelon
    Watermelon is a vine-like flowering plant originally from southern Africa. Its fruit, which is also called watermelon, is a special kind referred to by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind and fleshy center...

    . The flesh is inedible, but the seeds are a valuable food source in Africa
    Africa
    Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

    . Other species that have the same culinary role, and that are also called egusi include Cucumeropsis mannii
    Cucumeropsis mannii
    Cucumeropsis mannii is a species of melon native to tropical Africa west of the Great Rift Valley, where it is grown for food and as a source of oil. Its common names include egusi in Yoruba and agushi in Hausa. In English it is known as Mann's cucumeropsis and white-seed melon. It produces...

    and Lagenaria sicerari.
  • Watermelon (C. lanatus) originated in Africa, where evidence indicates that it has been cultivated for over 4,000 years. It is a popular summer fruit in all parts of the world.

Cucumis
Cucumis
Cucumis is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the Cucurbitaceae family which includes the cucumber, true melons, the horned melon, and Cucumis anguria, the West Indian gherkin...

Melons in genus Cucumis
Cucumis
Cucumis is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the Cucurbitaceae family which includes the cucumber, true melons, the horned melon, and Cucumis anguria, the West Indian gherkin...

are culinary fruits, and include the majority of culinary melons.
  • Horned melon
    Horned melon
    The horned melon , also called African horned cucumber or melon, jelly melon, hedged gourd, English tomato, melano, kiwano, or cherie, is an annual vine in the cucumber and melon family. It is considered to be the ancestor of the other cultivated melons...

     (C. metuliferus), a traditional food plant in Africa with distinctive spikes. Now grown in California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    , Chile
    Chile
    Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

    , Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     and New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

     as well.
  • Muskmelon
    Muskmelon
    Muskmelon is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties. These include smooth skinned varieties such as honeydew, crenshaw and casaba, and different netted cultivars...

     (C. melo)
    • C. melo cantalupensis, with skin that is rough and warty, not netted.
      • The Europe
        Europe
        Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

        an cantaloupe
        Cantaloupe
        "Rockmelon" redirects here, for the band see Rockmelons. See also Cantaloupe .Cantaloupe refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae which includes nearly all melons and squashes. Cantaloupes range in size from...

        , with lightly ribbed, pale green skin, was domesticated in the 18th century, in Cantalupo, Italy
        Italy
        Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

        , by the pope
        Pope
        The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

        's gardener. Varieties include the French Charentais and the Burpee Seeds
        Burpee Seeds
        Burpee Seeds, officially W. Atlee Burpee & Co., is a seed company that was founded by Washington Atlee Burpee in 1876.-History:The company first sold garden seeds, farm supplies, tools, poultry and hogs. The direction of the company began to change with the death of its founder in 1915 when his...

         hybrid Netted Gem, introduced in the 19th century. The Yubari King is a highly prized Japanese cantaloupe
        Cantaloupe
        "Rockmelon" redirects here, for the band see Rockmelons. See also Cantaloupe .Cantaloupe refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae which includes nearly all melons and squashes. Cantaloupes range in size from...

         cultivar
        Cultivar
        A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

        .
      • The Persian melon
        Persian melon
        Persian melon, binomial name cucumis melo, is a type of melon. It is orange in color and has a strongly netted, unridged rind. It is also known as the "Patelquat". These are most commonly found wild in all western countries and in its native Iran...

         resemble a large cantaloupe
        Cantaloupe
        "Rockmelon" redirects here, for the band see Rockmelons. See also Cantaloupe .Cantaloupe refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae which includes nearly all melons and squashes. Cantaloupes range in size from...

         with a darker green rind
        Peel (fruit)
        Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but...

         and a finer netting.
    • C. melo inodorus, or winter melon
      Winter melon
      The winter melon, also called white gourd, ash gourd, or "fuzzy melon", is a vine grown for its very large fruit, eaten as a vegetable when mature. It is the only member of the genus Benincasa. The fruit is fuzzy when young. The immature melon has thick white flesh that is sweet when eaten...

      s
      • Canary melon
        Canary melon
        The Canary melon is a large, bright-yellow melon with a pale green to white inner flesh. This melon has a distinctively sweet flavor that is slightly tangier than a honeydew melon. The flesh looks like that of a pear but is softer and tastes a little like a cantaloupe. When ripe, the rind has a...

        , a large, bright-yellow melon with a pale green to white inner flesh.
      • Casaba, bright yellow, with a smooth, furrowed skin. Less flavorful than other melons, but keeps longer.
      • Hami melon
        Hami melon
        The Hami melon is a type of muskmelon, originally from Hami, Xinjiang. It is also referred to as the Chinese Hami melon. A generic term that can be applied is "snow melon". The outer color is generally white through pink or yellow through green. The inside flesh is sweet and crisp.In Mandarin,...

        , originally from Hami
        Hami Prefecture
        Kumul Prefecture, also known as Hami Prefecture is located in eastern Xinjiang, China. It has an area of 140,749 km² and 492,096 inhabitants .- History :...

        , Xinjian, China. Flesh is sweet and crisp.
      • Honeydew
        Honeydew (melon)
        Honeydew is a cultivar group of the muskmelon, Cucumis melo Inodorus group, which includes crenshaw, casaba, Persian, winter, and other mixed melons.-Characteristics:...

        , with a sweet, juicy, green-colored flesh. Grown as bailan melon
        Bailan melon
        The Bailan melon is a locally famous type of melon grown near Lanzhou, the capital city of Gansu province in the People's Republic of China....

         in Lanzhou
        Lanzhou
        Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country....

        , China
        China
        Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

        .
      • Kolkhoznitsa melon, with smooth, yellow skin and dense, white flesh.
      • Navajo Yellow, round or oval with ribbed, yellow skin, and orange flesh.
      • (toad skin) or Santa Claus melon
        Santa Claus melon
        The Santa Claus melon, sometimes known as Christmas melon or Piel de Sapo, is a variety of melon that grows to approximately 1 foot in length and is oblong in shape...

        , with a blotchy green skin and white sweet-tasting flesh.
      • Sugar melon
        Sugar melon
        A sugar melon is a type of cantaloupe that is about five to six inches in diameter and weighing between two and a half to four pounds . Nearly round in shape, it has thick, sweet, orange flesh and a ribbed exterior that is a silvery gray.-References:* Ward, Artimas. The Grocer's Encycplopedia....

         a smooth, white, round fruit.
      • Tiger melon, an orange, yellow and black striped melon from Turkey
        Turkey
        Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

         with a soft pulp.
      • Japanese melons (including the Sprite melon
        Sprite melon
        The Sprite melon is a kind of melon, similar to honeydew, which originates from Japan. Since the late 1990s, it has been cultivated in North Carolina as a specialty crop and has increased in popularity in recent years....

        ).
    • C. melo reticulatus, true muskmelons, with netted (reticulated) skin.
      • North American cantaloupe
        Cantaloupe
        "Rockmelon" redirects here, for the band see Rockmelons. See also Cantaloupe .Cantaloupe refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae which includes nearly all melons and squashes. Cantaloupes range in size from...

        , distinct from the European cantaloupe, with the net-like skin pattern common to other C. melo reticulatus varieties.
      • Galia
        Galia (melon)
        The Galia is a type of hybrid melon originating from a cantaloupe-honeydew cross, larger than a cantaloupe, and with deep green flesh. The name Galia is the feminine form of the Israeli name Gal ....

        , small and very juicy with either faint green or rosy pink flesh.
      • Sharlyn melons, with taste between honeydew and cantaloupe
        Cantaloupe
        "Rockmelon" redirects here, for the band see Rockmelons. See also Cantaloupe .Cantaloupe refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae which includes nearly all melons and squashes. Cantaloupes range in size from...

        s, netted skin, greenish-orange rind, and white flesh.
    • Modern crossbred varieties, e.g. Crenshaw (Casaba × Persian), Crane (Japanese × N.A. cantaloupe).

Momordica
Momordica
Momordica is a genus of about 60 species of annual or perennial climbers herbaceous or rarely small shrubs belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae, natives of tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia and Australia...

  • The bitter melon
    Bitter melon
    Momordica charantia, called bitter melon or bitter gourd in English, is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean for its edible fruit, which is among the most bitter of all fruits...

     (M. charantia) is the only melon that is a member of the genus Momordica. It is a culinary vegetable, widely used in Asia
    Asia
    Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

    n, India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    n and Caribbean
    Caribbean
    The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

     cuisines. The flesh of the bitter melon has a characteristic bitter flavor. In contrast, the red, gelatinous coating of the mature seeds is sweet, and is used in some Asian cuisines as a sweetener. Bitter melon has an unusually large number of common names in various regions.

See also

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK