Medicinal mushrooms
Overview
Medicinal mushrooms are mushrooms, or mushroom extracts, that are used or studied as possible treatments for diseases. Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Grifola frondosa
Grifola frondosa
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks. The mushroom is commonly known among English speakers as Hen-of-the-Woods, Ram's Head and Sheep's Head...

(maitake), Ganoderma lucidum (mannentake), and Cordyceps
Cordyceps
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes about 400 described species. All Cordyceps species are endoparasitoids, mainly on insects and other arthropods ; a few are parasitic on other fungi. The best known species of the genus is Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in...

, have a history of medicinal use spanning millennia in parts of Asia. Research has indicated mushrooms have possible cardiovascular, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, and glycemic, activities.
Encyclopedia
Medicinal mushrooms are mushrooms, or mushroom extracts, that are used or studied as possible treatments for diseases. Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Grifola frondosa
Grifola frondosa
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks. The mushroom is commonly known among English speakers as Hen-of-the-Woods, Ram's Head and Sheep's Head...

(maitake), Ganoderma lucidum (mannentake), and Cordyceps
Cordyceps
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes about 400 described species. All Cordyceps species are endoparasitoids, mainly on insects and other arthropods ; a few are parasitic on other fungi. The best known species of the genus is Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in...

, have a history of medicinal use spanning millennia in parts of Asia. Research has indicated mushrooms have possible cardiovascular, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, and glycemic, activities. Several mushroom extracts PSK
Polysaccharide-K
Polysaccharide-K is a protein-bound polysaccharide, which is used as an immune system boosting agent in the treatment of cancer in some countries in Europe as well as China and Japan. In Japan, PSK is approved as an adjuvant for cancer therapy and is covered by government health insurance...

, PSP
Polysaccharide Peptide
Polysaccharide peptide is a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor. PSP is currently in the animal-testing phase of research in many countries for use as an anti-tumor drug. It appears to work as a Biological Response Modifier, enhancing the body's own...

, AHCC
Active Hexose Correlated Compound
Active Hexose Correlated Compound is an alpha-glucan rich nutritional supplement produced from the mycelia of shiitake of the basidiomycete family of mushrooms, and is not an approved drug. AHCC was originally designed to lower high-blood pressure...

, lentinan
Lentinan
Lentinan is a beta-glucan with a glycosidic β-1,3:β-1,6 linkage. It is an anti-tumor polysaccharide from the shiitake mushroom. Lentinan is a polysaccharide that has a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 Da...

, and schizophyllan
Schizophyllan
Schizophyllan, abbreviated SPG in clinical trial literature, is a neutral extracellular polysaccharide produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, consisting of a 1,3-β-D-linked backbone of glucose residues with 1,6-β-D-glucosyl side groups. Schizophyllan is also known as sizofiran.The...

, are considered nutraceuticals. Fungi that do not create mushrooms, were the original source of penicillin
Penicillin
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V....

, griseofulvin
Griseofulvin
Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug that is administered orally. It is used both in animals and in humans, to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails...

, lovastatin
Lovastatin
Lovastatin is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease...

, and have shown potential in bioengineering
History of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society...

 medicines like paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. It was discovered in a U.S. National Cancer Institute program at the Research Triangle Institute in 1967 when Monroe E. Wall and Mansukh C. Wani isolated it from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia and named it taxol...

.

History

Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps have a history of medicinal use spanning millennia in parts of Asia. In ancient Japan, Grifola frondosa was worth its weight in silver. Ganoderma lucidum is known in Chinese as língzhī (spirit plant), in Japanese as mannentake (10,000 year mushroom), and is described in Shennong Ben Cao Jing and Bencao Gangmu.

Inonotus obliquus (chaga) was used in Russia as early as the sixteenth century, and its medicinal properties were described by author Alexandr Solzhenitsyn. The ancient Egyptians considered mushrooms food for royalty. It is written in the Hadith
Hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

, "truffles (desert truffle) are manna which Allah, sent to the people of Israel through Moses, and its juice is a medicine for the eyes". A review noted several pharmacopoeia
Pharmacopoeia
Pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea, , in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.In a broader sense it is...

s from Hungary, China, and India, include Fomes fomentarius
Fomes fomentarius
Fomes fomentarius is a species of fungal plant pathogen found in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America...

(amadou).http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12712985 Fomes fomentarius was found in the possession of Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman , Similaun Man, and Man from Hauslabjoch are modern names for a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived about 5,300 years ago. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. The nickname comes from the...

.

Mushroom stones dating to 3000 BC, have been recovered in Mesoamerica, and were associated with the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec.

Research

Anticancer activities

Polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms may enhance innate
Innate immune system
The innate immune system, also known as non-specific immune system and secondary line of defence, comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms in a non-specific manner...

 immune responses, resulting in antitumor activities. "While the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases."

Inonotus obliquus (chaga) contains betulin, a precursor to betulinic acid
Betulinic acid
Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has anti-retroviral, anti-malarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as a more recently discovered potential as an anticancer agent, by inhibition of topoisomerase...

. Conjugated linoleic acid
Conjugated linoleic acid
Conjugated linoleic acids are a family of at least 28 isomers of linoleic acid found mainly in the meat and dairy products derived from ruminants. As the name implies, the double bonds of CLAs are conjugated, with only one single bond between them....

 is found in Agaricus bisporus (portobello) and Agaricus subrufescens (agaricus blazei). Two case-control studies showed a strong correlation between mushroom consumption and reduced risk of breast cancer. A study noted Flammulina velutipes (enokitake) producers had statistically lower cancer rates.

19 species of endophytic fungi can synthesize paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. It was discovered in a U.S. National Cancer Institute program at the Research Triangle Institute in 1967 when Monroe E. Wall and Mansukh C. Wani isolated it from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia and named it taxol...

, one of the most important anticancer drugs known.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20358192 Fungi can synthesize griseofulvin
Griseofulvin
Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug that is administered orally. It is used both in animals and in humans, to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails...

 and reportedly, vinblastine
Vinblastine
Vinblastine is an antimicrotubule drug used to treat certain kinds of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, and testicular cancer. It is also used to treat Langerhan cell histiocytosis....

. Griseofulvin, taxol, and vinblastine, share the same anticancer mechanism, halting cell division at mitosis
Mitosis
Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly...

, by inhibiting microtubule
Microtubule
Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton. These rope-like polymers of tubulin can grow as long as 25 micrometers and are highly dynamic. The outer diameter of microtubule is about 25 nm. Microtubules are important for maintaining cell structure, providing platforms for intracellular...

 activity.

Anticholesterol activity and statins
Statins, are the best-selling pharmaceuticals in history. The first statins discovered, mevastatin
Mevastatin
Mevastatin, compactin, ML-236B is a hypolipidemic agent that belongs to the statins class.It was isolated from the mold Penicillium citrinum by Akira Endo in the 1970s and he identified it as a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, i.e.; a statin...

, and lovastatin
Lovastatin
Lovastatin is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease...

, were found in fungi. Later, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) was found to also produce lovastatin
Lovastatin
Lovastatin is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease...

.
Monascus purpureus
Monascus purpureus
Monascus purpureus is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color...

used to make red yeast rice, is capable of producing mevastatin, lovastatin, and monacolins L and J.

Lentinula edodes (shiitake) contains the anticholesterol compound eritadenine. The first characterized zaragozic acid
Zaragozic acid
Zaragozic acids are a family of natural products produced by fungi. The first characterized zaragozic acids, A, B, and C were isolated from an unidentified sterile fungal culture, S. intermedia, and L. elatius, respectively. just outside of the European city Zaragoza, Spain on the Jalón river...

s, were isolated from the fungi S. intermedia and L. elatius.

Cognitive activities

Certain species of mushrooms contain psilocybin
Psilocybin
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug, with mind-altering effects similar to those of LSD and mescaline, after it is converted to psilocin. The effects can include altered thinking processes, perceptual distortions, an altered sense of time, and spiritual experiences, as well as...

 or psilocin
Psilocin
Psilocin , an aromatic compound, sometimes also spelled psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin, is a psychedelic mushroom alkaloid. It is found in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin...

, most notably Psilocybe
Psilocybe
Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. This genus is best known for its species with psychedelic or hallucinogenic properties, widely known as "magic mushrooms", though the majority of species do not contain hallucinogenic compounds...

(magic mushrooms). The compounds have also been found in members of the genera Gymnopilus
Gymnopilus
Gymnopilus is a genus of gilled mushrooms within the fungal family Strophariaceae containing about 200 rusty-orange spored mushroom species formerly divided among Pholiota and the defunct genus Flammula. The fruiting body is typically reddish brown to rusty orange to yellow, medium to large,...

, Panaeolus
Panaeolus
Panaeolus is a genus of small, black-spored, saprotrophic agarics. The word Panaeolus is Greek for "all variegated", alluding to the spotted gills of the mushrooms produced.- Characteristics :...

, Pluteus
Pluteus
Pluteus is a large genus of fungi with over 100 species. They are wood rotting saprobes with pink spore prints and gills that are free from the stem.Pluteus means shed or penthouse.-Characteristics of the genus :...

, and Inocybe
Inocybe
Inocybe is a large, complex genus of mushrooms. Members of Inocybe are mycorrhizal, and some evidence shows that the high degree of speciation in the genus is due to adaptation to different trees and perhaps even local environments.-Description:...

, among others. If consumed, psilocybin is dephosphorylated to psilocin, which closely resembles the neurotransmitter serotonin
Serotonin
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system of animals including humans...

. Psilocin interacts with serotonin receptors as a partial, non-selective, agonist.

The rye fungus Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps purpurea is a fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants. Consumption of grains or seeds contaminated with the fruiting structure of this fungus, the ergot sclerotium, can cause ergotism in humans and other mammals.. C...

(ergot) can produce ergotism
Ergotism
Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. It is also known as ergotoxicosis, ergot...

 if eaten, but nevertheless has led to the production of certain drugs. Drugs produced from Claviceps purpurea, include lisuride
Lisuride
Lisuride is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs. Lisuride is described as free base and as hydrogen maleate salt.Lisuride is used to lower prolactin and, in low doses, to prevent migraine attacks...

, pergolide
Pergolide
Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used in some countries for the treatment of Parkinson's disease....

, cabergoline
Cabergoline
Cabergoline , an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors. In vitro, rat studies show cabergoline has a direct inhibitory effect on pituitary lactotroph cells...

, bromocriptine
Bromocriptine
Bromocriptine , an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease , hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.- Indications :Amenorrhea, female infertility, galactorrhea, hypogonadism, and acromegaly...

, intended for Parkinson's disease; cafergot
Cafergot
Cafergot is the proprietary name of a medication consisting of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine. This combination is used for the treatment of vascular headaches, such as migraine headache.-Use:...

, dihydroergotamine
Dihydroergotamine
Dihydroergotamine is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines. It is a derivative of ergotamine. It is administered as a nasal spray or injection and has an efficacy similar to that of sumatriptan...

, methysergide
Methysergide
Methysergide is a prescription drug used for prophylaxis of migraine headaches and is sold under the brand names Sansert and Deseril in 2 mg dosages.-Pharmacology:Methysergide interacts with serotonin receptors...

, ergotamine, intended for headaches; and hydergine, intended for dementia. Lysergic acid
Lysergic acid
Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and -lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. Amides of lysergic acid, lysergamides, are widely used as pharmaceuticals and as psychedelic drugs...

 and ergotamine, isolates of Claviceps purpurea, are precursors to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Polyozellus multiplex (blue chanterelle) contains kynapcin
Kynapcin
right|thumb|[[Skeletal formula]] of kynapcin-24Kynapcin is a general name for a number of dibenzofuranyl derivatives of the molecule polyozellin, present in the fungus Polyozellus multiplex. Like polyozellin, it inhibits prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme that has a role in processing proteins in...

s and polyozellin
Polyozellin
Polyozellin is a chemical which occurs in the mushroom Polyozellus multiplex. It inhibits prolyl endopeptidase , an enzyme that has a role in processing proteins in Alzheimer's disease. Chemicals that inhibit prolyl endopeptidase have attracted research interest due to their potential therapeutic...

. Boletus badius
Boletus badius
Boletus badius , and commonly known as the Bay Bolete is an edible, pored mushroom from Europe and North America...

(bay bolete) contains L-theanine. A small double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, published in Phytotherapy Research in 2009, showed Hericium erinaceus
Hericium erinaceus
Hericium erinaceus is an edible mushroom and medicinal mushroom in the tooth fungus group...

(lion's mane) improved cognitive function. A small placebo-controlled study published in Biomedical Research in 2010, indicated Hericium erinaceus promoted mental well-being.

Antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, activities

Fungi create and secrete antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. Antibiotic compounds isolated from mushrooms includes, coprinol, campestrin, ganomycin, sparassol, armillaric acid, cortinellin, and ustilagic acid. Non-mushroom forming fungi were the original source of the antibiotics penicillin
Penicillin
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V....

, cephalosporin
Cephalosporin
The cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of β-lactam antibiotics called cephems.-Medical use:...

, fusidic acid
Fusidic acid
Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is often used topically in creams and eyedrops, but may also be given systemically as tablets or injections...

, and verticillin A. Non-mushroom forming fungi were used to develop the antifungals caspofungin
Caspofungin
Caspofungin is an antifungal drug, the first of a new class termed the echinocandins from Merck & Co., Inc. It shows activity against infections with Aspergillus and Candida, and works by inhibiting the enzyme β-D-Glucan synthase and thereby disturbing the integrity of the fungal cell wall...

, micafungin, griseofulvin
Griseofulvin
Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug that is administered orally. It is used both in animals and in humans, to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails...

, anidulafungin
Anidulafungin
Anidulafungin or Eraxis is an antifungal drug originally manufactured and submitted for FDA approval by Vicuron Pharmaceuticals. Pfizer acquired the drug upon its acquisition of Vicuron in the fall of 2005. Pfizer gained approval by the Food and Drug Administration on February 21, 2006; it was...

.

Mushrooms with reported in vitro antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities are shown in the table below.

  • Agaricus subrufescens (agaricus blazei)—Activity against poliovirus and the western equine encephalitis virus.
  • Agrocybe
    Agrocybe
    Agrocybe, including edible fungi such as the Agrocybe cylindracea, is a genus of mushroom with similar characteristics to the Tricholoma matsutake, Agrocybe aegerita and Agrocybe parasitica. Some are poisonous mushrooms...

     aegerita
    (pioppino)—Activity against the tobacco mosaic virus.
  • Boletus edulis
    Boletus edulis
    Boletus edulis, commonly known as penny bun, porcino or cep, is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus. Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere across Europe, Asia, and North America, it does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been...

    (porcini)—Activity against the tobacco mosaic virus.
  • Cantharellus cibarius (chanterelle)—Activity against certain microbes, bacteria, and fungi.
  • Cordyceps
    Cordyceps
    Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes about 400 described species. All Cordyceps species are endoparasitoids, mainly on insects and other arthropods ; a few are parasitic on other fungi. The best known species of the genus is Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in...

    (cordyceps)—Activity against Bipolaris maydis, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Candida albicans.
  • Fistulina hepatica (beefsteak fungus)—Antibacterial activity.
  • Ganoderma applanatum
    Ganoderma applanatum
    Ganoderma applanatum is a bracket fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution.The spore bodies are up to 30-40 cm across, hard, woody-textured, and...

    (artist's conk)—Activity against the vaccinia virus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas syringae.
  • Ganoderma lucidum (reishi)—Activity against malaria parasite, Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza virus, and vesicular stomatitis.
  • Grifola frondosa
    Grifola frondosa
    Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks. The mushroom is commonly known among English speakers as Hen-of-the-Woods, Ram's Head and Sheep's Head...

    (maitake)—Activity against HSV-1, and hepatitis B virus.
  • Hypsizygus tessellatus
    Hypsizygus tessellatus
    The Hypsizygus tessellatus or shimeji is an edible mushroom native to East Asia. Buna shimeji is cultivated locally in Europe, North America and Australia and sold fresh in markets.Two variations are known:...

    (beech mushroom)—Activity against the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Kuehneromyces mutabilis
    Kuehneromyces mutabilis
    Kuehneromyces mutabilis , commonly known as the Sheathed Woodtuft, is an edible fungus which grows in clumps on tree stumps or other dead wood. A few other species have been described in the genus Kuehneromyces, but K...

    (sheathed woodtuft)—Activity against the influenza virus.
  • Laetiporus sulphureus
    Laetiporus sulphureus
    Laetiporus sulphureus is a species of bracket fungus found in Europe and North America. Its common names are sulphur polypore, sulphur shelf, and chicken mushroom. Its fruit bodies grow as striking golden-yellow shelf-like structures on tree trunks and branches...

    (chicken of the woods)—Activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and glycopeptide-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
  • Lepista nuda (blewit)—Antimicrobial activity.
  • Lentinula edodes (shiitake)—Contains a proteinase inhibitor
    Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)
    Protease inhibitors are a class of drugs used to treat or prevent infection by viruses, including HIV and Hepatitis C. PIs prevent viral replication by inhibiting the activity of proteases, e.g.HIV-1 protease, enzymes used by the viruses to cleave nascent proteins for final assembly of new...

    , a protein with antifungal activities, and has shown activity against HSV-1.
  • Piptoporus betulinus (birch polypore)—Activity against the vaccinia virus, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, rhodotorula rubra, kluyveromyces marxianus, candida albicans, sporobolomyces salmonicolor, and penicillium notatum.
  • Pleurotus eryngii
    Pleurotus eryngii
    Pleurotus eryngii is an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in parts of Asia.In Italian it is called cardoncello; in Chinese, it is called xìng bào gū Pleurotus eryngii (also known as king trumpet mushroom, French horn...

    (king oyster mushroom)—Activity against the tobacco mosaic virus.
  • Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom)—Activity against hepatitis C virus.
  • Pleurotus pulmonarius
    Pleurotus pulmonarius
    Commonly known as the Indian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, or the Lung Oyster, Pleurotus pulmonarius is very similar to Pleurotus ostreatus, the pearl oyster, but has a few noticeable differences. The caps of pulmonarius are much paler and smaller than ostreatus and develops more of a stem...

    (Indian oyster)—Nematicidal activity.
  • Polyporus umbellatus
    Polyporus umbellatus
    Polyporus umbellatus is a rare, inedible species of mushroom, found growing on roots of old beeches or oak.-Description:The fruiting body is composed of numerous caps. They are 1–4 cm in diameter, deeply umbilicate, light brown, and form the extremities of a strong, many branched stock...

    (zhu-ling)—Activity against Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Poria cocos (fu-ling)—Activity against Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Sparassis crispa
    Sparassis crispa
    Sparassis crispa is a species of fungus in the genus Sparassis.-Description:S. crispa grows in a globe that is up to in diameter. The lobes are flat and curly, resembling lasagna noodles and they are colored white to creamy yellow. They are found growing on wood, usually conifers....

    (cauliflower mushroom)—Antifungal activity.
  • Terfezia
    Terfezia
    Terfezia is a genus of truffle-like fungi within the Pezizaceae family. Terfezia species are commonly known as desert truffles. Some authorities consider this the type genus of the family Terfeziaceae, although phylogenetic analysis suggests that it nests within the Pezizaceae. The Dictionary of...

    (desert truffle)—Activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.


The following mushrooms inhibited HIV in cell culture: Boletus edulis
Boletus edulis
Boletus edulis, commonly known as penny bun, porcino or cep, is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus. Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere across Europe, Asia, and North America, it does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been...

, Cordyceps
Cordyceps
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes about 400 described species. All Cordyceps species are endoparasitoids, mainly on insects and other arthropods ; a few are parasitic on other fungi. The best known species of the genus is Cordyceps sinensis, first recorded as yartsa gunbu in...

, Flammulina velutipes (enokitake), Hericium erinaceum (lion's mane mushroom), Inonotus obliquus (chaga), Lactarius camphoratus (candy cap), Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius
Pleurotus pulmonarius
Commonly known as the Indian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, or the Lung Oyster, Pleurotus pulmonarius is very similar to Pleurotus ostreatus, the pearl oyster, but has a few noticeable differences. The caps of pulmonarius are much paler and smaller than ostreatus and develops more of a stem...

, Poria cocos, Russula delica
Russula delica
Russula delica is a mushroom that goes by the common name of milk-white brittlegill, and is a member of the Russula genus, all of which are collectively known as brittlegills. It is mostly white, with brownish cap markings, and a short robust stem. It is edible, but poor in taste, and grows in...

(milk-white brittlegill), Sparassis crispa
Sparassis crispa
Sparassis crispa is a species of fungus in the genus Sparassis.-Description:S. crispa grows in a globe that is up to in diameter. The lobes are flat and curly, resembling lasagna noodles and they are colored white to creamy yellow. They are found growing on wood, usually conifers....

, Trametes versicolor
Trametes versicolor
Trametes versicolor — formerly known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor — is an extremely common polypore mushroom which can be found throughout the world. Versicolor means 'of several colours' and it is true that this mushroom is found in a wide variety of different colours. T...

 
(turkey tail mushroom), and Umbilicaria esculenta
Umbilicaria esculenta
Umbilicaria esculenta is a lichen of the genus Umbilicaria that grows on rocks. It can be found in East Asia including in China, Japan, and Korea . It is edible when properly prepared and has been used as a food source and medicine...

(iwatake).
Glycemic activities
Researchers reported Grifola frondosa (maitake) contains alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are oral anti-diabetic drugs used for diabetes mellitus type 2 that work by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates . Carbohydrates are normally converted into simple sugars , which can be absorbed through the intestine...

s.

Animal research and a small clinical trial noted Grifola frondosa may lower blood sugar levels. Animal research and small clinical studies have shown that the following mushrooms may lower elevated blood sugar levels; Tremella fuciformis (white jelly fungus), Poria cocos, Ganoderma lucidum (mannentake), Auricularia auricula-judae (jelly ear), Agaricus campestris (meadow mushroom), Agaricus subrufescens (agaricus blazei), Inonotus obliquus (chaga), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), Agrocybe aegerita (pioppino), Coprinus comatus (shaggy mane), cordyceps.

Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and ergothioneine

Mushrooms briefly exposed to UV light, can generate significant amounts of vitamin D2 from ergosterol
Ergosterol
Ergosterol is a sterol found in fungi, and named for ergot, a common name for the members of the fungal genus Claviceps from which ergosterol was first isolated. Ergosterol does not occur in plant or animal cells...

. Dole produces an Agaricus bisporus (portobello) powdered food condiment, that contains 150% DV vitamin D2 per teaspoon.http://www.dole.com/mushroompowder/#/home Grifola frondosa (maitake), Cantharellus cibarius (chanterelle) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake) contain high levels of vitamin D2 after UV light exposure.

Ergothioneine
Ergothioneine
Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring amino acid and is a thiourea derivative of histidine, containing a sulfur atom in the imidazole ring. This compound is made in rather few organisms, notably Actinobacteria and filamentous fungi. Ergothioneine was discovered in 1909 and named after the ergot...

, an antioxidant that is known to accumulate in certain parts of the body, is present in Flammulina velutipes (enokitake) and Agaricus bisporus.

Antihormone and anti-inflammatory activity
A clinical study with 21 ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients showed an extract of Agaricus subrufescens (agaricus blazei) had an anti-inflammatory effect.
Animals studies noted extracts of Fomes fomentarius (amadou), Phellinus linteus (mesima), Ganoderma lucidum (mannentake), and Inonotus obliquus (chaga) could reduce inflammation. In cell culture, extracts of Geastrum saccatum (rounded earthstar),Agrocybe aegerita (pioppino), and Grifola frondosa (maitake), inhibited the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase
Cyclooxygenase
Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of important biological mediators called prostanoids, including prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane. Pharmacological inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain...

 and Piptoporus betulinus (birch polypore) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. Researchers noted extracts of Pholiota squarrosa
Pholiota squarrosa
Pholiota squarrosa, commonly known as the shaggy scalycap, the shaggy Pholiota, or the scaly Pholiota, is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family. Common in North America and Europe, it is often an opportunistic parasite, and has a wide range of hosts among deciduous trees, although it...

(shaggy scalycap), could act as xanthine oxidase inhibitor
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of...

s.

In vitro, mushroom extracts have shown potential to inhibit hormone production. Greatest in vitro inhibition of aromatase
Aromatase
Aromatase is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily , which are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in steroidogenesis. In particular, aromatase is responsible for the aromatization of androgens into...

, and 5-alpha reductase
5-alpha reductase
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism. They participate in 3 metabolic pathways: bile acid biosynthesis, androgen and estrogen metabolism, and prostate cancer....

, was observed with Agaricus bisporus (portobello) and Ganoderma lucidum (mannentake), respectively.

Edible species

Agaricus bisporus (Portobello, white button, champignon)

Mouse studies reported
Agaricus bisporus consumption led to immune system stimulation, while an in vitro study reported activity against various cancer cell lines. Agaricus bisporus is reported to have the greatest antiaromatase
Aromatase
Aromatase is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily , which are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in steroidogenesis. In particular, aromatase is responsible for the aromatization of androgens into...

 activity
in vitro.

Agaricus subrufescens
(A. blazei, A. brasiliensis, A. sylvaticus)

In Japan, extracts from Agaricus subrufescens are viewed as anticancer compounds. An article from 2001, estimated usage in Japan at 500,000. A review from 2008, noted there is evidence for using Agaricus subrufescens extracts for certain cancers.

Agrocybe aegerita (Pioppino mushroom)
Agrocybe aegerita
Agrocybe
Agrocybe, including edible fungi such as the Agrocybe cylindracea, is a genus of mushroom with similar characteristics to the Tricholoma matsutake, Agrocybe aegerita and Agrocybe parasitica. Some are poisonous mushrooms...

may have anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Auricularia auricula-judae (Jelly ear, kikurage) Auricularia polytricha (Cloud ear)

Published research indicates Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia auricula-judae, known as the Jew's ear, jelly ear or by a number of other common names, is a species of edible Auriculariales fungus found worldwide. The fruiting body is distinguished by its noticeably ear-like shape and brown colouration; it grows upon wood, especially elder...

and Auricularia polytricha may have antitumour, hypoglycemic, anticoagulant and cholesterol-lowering activities.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15527075http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7196285

Boletus edulis (Porcini, cep, borovik, steinpilz, herrenpilz)
A lectin from
Boletus edulis
Boletus edulis
Boletus edulis, commonly known as penny bun, porcino or cep, is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus. Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere across Europe, Asia, and North America, it does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been...

was found to inhibit several malignant cell lines and bind to a neoplastic cell specific T-antigen disaccharide.

Coprinus comatus (Shaggy mane, ink cap)

An extract of Coprinus comatus
Coprinus comatus
Coprinus comatus, the shaggy ink cap, lawyer's wig, or shaggy mane, is a common fungus often seen growing on lawns, along gravel roads and waste areas. The young fruit bodies first appear as white cylinders emerging from the ground, then the bell-shaped caps open out. The caps are white, and...

inhibited the proliferation and viability of a androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line.

Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake, winter mushroom)
Flammulina velutipes contains compounds with antitumor activity, and epidemiological studies in Japan have associated the mushroom with lower cancer rates. Animal research showed the mushroom may inhibit cancer development.

Grifola frondosa
(Maitake, hen-of-the-woods)
A review by Massachusetts General Hospital, advocated researching Grifola frondosa in relation to cancer, diabetes, and immune function. Grifola frondosa contains alpha glucosidase inhibitors and has been featured in clinical trials. Researched extracts of Grifola frondosa include grifolan and maitake D-fraction.

Lentinula edodes (Shiitake, black forest mushroom)

Lentinan
Lentinan
Lentinan is a beta-glucan with a glycosidic β-1,3:β-1,6 linkage. It is an anti-tumor polysaccharide from the shiitake mushroom. Lentinan is a polysaccharide that has a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 Da...

 and Active Hexose Correlated Compound
Active Hexose Correlated Compound
Active Hexose Correlated Compound is an alpha-glucan rich nutritional supplement produced from the mycelia of shiitake of the basidiomycete family of mushrooms, and is not an approved drug. AHCC was originally designed to lower high-blood pressure...

 (AHCC), are isolates of
Lentinula edodes. "There have been numerous clinical trials of Lentinan in Japan, though none have been placebo-controlled and double-blinded. However, Lentinan has been approved for clinical use in Japan for many years, and is manufactured by several pharmaceutical companies. Intraperitoneal lentinan is widely used as an adjuvant treatment for certain cancers in Japan and China." Research has shown AHCC may offer antiviral activity. Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM) extract, is a researched extract derived from the mushroom.

Morchella esculenta (Morel)
Morchella esculenta
Morchella esculenta
Morchella esculenta, is a species of fungus in the Morchellaceae family of the Ascomycota. It is one of the most readily recognized of all the edible mushrooms and highly sought after...

contains small amounts of hydrazine, which is destroyed upon cooking. A galactomannan
Galactomannan
Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more...

 from Morchella esculenta stimulated immune function in vitro.

Phallus impudicus

Although Phallus impudicus
Phallus impudicus
Phallus impudicus, known colloquially as the common stinkhorn, is a widespread fungus recognizable for its foul odor and its phallic shape when mature, the latter feature giving rise to several names in 17th-century England. It is a common mushroom in Europe and western North America, where it...

is not considered a choice edible, a review noted extracts from the mushroom have anti-tumor activity. The mushroom was also studied clinically, in relation to venous thrombosis
Venous thrombosis
A venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms within a vein. A venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms within a vein. A venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms within a vein. (Thrombosis is a medical term for blood clotting (Haemostasis) occurring in the wrong place, i.e...

.

Pleurotus djamor (Pink oyster mushroom)
An extract of
Pleurotus djamor
Pleurotus djamor
Pleurotus djamor, commonly known as the pink oyster mushroom, is a species of fungus in the family Pleurotaceae. It was originally named Agaricus djamor by the German-born botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius, and sanctioned under that name by Elias Magnus Fries in 1821...

was found to inhibit proliferation of hepatoma cells and breast cancer cells in vitro.

Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom, eringi)

An extract of Pleurotus eryngii
Pleurotus eryngii
Pleurotus eryngii is an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in parts of Asia.In Italian it is called cardoncello; in Chinese, it is called xìng bào gū Pleurotus eryngii (also known as king trumpet mushroom, French horn...

stimulated immune function in vitro.

Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom, hiratake)

Pleurotus ostreatus contains the statin lovastatin
Lovastatin
Lovastatin is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease...

. A number of animal studies have shown
Pleurotus ostreatus consumption lowers cholesterol levels. Research with Pleurotus ostreatus demonstrated activity against various cancer cell lines and animals studies have shown an anticancer effect.

Sparassis crispa
(Cauliflower mushroom)

Animal studies have shown Sparassis crispa
Sparassis crispa
Sparassis crispa is a species of fungus in the genus Sparassis.-Description:S. crispa grows in a globe that is up to in diameter. The lobes are flat and curly, resembling lasagna noodles and they are colored white to creamy yellow. They are found growing on wood, usually conifers....

has potential anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Tremella fuciformis (White jelly fungus, silver ear)
Tremella fuciformis is occasionally used in Chinese medicine as an immune tonic and for treating exhaustion.

Tremella mesenterica (Golden jelly fungus)

Tremella mesenterica
Tremella mesenterica
Tremella mesenterica is a common jelly fungus in the Tremellaceae family of the Agaricomycotina...

has potential anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Tricholoma matsutake (Matsutake)
Tricholoma matsutake may enhance immune function via an alpha-glucan polysaccharide.

Volvariella volvacea (Paddy straw mushroom)

Recent studies have indicated Volvariella volvacea has possible anticancer and immunomodulating activities.

Extractable species

Mushroom cell walls contain chitin
Chitin
Chitin n is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world...

, which is indigestible. To break down chitin, and allow digestion, a heated extraction process is required. The following mushrooms can be consumed only in the form of tea, herbal tonic, or medicinal soup.

Antrodia camphorata (Zhang-zhī)

Antrodia camphorata
Antrodia
Antrodia is a genus of fungi in the family Fomitopsidaceae. Antrodia species have fruiting bodies that typically lie flat or spread out on the growing surface, with the hymenium exposed to the outside; the edges may be turned so as to form narrow brackets. Most species are found in temperate and...

is a medicinal mushroom associated with Taiwan. Research has noted the mushroom may have hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic, immuno-modulatory, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

Astraeus hygrometricus (Earthstar)

Astraeus hygrometricus
Astraeus hygrometricus
Astraeus hygrometricus, commonly known as the hygroscopic earthstar, the barometer earthstar, or the false earthstar, is a species of fungus in the Diplocystaceae family. Young specimens resemble a puffball when young and unopened...

is documented in Chinese and Indian herbal medicine.
Research has shown the mushroom may contain immunomodulators. In a mouse model, the mushroom demonstrated anticancer properties.

Cordyceps
The immunosuppressant drug, ciclosporin
Ciclosporin
Ciclosporin , cyclosporine , cyclosporin , or cyclosporin A is an immunosuppressant drug widely used in post-allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the immune system, and therefore the risk of organ rejection...

, was isolated from Tolypocladium inflatum
Tolypocladium inflatum
Tolypocladium inflatum is an asexual ascomycete fungus originally isolated from a Norwegian soil sample that, in certain conditions, produces ciclosporin....

, an anamorph of Cordyceps subsessilis. Cordycepin
Cordycepin
Cordycepin, or 3'-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine, differing from the latter by the absence of oxygen in the 3' position of its ribose part. It was initially extracted from fungi of genus Cordyceps, but is now produced synthetically.Because cordycepin is similar to...

, was isolated from Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris. Limited clinical data supports the use of cordyceps for fatigue, bronchitis and coughs. Cordyceps may improve exercise performance in healthy older subjects.

Fomes fomentarius (Amadou, tinder conk)

Research with mice showed an extract of
Fomes fomentarius altered immune function and in vitro research showed an anticancer effect.

Ganoderma lucidum (Mannentake, língzhī, reishi)

Research demonstrated Ganoderma lucidum may have anticancer and immune system enhancing properties. Animal studies have noted Ganoderma lucidum have hepatoprotective activities. Research has shown that Ganoderma lucidum contains compounds that may act as ACE inhibitors, inihibit blood platelets, and have antifibrotic activity. According to Memorial Sloan-Kettering, "in clinical studies, Ganoderma lucidum increased plasma antioxidant capacity and enhanced immune responses in advance-stage cancer patients."

Hydnellum peckii (Red-juice tooth)
Hydnellum peckii
Hydnellum peckii
Hydnellum peckii is an inedible fungus, and a member of the genus Hydnellum of the family Bankeraceae. It is a hydnoid species, producing spores on the surface of vertical spines or tooth-like projections that hang from the undersurface of the fruit bodies. It is found in North America, Europe, and...

contains atromentin, an anticoagulant
Anticoagulant
An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation of blood. A group of pharmaceuticals called anticoagulants can be used in vivo as a medication for thrombotic disorders. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and renal dialysis...

.

Inonotus obliquus (Chaga)
A Russian extract of Inonotus obliquus is known as Befungin. Russian literature nobel prize laureate, Alexandr Solzhenitsyn, wrote two pages on the speculated anticancer activities of Inonotus obliquus in Cancer Ward. Inonotus obliquus contains melanin
Melanin
Melanin is a pigment that is ubiquitous in nature, being found in most organisms . In animals melanin pigments are derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. The most common form of biological melanin is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acids, and their reduced forms...

 and betulin
Betulin
Betulin is an abundant naturally occurring triterpene. It is commonly isolated from the bark of birch trees and forms up to 30% of the dry weight of the extractive . The purpose of the compound in the bark is not known...

, a precursor to the anticancer compound betulinic acid
Betulinic acid
Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has anti-retroviral, anti-malarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as a more recently discovered potential as an anticancer agent, by inhibition of topoisomerase...

.

An experiment with mice, and an Inonotus obliquus extract, showed a 4-fold increase in survival rate of melanoma. Additional research indicates potential anticancer activity.

Peziza vesiculosa (Orange fairy-cup)

Research has shown
Peziza vesiculosa
Peziza
Peziza is a large genus of saprophytic cup fungi that grow on the ground, rotting wood, or dung. Most members of this genus are of unknown edibility and are difficult to identify as separate species without use of microscopy...

may have anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Phellinus linteus (Meshimakobu, sang-hwang)

Phellinus linteus
Phellinus Linteus
Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom used in Japan, Korea and China. It is shaped like a hoof, has a bitter taste, and in the wild grows on mulberry trees. The stem's color ranges from dark brown to black...

is a medicinal mushroom associated with Korea.
"Scientists have demonstrated that the extracts from fruit-bodies or mycelium
Mycelium
thumb|right|Fungal myceliaMycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. The mass of hyphae is sometimes called shiro, especially within the fairy ring fungi. Fungal colonies composed of mycelia are found in soil and on or within many other...

 of Phellinus linteus not only stimulate the hormonal and cell-mediated immune function and quench the inflammatory reactions caused by a variety of stimuli, but also suppress the tumor growth and metastasis. Mounting evidence from different research groups has shown that Phellinus linteus induces apoptosis in a host of murine and human carcinomas without causing any measurable toxic effects to their normal counterparts."

Phellinus linteus is known to contain interfungins A, a compound that may protect against hyperglycemia-mediated protein damage.

Piptoporus betulinus (Birch polypore, birch bracket)
Piptoporus betulinus may have anticancer properties. Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman , Similaun Man, and Man from Hauslabjoch are modern names for a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived about 5,300 years ago. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. The nickname comes from the...

 was found carrying
Piptoporus betulinus wrapped in a leather string. Researchers have noted the mushroom was most likely used medicinally, after Ötzi was noted to be infected by an intestinal parasite.

Polyporus umbellatus
(Zhu-ling)
Polyporus umbellatus
Polyporus umbellatus
Polyporus umbellatus is a rare, inedible species of mushroom, found growing on roots of old beeches or oak.-Description:The fruiting body is composed of numerous caps. They are 1–4 cm in diameter, deeply umbilicate, light brown, and form the extremities of a strong, many branched stock...

may have anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Poria cocos (Fu-ling, hoelen)

A review published in 2009, noted,
Poria cocos may have anticancer and immune enhancing activities.

Schizophyllum commune (Split gill)

Schizophyllan
Schizophyllan
Schizophyllan, abbreviated SPG in clinical trial literature, is a neutral extracellular polysaccharide produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, consisting of a 1,3-β-D-linked backbone of glucose residues with 1,6-β-D-glucosyl side groups. Schizophyllan is also known as sizofiran.The...

 is an isolate of Schizophyllum commune
Schizophyllum commune
Schizophyllum commune is a very common species of mushroom in the genus Schizophyllum. It is the world's most widely distributed mushroom, occurring on every continent except Antarctica....

. There is some clinical evidence for the antitumor activity of schizophyllan.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12436306

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

SSG is a highly branched beta-1,3-glucan extract of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus and can cause a disease called white mold if conditions are correct. S. sclerotiorum can also be known as cottony rot, watery soft rot, stem rot, drop, crown rot and blossom blight...

. SSG has been researched for possible health benefits.

Trametes gibbosa (Daedalea gibbosa)
An extract of
Daedalea gibbosa
Trametes gibbosa
Trametes gibbosa, commonly known as the 'lumpy bracket', is a polypore mushroom that causes a white rot. It is found on beech stumps and the dead wood of other hardwood species. Fruit bodies are 8–15 cm in diameter and semicircular in shape. The upper surface is usually gray or white, but may...

inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia in a mouse model.

Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail, yun-zhī, kawaratake)

Polysaccharide-K
Polysaccharide-K
Polysaccharide-K is a protein-bound polysaccharide, which is used as an immune system boosting agent in the treatment of cancer in some countries in Europe as well as China and Japan. In Japan, PSK is approved as an adjuvant for cancer therapy and is covered by government health insurance...

 (Krestin, PSK) and polysaccharide peptide
Polysaccharide Peptide
Polysaccharide peptide is a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor. PSP is currently in the animal-testing phase of research in many countries for use as an anti-tumor drug. It appears to work as a Biological Response Modifier, enhancing the body's own...

 (PSP), are isolates of Trametes versicolor
Trametes versicolor
Trametes versicolor — formerly known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor — is an extremely common polypore mushroom which can be found throughout the world. Versicolor means 'of several colours' and it is true that this mushroom is found in a wide variety of different colours. T...

.

According to MD Anderson Cancer Center, "PSP may have positive effects upon immune parameters, percent body fat and disease progression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer based upon one randomized and blinded controlled clinical trial. PSK may have positive effects upon disease and survival outcomes based upon the preponderance of findings from randomized controlled studies; however, the lack of blinding in these trials is a cause of concern."

Heavy metals

Mushrooms produced in contaminated conditions can accumulate, even hyper-accumulate, particular heavy metals
Heavy metals
A heavy metal is a member of a loosely-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. It mainly includes the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. Many different definitions have been proposed—some based on density, some on atomic number or atomic weight,...

.

The following is a list of observed relationships between mushrooms and heavy metal accumulations.
Agaricus bisporus cadmium, mercury.
Agaricus subrufescens cadmium, mercury.
Agaricus campestris cadmium, lead (10x), mercury (10x).
Boletus edulis cadmium (10x), cesium (including Cs-137), lead, mercury (250x), copper.
Cantharellus cibarius cesium (2x).
Coprinus comatus arsenic (21x), cadmium (8x), mercury (27x).
Flammulina velutipes arsenic.
Hydnellum peckii cesium.
Morchella lead (70-100x).
Pleurotus ostreatus cadmium, mercury (65-140x).
Pleurotus pulmonarius cadmium, mercury, copper.
Trametes versicolor mercury.

See also

External links

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