Mayo Clinic
Overview
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group specializing in treating difficult patients (tertiary care). Patients are referred to Mayo Clinic from across the U.S. and the world, and it is known for innovative and effective treatments. Mayo Clinic is known for being at the top of most accredited quality standard listings. For example, it has been near the top of the US News and World Report List of Best Hospitals for more than 20 years.
Encyclopedia
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group specializing in treating difficult patients (tertiary care). Patients are referred to Mayo Clinic from across the U.S. and the world, and it is known for innovative and effective treatments. Mayo Clinic is known for being at the top of most accredited quality standard listings. For example, it has been near the top of the US News and World Report List of Best Hospitals for more than 20 years. The practice is distinguished by integrated care
Integrated Care
Integrated care – also known as coordinated care, comprehensive care, seamless care and transmural care – is a worldwide trend in health care reforms and new organizational arrangements focusing on more coordinated and integrated forms of care provision...

, and a strong research presence is evidenced by the fact that over 40% of its resources are devoted towards research (rather than just medical practice).

Mayo Clinic has been on the list of America's "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine
Fortune (magazine)
Fortune is a global business magazine published by Time Inc. Founded by Henry Luce in 1930, the publishing business, consisting of Time, Life, Fortune, and Sports Illustrated, grew to become Time Warner. In turn, AOL grew as it acquired Time Warner in 2000 when Time Warner was the world's largest...

 for eight years in a row. From its humble beginnings as a family venture between a father and his two sons, the practice later became America's first integrated group practice, a model that is now standard in the United States. The current-day Mayo Clinic is an integrated practice of more than 3,700 physicians and scientists, and a total employment including nurses, students, and allied health staff of more than 56,000 persons.

History

Early Years

In 1863, William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo was a British medical doctor and chemist, best known for establishing the private medical practice that later evolved into the Mayo Clinic. He was a descendant of a famous English chemist, John Mayow. His sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo, joined the private...

 (1819–1911) came to Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County. Located on both banks of the Zumbro River, The city has a population of 106,769 according to the 2010 United States Census, making it Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest outside of the...

 as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the Civil War
Civil war
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state....

. The city would be to his liking, and his wife and children would join him in early 1864. W.W. Mayo opened his medical practice after the war, and would also serve in several leadership roles in the community. Both of W.W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo
William James Mayo
William James Mayo, M.D. was a physician in the United States and one of the seven founders of the Mayo Clinic. He and his brother, Charles Horace Mayo, both joined their father's private medical practice in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, after graduating from medical school in the 1880s...

 (1861–1939) and Charles Horace Mayo
Charles Horace Mayo
-External links:*...

 (1865–1939) would grow up in Rochester, and when old enough both attended medical school. William (Will) graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles (Charlie) joining after he completed his training in 1888.

On August 21, 1883, a tornado
1883 Rochester Tornado
The 1883 Rochester tornado was an F5 tornado that hit Rochester, Minnesota on August 21, 1883. It was one in a series of tornadoes that hit Southeast Minnesota that day, causing at least 37 deaths and over 200 injuries, and was the impetus for the creation of the Mayo Clinic. On July 21, two...

 struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries. One-third of the town was destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established at the city dance hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience.

After the crisis had subsided, Mother Alfred Moes approached W.W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester if he agreed to staff the hospital. On September 30, 1889, the dream became reality as Saint Marys Hospital
Saint Marys Hospital (Rochester)
Saint Marys Hospital is one of two hospitals in Rochester, Minnesota operated by the Mayo Clinic, the other being Rochester Methodist Hospital. St Marys has a 61-bed emergency department but no obstetrics department, while Rochester Methodist lacks an emergency department but contains an obstetrics...

 opened its doors. Dr. W.W. Mayo (who by this time was 70 years of age) became the consulting physician and surgeon at the hospital, and his two sons began seeing patients and performing surgeries with the assistance of the Sisters of Saint Francis.

Group Practice

In 1892, Dr. Augustus Stinchfield
Augustus Stinchfield
Augustus W. Stinchfield was one of the founders, along with Drs. Charles Horace Mayo, William James Mayo, Christopher Graham, E...

 was asked to join the practice by W.W. Mayo, who considered him to be the best doctor in the small towns surrounding Rochester. After Dr. Stinchfield joined the practice, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73. The group practice would continue to grow, eventually adding other physicians considered today as the "founders" of the Mayo Clinic. The earliest members of the group included Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Dr. Stinchfield, Dr. Graham, Dr. Henry Plummer, Dr. Millet, Dr. Judd, and Dr. Balfour. These early partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911, but the group practice continued strong with an ever increasing presence nationally as a cutting edge center, particularly in the area of surgery. In 1919, the group partners created the Mayo Properties Association, and their private practice became a not-for-profit entity. The Mayo Brothers, who had retained ownership of all Clinic properties and furnishings, gave everything to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model of the original partners created a foundation for what would grow into the Mayo Clinic.

Growth and Current Practice

The Group Practice continued steady growth throughout the 20th Century. The campus continued to grow to keep up with patient numbers and an increasing research focus of the Clinic's operations. In 1928, the Plummer Building
Plummer Building
The Plummer Building in Rochester, Minnesota is one of the many architecturally significant buildings on the Mayo Clinic campus. This new "Mayo Clinic" building, opened in 1927, added much needed space to the ever expanding Mayo practice. The architect of record is Ellerbe & Co. It was the third...

 was completed with considerable input from Clinic staff, and under the guidance of Dr. Henry Plummer (designed by John William Dawson and Ray Corwin from the architectural firm of Ellerbe & Round). At the time of its completion, it was the tallest building in Minnesota and remained so until the Foshay Tower
Foshay Tower
The Foshay Tower, now the W Minneapolis – The Foshay hotel, is a skyscraper in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Modeled after the Washington Monument, the building was completed in 1929, months before the stock market crash in October of that year. It has 32 floors and stands high, plus an antenna mast...

 was built finished in Minneapolis in 1929. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 in 1969, and has recently undergone a complete restoration of its bell tower. The Ellerbe
Ellerbe Becket
Ellerbe Becket, an AECOM Company, is a Minneapolis, Minnesota-based architectural, engineering, interior design and construction firm – ranked as one of the world's largest architectural firms – and with offices in Dallas, TX, Kansas City, MO, San Francisco, CA, Washington, DC, Dubai,...

 firm is the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building (completed in 1928), the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, and the 2002 Gonda building
Gonda Building
The Gonda Building is a medical building owned by the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and designed by Ellerbe Becket Architects and Engineers.It rises 305 feet in 21 floors, and was completed in 2001....

. The historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the HGA
Hammel, Green and Abrahamson
Hammel, Green and Abrahamson, commonly called HGA, is an architecture firm based in Minnesota. It was founded in 1953 by Minnesotans Dick Hammel and Curt Green ....

 designed Siebens building. Since 1986, the Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the needs of Mayo patients.

Locations

Mayo Clinic has a large presence in three U.S. metropolitan areas including Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County. Located on both banks of the Zumbro River, The city has a population of 106,769 according to the 2010 United States Census, making it Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest outside of the...

, Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

, and Scottsdale/
Scottsdale, Arizona
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, adjacent to Phoenix. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2010 the population of the city was 217,385...

Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

. The Clinic employs more than 32,000 people at the main campus in Rochester, Minnesota. The Arizona and Florida sites employ approximately 5,000 persons at each site. In addition, the Mayo Clinic owns and operates the Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

, Iowa
Iowa
Iowa is a state located in the Midwestern United States, an area often referred to as the "American Heartland". It derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many American Indian tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa was a part of the French colony of New...

, and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

 with an employment of 14,000 persons. Mayo Clinic also operates several colleges of medicine, including Mayo Medical School
Mayo Medical School
Mayo Medical School is a part of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States. It grants degrees in medicine, and is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.-History:...

, the Mayo Graduate School, and the Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo School of Health Sciences
Mayo School of Health Sciences
Mayo School of Health Sciences is a private, not-for-profit school run by Mayo Clinic whose goal is to educate students in allied health science professions. MSHS has over 60 academic programs and annually enrolls over 800 students. MSHS has nearly 300 faculty members and is located at three...

.

Core values

As is evidenced by the Mayo Clinic logo, the institution has a three part focus. First and primary to the organization is the patient care practice, represented by the central shield. This is in accordance with the primary statement of the organization that "the needs of the patient always come first." The other two shields represent the ares of education and research, two areas of Mayo Clinic which have become more prominent over time.

Patient care

Each year, more than one million patients from all 50 states and from more than 150 countries are seen at one of the Mayo Clinic facilities. Mayo Clinic offers highly specialistic medical care, and a large portion of the patient population is referrals from smaller clinics and hospitals from across the upper Midwest and the United States as a whole. Mayo Clinic physicians are paid a fixed salary that is not linked to patient volume (relative value units) or income from fee-for-service
Fee-for-service
Fee-for-service is a payment model where services are unbundled and paid for separately. In health care, it gives an incentive for physicians to provide more treatments because payment is dependent on the quantity of care, rather than quality of care...

 payments. This practice is thought to decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries are determined by the marketplace salaries for physicians in comparable large group practices.

Research

Mayo Clinic researchers contribute to the understanding of disease processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 400 doctoral level physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional 2,800 allied health personnel and students with appointments in research. In 2010, more than 2,300 research protocols were reviewed by the Mayo Clinic Institutional review board
Institutional review board
An institutional review board , also known as an independent ethics committee or ethical review board , is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the aim to protect the rights and welfare of the...

 and 8,000 ongoing human research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 5,000 research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.

Education

Drs. William and Charles Mayo were proponents of education since very early in the history of Mayo Clinic. In 1917, they helped found and develop the medical school at the University of Minnesota with a two million dollar donation. Until the early 1970s, consulting physicians at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota held join appointments as professors at the University of Minnesota medical school. The Mayo Clinic was a pioneer in helping to establish the current residency education system. In 1972, Mayo Clinic opened the doors of its own medical school (Mayo Medical School
Mayo Medical School
Mayo Medical School is a part of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States. It grants degrees in medicine, and is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.-History:...

) in Rochester.

Innovation

Dr. Henry Stanley Plummer
Henry Stanley Plummer
Henry Stanley Plummer, M.D. was a prominent internist and endocrinologist who, along with Drs. William Mayo, Charles Mayo, Stinchfield, E. Starr Judd, Christopher Graham, and Donald Balfour founded Mayo Clinic. Dr...

 became a partner in the Clinic practice in 1901. He is considered by many American physicians to be the "architect of the modern medical practice" and a primary reason for Mayo Clinic's early success. He designed many of the systems which are now universally used around the world today, such as a shared, individual dossier-style medical record
Medical record
The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction....

 and an interconnecting telephone system. While the Mayo brothers excelled as surgeons, Dr. Plummer is largely credited with establishing and developing the diagnostic and clinical aspects of the practice. Dr. Louis B. Wilson
Louis B. Wilson
Louis B. Wilson, M.D. was the chief of pathology at Mayo Clinic from 1905 to 1937. Wilson is most famous for initiating the routine use of the frozen section procedure for rapid intraoperative diagnosis....

 was hired by the Clinic in 1907—at Dr. Henry Plummer's urging—to establish research and diagnostic laboratories.

Since about the year 2000, Mayo Clinic has also become known for achieving high quality at low cost. One extensive study found that the cost paid by insurers to treat Medicare patients in their last three years of life (the most expensive years) was only 54% of comparable costs in nearby clinics and hospitals. Mayo Clinic has been researched and presented many times during the passing of the 2009 healthcare reform bills in US Congress as a model to reduce healthcare costs while increasing quality for the nation. However, Mayo Clinic issued an open letter stating the healthcare reform bills as written in July 2009 would not reduce costs or increase quality nationwide.

The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic is dedicated to the advancement of research in the biomedical imaging
Medical imaging
Medical imaging is the technique and process used to create images of the human body for clinical purposes or medical science...

 and visualization sciences. The BIR provides expertise and advanced technology related to these fields, including image acquisition, processing, display and analysis; volume visualization; computer graphics; virtual reality and virtual environments; image databases; computer workstations, networks and programming. The BIR group developed the biomedical imaging software Analyze.

Leadership

Mayo Clinic is led by President and CEO John Noseworthy, M.D. In 2007, annual revenue at Mayo Clinic grew 10 percent, to $6.9 billion. In May 2009, it was announced that when previous CEO Denis Cortese retires in November 2009, Dr. John Noseworthy was to be named the new President and CEO.

After his retirement from Mayo in November 2009, Dr. Cortese became director of the Health Care Delivery and Policy Program at Arizona State University (ASU), Foundation Professor at ASU, and President of the Healthcare Transformation Institute. On July 29, 2010, EGHC, parent company of Essence Healthcare and other subsidiaries, announced that Dr. Cortese would join its Board of Directors.

Rankings

In 2011, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #3 overall hospital in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 by U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

. A total of 4,825 hospitals were considered and ranked in 16 specialties from cancer and heart disease to respiratory disorders and urology; 140, or less than 3 percent of the total, were ranked in even one of the 16 specialties. Of the 140 hospitals that are ranked in one or more specialties, 17 qualified for the Honor Roll by earning high scores in at least six specialties. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked in the top 10 in all but one of 16 specialties, in the top 5 in 12 specialties, and was the #1 ranked hospital in four specialties.
U.S. News & World Report – Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 2011 Rankings by Medical Specialty
Ranked 1st Ranked 2nd Ranked 3rd or 4th Ranked 5th or lower
Diabetes and endocrine disorders   Orthopedics
Orthopedics
Orthopedics is the study of the musculoskeletal system. The Greek word 'ortho' means straight or correct and 'pedics' comes from the Greek 'pais' meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children...

Urology
Urology
Urology is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological...

 (3rd)
Geriatric care (6th)
Gynecology Pulmonology
Pulmonology
In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the respiratory tract and respiratory disease. It is called chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas...

Hematology
Hematology
Hematology, also spelled haematology , is the branch of biology physiology, internal medicine, pathology, clinical laboratory work, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases...

-oncology
Oncology
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with cancer...

 (4th)  
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)
Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or traumatic injury....

 (6th)
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster , enteron , and logos...

Heart
Heart
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

 and heart surgery  
Rheumatology
Rheumatology
Rheumatology is a sub-specialty in internal medicine and pediatrics, devoted to diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Clinicians who specialize in rheumatology are called rheumatologists...

 (4th)
Psychiatry
Psychiatry
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities...

 (9th)
Kidney
Kidney
The kidneys, organs with several functions, serve essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and...

 disorders
Neurology
Neurology
Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue,...

 and neurosurgery
Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spine, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.-In the United States:In...

  
Ear
Ear
The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system....

, nose
Human nose
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum, which consists mostly of cartilage and which separates the nostrils...

 and throat
Throat
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the anterior part of the neck, in front of the vertebral column. It consists of the pharynx and larynx...

 (4th)
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

 (13th)

See also

  • Mayo Medical School
    Mayo Medical School
    Mayo Medical School is a part of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States. It grants degrees in medicine, and is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.-History:...

  • Mayo Clinic Diet
    Mayo Clinic Diet
    The Mayo Clinic released a diet in late 2009 that legitimately earns the name "The Mayo Clinic Diet". Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with The Mayo Clinic. The diet developed and endorsed by The Mayo Clinic is presented in the form of a...

  • SPARC Innovation Program
    SPARC Innovation Program
    The SPARC Innovation Program at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, is widely recognized as the first design-based research and development laboratory for health services....

  • American Legacy Foundation
    American Legacy Foundation
    The American Legacy Foundation is a 501 not-for-profit organization dedicated to preventing teen smoking and encouraging smokers to quit. It was established in March 1998 as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement between a coalition of attorneys general in 46 states and five United States...

  • Medical centers in the United States
    Medical centers in the United States
    Medical centers in the United States are conglomerations of health-care facilities including hospitals and research facilities that also either include or are closely affiliated with a medical school...

  • Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation
    Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation
    Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation is the name given to the process of sending specific electric messages to a nerve in the ear that maintains balance. This technology has been investigated for both military and commercial purposes. The technology is being applied in ATSUGI, Japan and the Mayo Clinic...

  • Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation
    Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation
    The Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation , an internal consultancy of the Mayo Clinic, is the United States’s largest health care delivery innovation group working within a major academic medical center....


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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