Market access
Market access for goods in the WTO
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

 means the conditions, tariff
A tariff may be either tax on imports or exports , or a list or schedule of prices for such things as rail service, bus routes, and electrical usage ....

 and non-tariff measures, agreed by members for the entry of specific goods into their markets. Tariff commitments for goods are set out in each member's schedules of concessions
Schedules of concessions
Schedules of concessions are documents in which the specific commitments are listed. World Trade Organization negotiations produce general rules that apply to all members, and specific commitments made by individual member governments. For trade in goods in general, these consist of maximum tariff...

 on goods. The schedules represent commitments not to apply tariffs above the listed rates — these rates are “bound”. Non-tariff measures are dealt with under specific WTO agreements. WTO Members seek to continually improve market access through the regular WTO work programme and through negotiations such as those launched at the Doha Ministerial Conference in November 2001.

Market access and import regulations

Countries have various different systems controlling the import of products. Often authorization from certification bodies and/or international product certification
Product certification
Product certification or product qualification is the process of verifying that a certain product has passed performance tests and quality assurance tests or qualification requirements stipulated in contracts, regulations, or specifications...

 is required. An overview of market access regulations can be given for example by or


Market Access is also used in Pharmacoeconomics
Pharmacoeconomics refers to the scientific discipline that compares the value of one pharmaceutical drug or drug therapy to another. It is a sub-discipline of health economics. A pharmacoeconomic study evaluates the cost and effects of a pharmaceutical product...

 and refers to the process by which a company gets a drug to market so that it becomes available for patients. Access is defined as a patient's ability to obtain medical care. Ease of access is determined by such factors as the availability of medical services and their acceptability to the patient, location of health care facilities, the transportation, the hours of operation and cost of care.1 Evidence-Based Market Access (see Evidence-based medicine
Evidence-based medicine
Evidence-based medicine or evidence-based practice aims to apply the best available evidence gained from the scientific method to clinical decision making. It seeks to assess the strength of evidence of the risks and benefits of treatments and diagnostic tests...

) refers to a process for producing Market Access reports based on scientific, preferably peer-reviewed and referenced material.
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