Mari Boine
Mari Boine, previously known as Mari Boine Persen, (born 8 November 1956) is a Norwegian
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

Sami people
The Sami people, also spelled Sámi, or Saami, are the arctic indigenous people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Sweden, Norway, Finland, the Kola Peninsula of Russia, and the border area between south and middle Sweden and Norway. The Sámi are Europe’s northernmost...

 musician known for having added jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 and rock to the yoik
A joik, , luohti, vuolle, leu'dd, or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song.Originally, joik referred to only one of several Sami singing styles, but in English the word is often used to refer to all types of traditional Sami singing...

s of her native people. Gula Gula (first released by Iđut, 1989, later re-released by Real World
Real World Records
Real World Records is a record label started in 1989 by Peter Gabriel to record and produce world music.-Overview:The label grew up alongside the success of the WOMAD festivals and Peter Gabriel's exploration of music from other cultures, and helped push world music into the general public's...

) was her breakthrough release, and she continued to record popular albums throughout the 1990s.


Boine was born and raised in Gámehisnjárga, a village on the river Anarjohka in Karasjok
Kárášjohka or is a village and municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Karasjok.-Name:Karasjok is a Norwegianized form of the Sámi name Kárášjohka...

 municipality in Finnmark
or Finnmárku is a county in the extreme northeast of Norway. By land it borders Troms county to the west, Finland to the south and Russia to the east, and by water, the Norwegian Sea to the northwest, and the Barents Sea to the north and northeast.The county was formerly known as Finmarkens...

, in the far north of Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...


Boine's parents were Sami (Lapps). They made a living from salmon fishing and farming. She grew up steeped in the region's natural environment, but also amidst the strict Laestadian Christian movement with discrimination against her people: for example, singing in the traditional Sami joik style was considered 'the devil's work'. The local school that Boine attended reflected a very different world from her family's. All the teaching was in Norwegian.


As Boine grew up, she started to rebel against being an inferior Lappish woman in Norwegian society. For instance, the booklet accompanying the CD 'Leahkastin' (Unfolding) is illustrated with photographs with racist captions like "Lapps report for anthropological measurement", "Typical female Lapp", "A well-nourished Lapp"; and it ends with a photo of Boine herself as a girl, captioned "Mari, one of the rugged Lapp-girl types" and attributed "(Photo: Unidentified priest)".

When Boine's album Gula Gula was first released on Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
Peter Brian Gabriel is an English singer, musician, and songwriter who rose to fame as the lead vocalist and flautist of the progressive rock group Genesis. After leaving Genesis, Gabriel went on to a successful solo career...

's RealWorld label in July 1990, its front cover (see illustration) showed an iconic image of the tundra
In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word tūndâr "uplands," "treeless mountain tract." There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine...

 of the far north, the eye of a Snowy Owl
Snowy Owl
The Snowy Owl is a large owl of the typical owl family Strigidae. The Snowy Owl was first classified in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus, the Swedish naturalist who developed binomial nomenclature to classify and organize plants and animals. The bird is also known in North America as the Arctic Owl, Great...

. The front cover curiously did not show the name of the album, or the name or face of Marie Boine herself; the back cover printed the name 'Mari Boine Persen', the Persen surname identifying her as a Norwegian
Norwegians constitute both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway. They share a common culture and speak the Norwegian language. Norwegian people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in United States, Canada and Brazil.-History:Towards the end of the 3rd...

 rather than a Sami. On the 2007 release on her own Lean label, the album cover explicitly names Mari Boine with her Sami surname, and shows her (see illustration) in full Sami costume as a shamanistic dancer of her own people, while the white background, like the Snowy Owl of the original release, hints at the snows of the north.

Boine was asked to perform at the 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer failed to win the bid for the 1992 event. Lillehammer was awarded the games in 1988, after having beat...

 in Lillehammer
is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway, globally known for hosting the 1994 Winter Olympics. It is part of the traditional region of Gudbrandsdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Lillehammer. As of May 2011, the population of the town of Lillehammer was...

, but refused because she perceived the invitation as an attempt to bring a token
In the arts, employment, and politics, tokenism is a policy or practice of limited inclusion or artistic and/or political representation of members of a traditionally marginalized group, usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices rather than discrimination, intentional or not...

 minority to the ceremonies.

Musical style

Boine's songs are strongly rooted in her experience of being in a despised minority. For example, the song 'Oppskrift for Herrefolk' (Recipe for a Master Race) on her breakthrough CD 'Gula Gula', sung in Norwegian unlike the rest of the songs which are in Sami, speaks directly of 'discrimination and hate', and ironically recommends ways of oppressing a minority: "Use bible and booze and bayonet"; "Use articles of law against ancient rights".

Boine's other songs are more positive, often singing of the beauty and wildness of Sapmi (Lapland). The title track of 'Gula Gula' asks the listener to remember 'that the earth is our mother'.

Boine sings in a traditional folk style, using the yodelling 'yoik' voice, with a range of accompanying instruments and percussion. For example, on 'Gula Gula' the instruments used are drum, guitar, electric bass clarinet, dozo n'koni, ganga, claypot, darboka, tambourine, seed rattles, cymbal, clarinet, piano, frame drum, saz, drone drum, hammered dulcimer, bosoki, overtone flute, bells, bass, quena, charango and antara.


Rootsworld, interviewing Boine in 2002, described her as "an unofficial Sami cultural ambassador".

The Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

, in its 2010 F&M playlist of songs "they just can't turn off", describes My Friend of Angel Tribe with the words "Norwegian Sami singer Boine, with this soft, melancholy and utterly mesmerising song."


In 2003 Boine was awarded the Nordic Council Music Prize
Nordic Council Music Prize
The Nordic Council Music Prize is awarded annually by NOMUS, the Nordic Music Committee. Every two years it is awarded for a work by a living composer...

. She was appointed knight, first class in the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav for her artistic diversity on September 18, 2009.


Jaskatvuođa maŋŋá / Etter stillheten / After the Silence (1985)

A.1. Alla Hearra Guhkkin Oslos
A.2. Oktavuohta
A.3. Ceavlas Galbma Garvvuid Sis(te)
A.4. Mearrasapmelazzii
A.5. Sii Navccahuhttet Mu
B.1. Idja Lea Mannan
B.2. Anuheapmi
B.3. Koffor E Det Sa Stille
B.4. Na Darvanii Jahkku *
B.5. Oainnat Go Mo Cuvggoda Dal
* Mari Boine (first) lyrics, set to John Lennon's Working Class Hero music

Gula Gula / Hør stammødrenes stemme / Hear the Voices of the Foremothers (1990)

  1. Gula Gula (Hear the Voices of the Foremothers)
  2. Vilges Suola (White Thief)
  3. Balu Badjel Go Vuoittán (When I Win Against Fear)
  4. Du Lahka (Near You)
  5. It Šat Duolmma Mu (Free at Last)
  6. Eadnan Bakti (To Woman)
  7. Oppskrift For Herrefolk ('Recipe for a Master Race')
  8. Duinne (To You)

Bonus tracks on 2005 Universal Norway reissue:
  1. Oarbbis Leat
  2. Cuovgi Liekkas
  3. Gula Gula - Chilluminati Mix

Goaskinviellja / Ørnebror / Eagle Brother (1993)

  1. Čuvges Vuovttat, Duođalaš Čalbmi (Hair of Light, Solemn Eye)
  2. Sámi Eatnan Duoddarat (Samilands Rippling Tundra)
  3. Modjás Kátrin (Katrin Who Smiles)
  4. Dás Áiggun Čuožžut (Within Myself)
  5. Dolgesuorbmagežiiguin (A Feathered Touch)
  6. Skádja (The Reverberation)
  7. Goaskinviellja (Eagle Brother)
  8. Ráhkesvuođain (Feather the World)
  9. Mu Áhkku (My Grandma)
  10. Ále Ále Don (Don't Go... Not You)

Leahkastin / Unfolding (1994)

  1. Gumppet Holvot (The Wolves Howl)
  2. Ále Šat (No More)
  3. Čuovgi Liekkas (Radiant Warmth)
  4. Áhččai (To My Father)
  5. Maid Áiggot Muinna Eallin (What Do You Want Life?)
  6. Mielahisvuohta (Lunacy Lunacy)
  7. Gilvve Gollát (Sow Your Gold)
  8. Gulan Du (Hearing You)
  9. Vuolgge Mu Mielde Bassivárrái (Come with Me to the Sacred Mountain)
  10. Mun Da'han Lean Oaivámuš (Just When I Had...)
  11. Dá Lean Mun (Here I Am)

Radiant Warmth (1996)

(Compilation from 'Goaskinviellja' and 'Leahkastin')
  1. Goaskinviellja (Eagle Brother)
  2. Ale Sat (No More)
  3. Cuovgi Liekkas (Radiant Warmth)
  4. Skádja (Reverberation)
  5. Cuvges Vuovttat, Duodalas Calbmi (Hair of Light, Solemn Eye)
  6. Modjás Kátrin (Katrin Who Smiles)
  7. Mielahisvuohta (Lunacy, Lunacy)
  8. Gilvve Gollát (Sow Your Gold)
  9. Gulan Du (Hearing You)
  10. Vuolgge Mu Mielde Bassivárrái (Come with Me to the Sacred Mountain)
  11. Ráhkesvuodain (Feather the World)
  12. Mu Ahkku (Grandma)
  13. Ale Ale Don (Don't Go... Not You)

Eallin / Life (1996)

(recorded live)
  1. Mielahisvuohta (State of Mind Where Your Intellect Is Disconnected)
  2. Dás Áiggun Čuožžut (Within Myself)
  3. Orbina (The Orphan)
  4. Gula Gula (Hear The Voices of the Foremothers)
  5. Modjás Katrin (Katrin Who Smiles)
  6. Eco (Echo)
  7. Skádja (Reverberation)
  8. Vuolgge Mu Mielde Bassivárrái (Come with Me to the Sacred Mountain)
  9. It Šat Duolmma Mu (Free)
  10. Dutjne (To You)

Bálvvoslatjna / Room of Worship (1998)

  1. Eallin (Life)
  2. Beaivvi Nieida (Daughter Of Sun)
  3. Risten
  4. Eagle Man / Changing Woman (Girdi Olmmái / Geaidi Nissun)
  5. Álddagasat Ipmilat (Gods Of Nature)
  6. Oarjjabeal Beaivvi Ja Mánu (West Of Moon And Sun)
  7. Mu Váhkar Lásse (My Youngest)
  8. Alit Go Buot Várit (Higher Than All Mountains)
  9. Don It Galgan (Thou Shalt Not)
  10. Etno Jenny (Ethno Jenny)

Winter in Moscow (2001)

(Mari Boine with Inna Zhelannaya and Sergey Starostin)
  1. Dás Áiggun Cuožžut (Here Will I Stand)
  2. Pjesna Ljesorubov (Song Of The Lumberjacks)
  3. Korridorsangen (The Corridor Song)
  4. Sjestra Maja Notsj (The Night Is My Sister)
  5. Vozlje Tvojej Ljobvi (Near Your Love)
  6. Odinotsjestvo-Sestritsa (Sister Loneliness)
  7. Roahkkadit Rohtte Luodi, Mánázan (Joik With Pride, My Child!)
  8. Balada O Gorje (Ballad Of Grief)

Gávcci Jahkejuogu / Eight Seasons (2002)

  1. Boađan Nuppi Bealde (I Come From The Other Side)
  2. Song For The Unborn (Reagákeahtes)
  3. Sáráhka Viina (Sáráhka's Wine)
  4. Guovssahasaid Ájagáttis (By The Source Of Aurora B)
  5. Sielu Dálkkas (Soul Medicine)
  6. Mu Váibmu Vádjul Doppe (Hymn)
  7. Butterfly (Beaivelottáš)
  8. Liegga Gokčas Sis' (In A Blanket Of Warmth)
  9. It Dieđe (You Never Know)
  10. Duottar Rássi (Tundra Flower)
  11. Silba Várjala (Let Silver Protect)
  12. Bottoža Dáhtun (Give Me A Break)

Idjagieđas / I Nattens Hand / In the Hand of the Night (2006)

  1. Vuoi Vuoi Mu (Vuoi Vuoi Me)
  2. Idjagieđas (In the Hand of the Night)
  3. Suoivva (The Shadow)
  4. Gos Bat Munno Čiŋat Leat? (Where Did All Our Colours Go?)
  5. Mu Ustit, Eŋgeliid Sogalaš (My Friend of Angel Tribe)
  6. Davvi Bávttiin (On the Fells of the North)
  7. Lottáš (Little Bird)
  8. Diamántta Spáillit (Reindeer of Diamond)
  9. Geasuha (Irresistible)
  10. Áfruvvá (The Mermaid)
  11. Uldda Nieida (Uldda Girl)
  12. Big Medicine (Fápmodálkkas)

Kautokeino-opprøret (2008)

Soundtrack from the film Kautokeino-opprøret
The Kautokeino Rebellion ) is a 2008 film based on the true story of the Kautokeino riots in Kautokeino, Norway in 1852 in response to the Norwegian exploitation of the Sami community at that time. It is directed by Nils Gaup and was released in January, 2008...

  1. Elen Skum
  2. Válddi vuoigna (The Spirit of Power)
  3. Deaivideapmi (Confrontation)
  4. Doaivut ja vuoimmehuvvat (Hope and Defeat)

Čuovgga Áirras / Sterna Paradisea (2009)

  1. Lene Májjá
  2. Ipmiliin hálešteapmi (Conversation with God)
  3. Soagŋosilbbat (Courting Jewellery)
  4. Soria Moria Palássa (Soria Moria Palace)
  5. Čuovgga áirras (Sterna Paradisea)
  6. Claudiinna lávlla (Claudine's Song)
  7. Skealbma (The Mischievous)
  8. Iđitveiggodettin (Dawn)
  9. De mana, ráhkásan (For My Daughter)
  10. Lihkahusat (Entranced)
  11. Go idja nuossala (When Night Is Almost Done)

Also appears on

  • Beginner's Guide to Scandinavia 3CD set (2011)

With Jan Garbarek
Jan Garbarek
Jan Garbarek is a Norwegian tenor and soprano saxophonist, active in the jazz, classical, and world music genres. Garbarek was born in Mysen, Norway, the only child of a former Polish prisoner of war Czesław Garbarek and a Norwegian farmer's daughter...

  • Twelve Moons
    Twelve Moons
    Twelve Moons is an album by Norwegian saxophonist Jan Garbarek recorded in 1992 and released on the ECM label.-Reception:The Allmusic review awarded the album 4 stars.-Track listing:# "Twelve Moons" - 7:35# "Psalm" - 6:33...

    (ECM, 1992)
  • Visible World
    Visible World
    Visible World is an album by Norwegian saxophonist Jan Garbarek recorded in 1995 and released on the ECM label.-Reception:The Allmusic review by Chris Kelsey awarded the album 2½ stars stating "This is quiet, contemplative music for the most part -- attractive, but not superficially pretty. Its...

    (ECM, 1995)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.