Luis Carrillo
Luis Carrillo was, from November 1567 to about July 1568, royal commissioner with Alonso Muñoz
Alonso Muñoz
Alonso Muñoz was a high-ranking administrator in Spain and, from November 1567 to about July 1568, royal commissioner with Luis Carrillo for the inspection of the government of New Spain for King Philip II.-Origins and early career:A descendant of successful ranchers involved in the production...

 for the inspection of the viceregal government of New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

 for King Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....


The Conspiracy of 1565

When New Spain Viceroy Luis de Velasco
Luis de Velasco
Luís de Velasco was the second viceroy of New Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century....

 died in 1564, the cabildo (city council) of Mexico City informed Spain they did not want another viceroy. Word that the Council of the Indies in Spain would not agree to make encomienda
The encomienda was a system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor....

s permanent led to a conspiracy to make New Spain independent of the mother country. In 1565, Martín Cortés, Marquess del Valle
Martín Cortés
Martín Cortés may refer to:* Martín Cortés de Albacar, Spanish cosmographer* Martín Cortés * Martín Cortés, 2nd Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca...

, son and heir of Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

, and Luis, another son, were the leaders of this conspiracy (the Conspiracy of 1565).

The plot was discovered and suppressed, and some of the conspirators, including the sons of Cortés, were arrested. In 1566, before the arrival of the new viceroy, Gastón de Peralta, marqués de Falces
Gastón de Peralta, marqués de Falces
Gastón Carrillo de Peralta y Bosquete, 3rd Marquis of Falces was a Spanish nobleman who was viceroy of New Spain from October 16, 1566 to March 10, 1568.-Biography:...

, the Audiencia had had two conspirators beheaded. These were the brothers Alonso and Gil Gonzales de Avila. The Audiencia had also sentenced Martín and Luis Cortés to death, but the sentence had not yet been carried out. Upon his arrival, Viceroy Peralta reviewed the cases and suspended the death sentences against the sons of Cortés. They were sent back to Spain to be dealt with by the Council of the Indies. The Audiencia denounced the new viceroy for his leniency with the rebels.

As royal commissioner in New Spain

Conflicting reports sent back to Spain led to confusion in the Council of the Indies. The Council proposed to the king that he send a special commission to the colony to investigate the situation and bring actions against guilty parties, up to and including the removal of the viceroy. By a royal edict dated June 16, 1567, Philip II named a commission consisting of Licenciado Gaspar de Jarava, Licenciado Alonso Muñoz and Doctor Luis Carrillo. The first two were from the Council of the Indies; Doctor Carrillo was an official in the Court.

The king gave written instructions to the commissioners. They were to order Viceroy Peralta to return to Spain at the first opportunity. The government of the colony was to be turned over to Licenciado Jarava, the oldest of the three commissioners, and in his absence, to Licenciado Muñoz, also elderly. Sentences of death were not to be given without the unanimous approval of the commissioners.

Commissioner Jarava died on the voyage, on July 18, 1567, one day after reaching Grand Canary. Muñoz and Carrillo arrived in Veracruz
Veracruz, Veracruz
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

 on October 29, 1567. They began their work in Mexico City early in November. The Audiencia had already freed Martín Cortés on condition that he would leave Mexico. The first decision of the commission was to construct a jail, "in the manner of those of the Santo Officio [Inquisition]", to imprison the principle accused, including Baltasar de Aguilar Cervantes and Luis Cortés.

Aguilar was the principal accuser of Martín Cortes, Marquess del Valle, but upon recognizing Viceroy Peralta's sympathy with the marquess, Aguilar had withdrawn his accusations. He was arrested now and subjected to torture to determine which of his accounts was the true one. Under torture he admitted that the second version, favorable to Cortés, was meant to persuade the viceroy. He was condemned to ten years in the galleys, forfeiture of his property, and perpetual exile from the Indies. Also tried were the brothers Pedro and Baltazar de Quesada.

Many others were implicated, some of them innocent. They were arrested, often tortured, and sentenced to prison, confiscation of property or exile. In 1568 three were hanged. The jails were full and new jails were constructed. Muñoz and Carrillo continued to jail innocent people until Spain, acting on petitions from the colonists, ordered their recall. Martín Cortés's property was restored in 1574, except for Tehuantepec
Tehuantepec is a city and municipality in the southeast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is part of the Tehuantepec District in the west of the Istmo Region. The area was important in pre Hispanic period as part of a trade route that connected Central America with what is now the center of...

, which was taken by the Crown for a port and navy yard.

Embarkation for Spain

Doctor Carrillo left to return to Spain in 1568, accompanied by some of the prisoners being transferred there. Muñoz remained in Mexico City in accordance with his instructions from the king, to continue as interim governor of the colony until the arrival of a new viceroy. When Carrillo arrived in the port of Veracruz, he found the deposed viceroy waiting to embark for Spain. He also found a newly arrived ship with further instructions. Both commissioners were ordered to return to Spain immediately and the government of the colony was left in charge of the Audiencia. Muñoz, who was not anxious to leave, nevertheless went to Veracruz and embarked with Carrillo, ex-Viceroy Peralta, and the prisoners.

Carrillo died on the voyage from Veracruz to Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

. He was buried in Cuba, but later exhumed so that his remains could be returned to Spain. The Audiencia of Mexico City under its president Francisco Ceinos
Francisco Ceinos
Francisco Ceinos was one of five oidores of the second Audiencia of New Spain. This group governed the colony from January 10, 1531 to April 16, 1535. Ceinos was also in the Audiencias that served as interim governments of New Spain from 1564 to 1566 and from approximately July 1568 to November...

 continued to govern there until November. In that month the new viceroy, Martín Enríquez de Almanza
Martín Enríquez de Almanza
Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza was the fourth viceroy of New Spain, who ruled from November 5, 1568 until October 3, 1580. He was subsequently viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1581 until his death in 1583. His birthplace and origins are uncertain...

, arrived and took over the administration.

Muñoz, the only survivor of the three commissioners, gave the formal report of the mission to the king in late August, 1568. He died on December 19, 1568.

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