Ludo (board game)
Overview
 
Ludo is a simple board game
Board game
A board game is a game which involves counters or pieces being moved on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games may be based on pure strategy, chance or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve...

 for two to four players, in which the players race
Race game
Race game is a large category of board games, in which the object is to be the first to move all one's pieces to the end of a track. This is both the earliest type of board game known, with implements and representations dating back to at least the 3rd millennium BC in Egypt, Iraq, and Iran; and...

 their four tokens from start to finish according to dice
Dice
A die is a small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers...

 rolls. Like other cross and circle game
Cross and Circle game
Cross and Circle is a board game design used for race games played throughout the world.-Design:Strictly, the design comprises a circle divided into four equal portions by a cross inscribed inside it; the classic example of this design is Yut...

s, it is similar to the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

, but simpler. The game and its variants are popular in many countries under various names.
Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

 originated/started in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.

This game was played by the Mughal emperors
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 of India; a notable example being that of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, who played living Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

 using girls from his harem
Harem
Harem refers to the sphere of women in what is usually a polygynous household and their enclosed quarters which are forbidden to men...

.

Variations of the game made it to England during the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

, with one appearing under the name Ludo around 1896, which was then patented.

In Germany this game is called "Mensch ärgere dich nicht
Mensch ärgere dich nicht
Mensch ärgere dich nicht is a German board game , by Josef Friedrich Schmidt .The game was issued in 1914 and sold about 70 million copies...

" which in English means "Man, don't get irritated", and has equivalent names in Dutch, Croatian, Czech and Slovak.
Encyclopedia
Ludo is a simple board game
Board game
A board game is a game which involves counters or pieces being moved on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games may be based on pure strategy, chance or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve...

 for two to four players, in which the players race
Race game
Race game is a large category of board games, in which the object is to be the first to move all one's pieces to the end of a track. This is both the earliest type of board game known, with implements and representations dating back to at least the 3rd millennium BC in Egypt, Iraq, and Iran; and...

 their four tokens from start to finish according to dice
Dice
A die is a small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers...

 rolls. Like other cross and circle game
Cross and Circle game
Cross and Circle is a board game design used for race games played throughout the world.-Design:Strictly, the design comprises a circle divided into four equal portions by a cross inscribed inside it; the classic example of this design is Yut...

s, it is similar to the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

, but simpler. The game and its variants are popular in many countries under various names.

History

Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

 originated/started in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.

This game was played by the Mughal emperors
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 of India; a notable example being that of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, who played living Pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

 using girls from his harem
Harem
Harem refers to the sphere of women in what is usually a polygynous household and their enclosed quarters which are forbidden to men...

.

Variations of the game made it to England during the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

, with one appearing under the name Ludo around 1896, which was then patented.

In Germany this game is called "Mensch ärgere dich nicht
Mensch ärgere dich nicht
Mensch ärgere dich nicht is a German board game , by Josef Friedrich Schmidt .The game was issued in 1914 and sold about 70 million copies...

" which in English means "Man, don't get irritated", and has equivalent names in Dutch, Croatian, Czech and Slovak. In Bulgaria its name, "Не се сърди човече", means "Don't get angry, little guy!".

Board

A Ludo board is normally a square marked with a cross. Each arm of the cross is divided into three columns, with the columns divided into usually six squares. The centre of the cross is the finishing square which is often divided into four coloured triangles. Each coloured triangle is combined with a coloured middle column appears as an arrow pointing to the finish. The shaft of each arrow is a player's "home column" and is five squares long.

To the left of each home column, one square from the edge of the board, is a large starting square, also coloured, with four smaller squares therein, on which each players four pieces are placed. During game play a piece moves from its starting square, clockwise around the perimeter of the board, and up the player's home column to the finishing square. This is opposite to pachisi which runs counterclockwise. In the space to the left of each arm is a circle or square to hold a player's pieces before they are allowed into play. Unlike pachisi
Pachisi
Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

, there are no resting squares, but the coloured home column may only be entered by its own player's tokens. However, Ludo played in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 has a resting place in each quadrant, normally the fourth square from the top in the right most column.

The special areas on the board are typically brightly coloured with yellow, green, red, and blue. Each player uses cardboard or plastic tokens of matching colour.

Rules

At the start of the game, the player's four pieces are placed in the start area of their colour.

Players take it in turn to throw a die. A player must first throw a six to be able to move a piece from the starting area onto the starting square. In each subsequent turn the player moves a piece forward 1 to 6 squares as indicated by the die. When a player throws a 6 the player may bring a new piece onto the starting square, or may choose to move a piece already in play. The player is also granted another turn as a bonus, but if a 6 is rolled three times in a row it is counted as a foul and the player therefore loses her turn.

If a player gets a 6 they can separate chances (the player can separate 6 on one piece and 3 on the other if they get a 6 and a 3, if the pieces are already out of the house). The player can also play the numbers (6 & 3) using the same piece in any order. If a player cannot make a valid move they must pass the die to the next player.

If a player's piece lands on a square containing an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is captured and returns to the starting area. A piece may not land on a square that already contains a piece of the same colour (unless playing doubling rules; see below).

Once a piece has completed a circuit of the board it moves up the home column of its own colour. The player must throw the exact number to advance to the home square. The winner is the first player to get all four of their pieces onto the home square.

Variations

  • To get a game started faster, some house rules
    House rules
    House rules are rules applying only in a certain location or organization. Bars and pubs in which games take place frequently have house rules posted...

     allow a player with no pieces on the board to bring their first piece into play on any roll, on a 1 or a 6, or allow multiple tries to roll a 6 (with three rolls being the most popular).
  • If a piece lands on the same space as the another piece of the same colour, the moved piece must take the preceding space.
  • If a player's piece lands on another of their own pieces, they are doubled and form a "block" which cannot be passed by any opponent's pieces. Or in some variations may only be passed by rolling a 6.
  • Doubled pieces may move half the number if an even number is thrown e.g. move 2 spaces if a 4 is thrown.
  • A doubled piece may capture another doubled piece (like in Coppit
    Coppit
    Coppit is a running-fight board game created in 1927 by Otto Maier Verlag which was originally called Fang den Hut . It was renamed has been re-released several times, most notably by the Spear's Games company in 1964. It is a game for 2-6 players and is based partly on luck with a die and partly...

    ).
  • A board may have only four spaces in each "home column". All four of a player's pieces must finish in these spaces for the player to have finished the game. (See Mensch ärgere dich nicht
    Mensch ärgere dich nicht
    Mensch ärgere dich nicht is a German board game , by Josef Friedrich Schmidt .The game was issued in 1914 and sold about 70 million copies...

    .)
  • To speed the game up, extra turns or bonus moves can be awarded capturing a piece or getting a piece home; these may grant passage past a block.


In some parts of Africa the following rules are reportedly played:
  • A doubled block also blocks trailing pieces of the player who created the block, or blocks them unless they roll the exact number to land on the block and doubled can't move forward until landed move This reduces the tactical advantage of a block and makes the game more interesting.
  • There are 4 safety squares on the board, like castle squares in Pachisi
    Pachisi
    Pachisi is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross...

    , as well as the safe home squares, where a piece may able to move forwards or backwards and start their turn before previous player finishes.
  • A piece landing on a square with an opponent's piece not only sends the opponent piece back to the starting area but also sends the piece to its home square.
  • A player cannot move their first piece into the "home column" unless they have captured at least one piece of any of the opponents.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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