London, Chatham and Dover Railway
Overview
 
The London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR) was a railway company in south-eastern England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 from 1859 until the 1923 grouping
Railways Act 1921
The Railways Act 1921, also known as the Grouping Act, was an enactment by the British government of David Lloyd George intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, move the railways away from internal competition, and to retain some of the benefits which...

 which united it with other companies to form the Southern Railway. Its lines ran through London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 and northern and eastern Kent
Kent
Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

 to form a significant part of the Greater London commuter network. From the start the railway was in an impecunious position.

The Chatham, as it was always known, was much criticised for its often lamentable carriage stock and poor punctuality, but in two respects it was very good: it used the highly effective Westinghouse brake on its passenger stock, and the Sykes 'Lock and Block' system of signalling.
Encyclopedia
The London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR) was a railway company in south-eastern England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 from 1859 until the 1923 grouping
Railways Act 1921
The Railways Act 1921, also known as the Grouping Act, was an enactment by the British government of David Lloyd George intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, move the railways away from internal competition, and to retain some of the benefits which...

 which united it with other companies to form the Southern Railway. Its lines ran through London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 and northern and eastern Kent
Kent
Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

 to form a significant part of the Greater London commuter network. From the start the railway was in an impecunious position.

The Chatham, as it was always known, was much criticised for its often lamentable carriage stock and poor punctuality, but in two respects it was very good: it used the highly effective Westinghouse brake on its passenger stock, and the Sykes 'Lock and Block' system of signalling. It had an excellent safety record.

East Kent Railway

The LCDR began as the East Kent Railway (EKR). Its first line
Chatham Main Line
The Chatham Main Line is a British railway line that runs from either London Victoria to Dover Priory / Ramsgate or London St Pancras to Faversham, with both services travelling via Medway...

 was from Strood
Strood
Strood is a town in the unitary authority of Medway in South East England. It is part of the ceremonial county of Kent. It lies on the north west bank of the River Medway at its lowest bridging point, and is part of the Rochester post town....

 near Rochester to Faversham
Faversham
Faversham is a market town and civil parish in the Swale borough of Kent, England. The parish of Faversham grew up around an ancient sea port on Faversham Creek and was the birthplace of the explosives industry in England.-History:...

, opened in two parts:
  • 29 March 1858: Strood
    Strood railway station
    Strood Railway Station serves the town of Strood in Medway. It is on the North Kent Line and is a terminus for the Medway Valley Line. Train services are operated by Southeastern.-History:...

     - Chatham
    Chatham railway station
    Chatham railway station is situated in Chatham, one of the Medway Towns in Kent, England. It is on the Chatham Main Line between Rochester and Gillingham, and is 34.3 miles from London Victoria...

    , the station at Rochester opened only after the rival SER opened Chatham Central station.
  • 25 January 1858: Chatham - Faversham
    Faversham railway station
    Faversham railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent, and serves the town of Faversham, 52 miles from London Victoria and 49 miles from London St. Pancras International. Train services are provided by Southeastern. Typical journey times for fastest services to Victoria is 70...

    , with stations at Rainham
    Rainham (Kent) railway station
    Rainham railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent, between Gillingham and Newington. Train services are provided by Southeastern.Rainham station is 38 miles and 1694 yards from London Victoria, according to the mileage sign on the footbridge....

    , Sittingbourne
    Sittingbourne railway station
    Sittingbourne railway station is on the Chatham Main Line and the Sheerness Line in north Kent. The station is 44 miles 1260 yards from London Victoria according to the mileage sign on the footbridge. Train services are provided by Southeastern...

    , Teynham
    Teynham railway station
    Teynham railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent, England, and serves the village of Teynham. Train services are provided by Southeastern...

    , and Faversham
    Faversham railway station
    Faversham railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent, and serves the town of Faversham, 52 miles from London Victoria and 49 miles from London St. Pancras International. Train services are provided by Southeastern. Typical journey times for fastest services to Victoria is 70...

    . Gillingham
    Gillingham (Kent) railway station
    Gillingham railway station in the town of Gillingham , north Kent, is on the Chatham Main Line between and Rainham stations. Train services are provided by Southeastern....

     (originally called New Brompton until May 1886, and New Brompton (Gillingham) from then until 1 October 1912) was opened circa July 1858.
  • 3 March 1858: The West End of London & Crystal Palace Railway (WELCP) opened the extension of their line from Norwood (Crystal Palace) to Beckenham Junction (opened as Beckenham) and Shortlands (opened as Bromley).
  • 22 November 1858: The Mid-Kent Railway
    Mid-Kent Railway
    The Mid-Kent Line is the name used by the successors to railways built by the Mid Kent Railway and South Eastern Railway between 1857 and 1882. The railway was originally planned the border of the counties of Kent and Surrey, and on to Westerham and Sevenoaks but a combination of factors caused it...

     constructed a line from New Beckenham to Beckenham Junction station and obtained running rights over the WELCP to Bromley (Shortlands) From there the Crays Company was building a line on to Bromley South(Bromley Common) and Bickley
    Bickley railway station
    Bickley railway station is in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It lies between Bromley South and Swanley stations. The station and all trains are operated by Southeastern, and is in Travelcard Zone 5....

     (opened as Southborough Road).

The Mid Kent line connected with the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway
West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway
The West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway was an early railway company in south London between Crystal Palace station and Wandsworth, which was opened in 1856. The line was extended in 1858 to a station at Battersea Wharf which was misleadingly named Pimlico...

 (WELCPR) which later provided the necessary access to London. After absorbing the Crays Company, and gaining running rights over the Mid Kent metals to Beckenham Junction, the LCDR was to later buy the track between Beckenham Junction, Birkbeck and Bromley Junction, while the LBSCR absorbed the rest of the WELCP.
In 1859 the EKR changed its name to the LCDR though Dover had not then been reached. This coincided with the Western Extension via Longfield to join the Crays Company metals at Southborough Road (now Bickley).
As can be seen the evolution of the lines in the Bromley area was confused to say the least, one can best refer the reader to Adrian Gray's London Chatham & Dover Railway book (page 44).

London, Chatham and Dover Railway

  • 1860 openings:
    • 9 July 1860: Faversham - Canterbury
      Canterbury
      Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a district of Kent in South East England. It lies on the River Stour....

       (now the East station) - Whitstable
      Whitstable
      Whitstable is a seaside town in Northeast Kent, Southeast England. It is approximately north of the city of Canterbury and approximately west of the seaside town of Herne Bay. It is part of the City of Canterbury district and has a population of about 30,000.Whitstable is famous for its oysters,...

       (old station)
    • 19 July 1860: Sittingbourne & Sheerness Railway, which became part of LCDR from 1866), including Queenborough
      Queenborough railway station
      Queenborough railway station is on the Sheerness Line, on the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, and serves the town of Queenborough. Train services are provided by Southeastern.-Services:...

      . Sheerness-on-Sea railway station
      Sheerness-on-Sea railway station
      Sheerness-on-Sea railway station is on the Sheerness Line in north Kent, and serves the town of Sheerness. Train services are provided by Southeastern.The only platform now used is platform 1.-History:...

       dates from 1883: the original terminus became the freight depot. There are branch lines to Queenborough Pier and Sheerness Dockyard. See Sheerness Line
      Sheerness Line
      The Sheerness Line connects Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent with Sittingbourne on the mainland, and with the Chatham Main Line for trains to London and elsewhere in Kent. It opened on 19 July 1860....

      .
    • 3 December 1860: opening of line between Bickley and Rochester, connecting the two parts of the network; opening of St Mary Cray
      St Mary Cray railway station
      St Mary Cray railway station is in the London Borough of Bromley in south-east London, in Travelcard Zone 6. The station is operated by Southeastern, as are all trains serving it.The station is 14.7 miles from London Victoria...

      , Farningham Road
      Farningham Road railway station
      Farningham Road railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the villages of Sutton-at-Hone and South Darenth in north Kent, in south east England. Train services are provided by Southeastern. It was 150 years old in December 2010...

       and Rochester Bridge stations (the latter being closed in 1917)
    • ??? 1860: Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway - Diverges from the LCDR mainline at Brixton
      Brixton railway station
      Brixton Railway Station is a commuter railway station in the centre of Brixton, inSouth London, UK. It is on the Chatham Main Line which runs from London Victoria to Orpington. Trains are operated by Southeastern. The typical service is one train every 15 minutes in both directions.Brixton Railway...

       to Crystal Palace High Level
      Crystal Palace railway station
      Crystal Palace railway station is in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is located in the Anerley area between the town centres of Crystal Palace and Penge...

       via Nunhead
      Nunhead railway station
      Nunhead railway station is a railway station in the Nunhead area of the London Borough of Southwark. The station and all trains serving it are operated by Southeastern...

  • 1861 openings:
    • Meopham
      Meopham railway station
      Meopham railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the village of Meopham in north Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern....

       and Sole Street
      Sole Street railway station
      Sole Street railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the village of Sole Street in north Kent, England. Train services are provided by Southeastern.Sole Street station is south east of London Victoria....

       stations.
    • 22 July 1861: extension from Canterbury East to Dover
      Dover Priory railway station
      Dover Priory railway station is the main station in Dover in Kent, with the other station being Kearsney situated on the outskirts of Dover. . All train services are provided by Southeastern...

      , with Bekesbourne
      Bekesbourne railway station
      Bekesbourne railway station serves the villages of Bekesbourne, Bishopsbourne, Littlebourne and Patrixbourne in Kent, and is located between Canterbury East and Dover Priory. It is served by Southeastern....

      , Adisham
      Adisham railway station
      Adisham railway station serves Adisham in the English county of Kent, and is served by Southeastern. There are brick buildings on the Down side platforms and a wooden shelter on the Up side.-History:...

      , Shepherd's Well and Dover Priory stations opening with the line.
    • 31 July 1861: Whitstable to Herne Bay
      Herne Bay railway station
      Herne Bay is a railway station on the Chatham Main Line in North Kent serving the town of Herne Bay. Train services are provided by Southeastern.- History :...

      .
    • 1 November 1861: Route to Victoria station opened: LCDR first access to London.
  • 1862 openings:
    • 2 June 1862: the Sevenoaks Railway opened from Sevenoaks Junction (later called Swanley Junction, now Swanley station
      Swanley railway station
      Swanley railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the town of Swanley in north Kent, England. Train services are provided by Southeastern. Swanley Station is 17.4 miles from London Victoria....

      ) to Sevenoaks
      Sevenoaks railway station
      Sevenoaks railway station serves the town of Sevenoaks in Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.Trains from the station run northbound to London Bridge, Cannon Street , Waterloo East and London Charing Cross via Orpington, to London Blackfriars via Swanley and Catford, and southbound to...

      . Worked by LCDR, with stations at Eynsford
      Eynsford railway station
      Eynsford railway station serves Eynsford in Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.The ticket office, on the 'down' side, is situated in the substantial station building...

      , Shoreham
      Shoreham railway station
      Shoreham railway station serves Shoreham in Kent, England. Train services are provided by Southeastern.The ticket office here was closed c 1992, having been manned only during part of the day; these days, a PERTIS passenger-operated ticket machine issues 'Permits to Travel' - which are exchanged...

      , Otford
      Otford railway station
      Otford railway station serves Otford in Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.- Services :From Monday 23 March 2009, most of the stopping train service to/from Blackfriars is extended across Central London via the 'Thameslink' route, serving City Thameslink, Farringdon, St Pancras...

      , and Sevenoaks Bat & Ball
      Bat & Ball railway station
      Bat & Ball railway station is located on Bat & Ball Road in Sevenoaks in Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.- History :The station opened in 1862. It was previously named Sevenoaks Bat & Ball and was renamed in 1950...

      . See Maidstone East Line
    • 1 July 1862: Swanley
      Swanley railway station
      Swanley railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the town of Swanley in north Kent, England. Train services are provided by Southeastern. Swanley Station is 17.4 miles from London Victoria....

       station (then named Sevenoaks Junction)
    • 6 October 1862: stations along the Metropolitan Extension line towards Victoria opened: including Penge East
      Penge East railway station
      Penge East railway station is in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is in Travelcard Zone 4, and the station and nearly all trains are operated by Southeastern...

      , Sydenham Hill
      Sydenham Hill railway station
      Sydenham Hill railway station is in the London Borough of Southwark in south London. The station serves Sydenham Hill and parts of Sydenham and Dulwich. It is in Travelcard Zone 3, and the station and all trains are operated by Southeastern...

      , Herne Hill
      Herne Hill railway station
      Herne Hill railway station is in Herne Hill, a location in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London, England. Its location is .The station is above road level near the junction of five main roads, between Railton Road and Milkwood Road. There is no entrance in Milkwood Road, but there is a...

      , and Clapham
      Clapham High Street railway station
      Clapham High Street railway station is on the South London Line from London Victoria to .It is close to station and interchange between the two is counted as an Out of Station Interchange on Oyster, so journeys involving a change between the two are charged as through journeys and not two...

      . Knight's Hill, now West Dulwich
      West Dulwich railway station
      West Dulwich railway station is in the London Borough of Southwark in West Dulwich south London. It is in Fare Zone 3, and the station and all trains are operated by Southeastern...

       was also opened.
  • 1863 openings:
    • Wandsworth Road station
    • 5 October 1863: Herne Bay to Ramsgate
      Ramsgate Harbour railway station
      Ramsgate Harbour railway station is a former railway station in Ramsgate, in the Thanet district of Kent, England. Opened in 1863 as part of the Kent Coast Railway company's extension of its line from Herne Bay, it was conveniently situated for the seaside resort's beach, but it closed in 1926...

      . Birchington-on-Sea
      Birchington-on-Sea railway station
      Birchington-on-Sea railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent, and serves the town of Birchington-on-Sea. Train services are provided by Southeastern.The station is located at one end of the High Street about 800m from the Village Square...

      , Margate
      Margate railway station
      Margate railway station serves the town of Margate in Thanet in Kent, England. Train services are provided by Southeastern.Trains from the station generally run to London Victoria via , or to via Ramsgate, Canterbury West and Ashford International...

      , and Broadstairs
      Broadstairs railway station
      Broadstairs railway station is on the Chatham Main Line in north Kent. It serves the coastal tourist town of Broadstairs and is located at the inland end of Broadstairs High Street. The station is south east of London Victoria...

       stations all opening with the line.

Second London line

  • 1 June 1864: the first section of railway to serve the City of London
    City of London
    The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

    , when the line from Herne Hill to Blackfriars Bridge station (south of the river), was opened. Prior to this, from October 1862, the terminus had been at Elephant & Castle
    Elephant & Castle railway station
    Elephant & Castle railway station serves the area of Elephant & Castle in London, England. The station is managed by First Capital Connect, with services operated by both First Capital Connect and Southeastern...

    .
  • 1 June 1865: Ludgate Hill
    Ludgate Hill railway station
    Ludgate Hill railway station was a station in the City of London opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway as its City terminus on 1 June 1865...

     station opened (closed 3 March 1929) across the river. In 1886, St Pauls station was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway: it was reached on a parallel bridge across the river.


Stations on the City Branch were
  • Herne Hill
    Herne Hill railway station
    Herne Hill railway station is in Herne Hill, a location in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London, England. Its location is .The station is above road level near the junction of five main roads, between Railton Road and Milkwood Road. There is no entrance in Milkwood Road, but there is a...

     (opened 1862)
  • Loughborough Junction
    Loughborough Junction railway station
    Loughborough Junction railway station is in Brixton in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is between Elephant & Castle and Herne Hill stations and is served by First Capital Connect and at peak hours by Southeastern.-History:...

     (opened 1 March 1863 on west chord as Loughborough Road, renamed when City line and east chord platforms opened in 1872, west platforms closed 1916, east platforms closed 1925)
  • Camberwell
    Camberwell railway station
    Camberwell railway station was a railway station on the London, Chatham and Dover Railway . It opened in 1862 as part of the company's ambitious second London railway. In 1863 the name was changed to Camberwell New Road but in 1908 reverted to Camberwell...

     (opened as Camberwell New Road 6 October 1862, closed 1916)
  • Walworth Road
    Walworth Road railway station
    Walworth Road railway station was a railway station in Walworth Road, Southwark, south London, England, on the London Chatham & Dover Railway, which opened in 1863 on the route of the company's ambitious plan to extend into the City of London...

     (opened as Camberwell Gate 1 May 1863, closed 1916)
  • Borough Road
    Borough Road railway station
    Borough Road railway station was a railway station in Borough Road, Southwark, south London, England, on the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, which was first opened in 1864 on the railway's City Branch, and which crossed the River Thames and ran up through Blackfriars to terminate in the City of...

     (opened 1 June 1864, closed 1907)
  • Elephant & Castle
    Elephant & Castle railway station
    Elephant & Castle railway station serves the area of Elephant & Castle in London, England. The station is managed by First Capital Connect, with services operated by both First Capital Connect and Southeastern...

     (opened 6 October 1862)
  • Blackfriars Bridge
    Blackfriars Bridge railway station
    Blackfriars Bridge railway station was a railway station on the London, Chatham and Dover Railway . It was constructed in 1864 and, for six months, was the northern terminus for a line from via . It was part of a scheme by the company to extend into the City of London...

     (opened 1 June 1864, goods only from 1885, closed 1964)
  • Blackfriars
    Blackfriars station
    Blackfriars station, also known as London Blackfriars, is a central London railway terminus and London Underground complex in the City of London, England. Its platforms will eventually span the River Thames a short distance downstream from Blackfriars Bridge. The current entrance is located on the...

     (opened 1886 as St Pauls, renamed 1937)
  • Ludgate Hill
    Ludgate Hill railway station
    Ludgate Hill railway station was a station in the City of London opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway as its City terminus on 1 June 1865...

     (opened 1865, closed 1929)
  • Holborn Viaduct
    Holborn Viaduct railway station
    Holborn Viaduct was a railway terminus in central London.-History:During the 1860s and 1870s, had begun to struggle with increasing numbers of trains. At the time, the LCDR was suffering financial problems, and so was unable to raise capital to expand the station...

     (opened 1874, closed 1990)
  • Holborn Viaduct (Low Level)
    Holborn Viaduct railway station
    Holborn Viaduct was a railway terminus in central London.-History:During the 1860s and 1870s, had begun to struggle with increasing numbers of trains. At the time, the LCDR was suffering financial problems, and so was unable to raise capital to expand the station...

     (opened 1874 as Snow Hill, renamed 1912, closed 1916)


......................

Later openings

  • 1872 openings:
    • Longfield
      Longfield railway station
      Longfield railway station is on the Chatham Main Line, and serves the villages of Longfield and Hartley in north Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.-History:Although situated in Longfield, the station opened as Fawkham station in June 1872...

        opened as Fawkham for Longfield and Hartley
    • Loughborough Road (the first station at what is now Loughborough Junction station
      Loughborough Junction railway station
      Loughborough Junction railway station is in Brixton in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is between Elephant & Castle and Herne Hill stations and is served by First Capital Connect and at peak hours by Southeastern.-History:...

      )
  • 1 June 1874: Otford to Maidstone
    Maidstone
    Maidstone is the county town of Kent, England, south-east of London. The River Medway runs through the centre of the town linking Maidstone to Rochester and the Thames Estuary. Historically, the river was a source and route for much of the town's trade. Maidstone was the centre of the agricultural...

     East line, with Kemsing
    Kemsing railway station
    Kemsing railway station serves Kemsing in Kent, although the station is actually located on the other side of the M26 motorway to the village. Train services are provided by Southeastern.The station has for many years been unstaffed...

    , Borough Green
    Borough Green & Wrotham railway station
    Borough Green & Wrotham railway station is located in Borough Green in Kent. Train services are provided by Southeastern.In Spring 2008, the concrete footbridge spanning the tracks here and linking the platforms was condemned and replaced by a new bridge immediately to the west.The ticket office in...

    , West Malling
    West Malling railway station
    West Malling railway station lies to the east of West Malling, Kent, England and is close to Kings Hill, Larkfield and Leybourne. The station, and all trains serving it, is operated by Southeastern....

    , Barming
    Barming railway station
    Barming railway station is located in Tonbridge and Malling Borough, west of Maidstone in Kent and some considerable distance from Barming, which lies to the south...

     and Maidstone East stations
    Maidstone East railway station
    Maidstone East railway station is one of three stations in the central area of Maidstone, Kent, but currently the only one with a regular direct service to London. The station is on the Maidstone East Line, south-east of London Victoria , and is served by trains operated by...

     opening with the line. See Maidstone East Line.
  • 1886: Gravesend Railway branch line
    Fawkham Junction
    Fawkham Junction is a railway junction that currently connects High Speed 1 with the Kent Rail Network.Originally the Junction was part of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway's line to Gravesend West . The intermediate stations were: Longfield Halt, Southfleet, Rosherville Halt and Gravesend West...

     to Gravesend (Gravesend West) was constructed from the Chatham Main Line at Fawkham Junction (just before Longfield station). http://www.kentrail.org.uk/Rosherville.htm
  • 15 June 1881: Dover Priory to Deal
    Deal railway station
    Deal railway station serves Deal in Kent, England. The station and all trains serving it are operated by Southeastern. The station is on the Kent Coast Line north east of Dover Priory and south east of London Charing Cross.-Early Years:...

    , Dover & Deal Joint Railway (LCDR/South Eastern Railway
    South Eastern Railway (UK)
    The South Eastern Railway was a railway company in south-eastern England from 1836 until 1922. The company was formed to construct a route from London to Dover. Branch lines were later opened to Tunbridge Wells, Hastings, Canterbury and other places in Kent...

    ). See Kent Coast Line
    Kent Coast Line
    The Kent Coast Line is railway line that runs from Dover Priory to Margate in the English county of Kent.It was electrified by BR under the 1955 Modernisation Plan.- Services :...

    .
  • 1 July 1884: Maidstone East to Ashford
    Ashford, Kent
    Ashford is a town in the borough of Ashford in Kent, England. In 2005 it was voted the fourth best place to live in the United Kingdom. It lies on the Great Stour river, the M20 motorway, and the South Eastern Main Line and High Speed 1 railways. Its agricultural market is one of the most...

     with intermediate stations opening at Bearsted
    Bearsted
    Bearsted is an ancient village and civil parish in mid-Kent, three miles to the east of Maidstone. The original village site was on the north bank of the River Len, a tributary of the River Medway, and at the foot of the North Downs....

    , Hollingbourne
    Hollingbourne
    Hollingbourne is a village and civil parish in the Maidstone District of Kent, England. The parish is located on the southward slope of the North Downs to the east of the county town, Maidstone. The parish population is almost 1000 persons and includes Hollingbourne village as well as Broad...

    , Harrietsham
    Harrietsham
    Harrietsham is a rural village and civil parish in the Maidstone District of Kent, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, it has a population of around 1,504. The parish is located on the slope of the North Downs, east of Maidstone...

    , Lenham
    Lenham
    Lenham is a market village in Kent situated on the southern edge of the North Downs, halfway between Maidstone and Ashford. The picturesque square in the village has two public houses , a couple of restaurants, and a tea-room....

    , and Charing
    Charing
    Charing is a small village and civil parish in the Ashford District of Kent, in south-east England. The parish population is 2,750 ; it includes the settlement of Charing Heath.It is situated at the foot of the North Downs...

    . See Maidstone East Line
  • 1 October 1884: Kent House
    Kent House railway station
    Kent House railway station serves an area between Penge and Beckenham in the London Borough of Bromley in south London: it takes its name from Kent House farm nearby, historically the first house in Kent after crossing the Surrey border. It is in Travelcard Zone 4, and the station and all trains...

    , west of Beckenham Junction
  • 1 July 1892: Catford Loop Line
    Catford Loop Line
    The Catford Loop Line is a railway line in southeast London. It carries a suburban stopping service from central London to Sevenoaks, and is also a relief route for the Chatham Main Line which conveys passenger trains from London Victoria to the Kent coast...

     - Shortlands and Nunhead Railway (constructed 1889) was incorporated with the Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway to from a loop, effectively quadrupling the LCDR main line. This date also saw the bay platforms at Kent House
    Kent House
    Kent House may refer to:in the United Kingdom*Kent House railway station*Kent House in the United States *Jerry Kent House, Yuma Arizona, listed on the NRHP in Yuma County, Arizona...

     opening.


Dates to be established

Authorised from the future site of Nunhead on 28 July 1863; Nunhead opened 1 September 1871; Greenwich Park branch opened from Nunhead to Blackheath Hill on 18 September 1871; opened through to Greenwich Park on 1 October 1888.
  • Greenwich Park branch - Nunhead
    Nunhead railway station
    Nunhead railway station is a railway station in the Nunhead area of the London Borough of Southwark. The station and all trains serving it are operated by Southeastern...

     to Greenwich Park
    Greenwich Park railway station
    Greenwich Park railway station was a railway station in Greenwich, London opened in 1888 by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway. It was intended to rival the South Eastern Railway's Greenwich railway station which had opened over 50 years earlier. It served as the terminus for the Greenwich Park...

    , closed by Southern on 1 January 1926, although a section was kept in use, and is used to this day as a link between Nunhead and Lewisham


Stations on the Greenwich Branch were
  • Brockley Lane
    Brockley Lane railway station
    Brockley Lane railway station was a railway station in Brockley, London which was opened in 1872 on the Greenwich Park branch which was owned by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway...

     (opened 1872: shut to passengers 1917: closed 1970)
  • Lewisham Road
    Lewisham Road railway station
    Lewisham Road railway station was a railway station in Lewisham, London built by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway on the Greenwich Park branch. It was opened in 1871. It was very close to the South Eastern Railway's St Johns railway station, which still remains open...

     (opened 1871: closed 1917)
  • Blackheath Hill
    Blackheath Hill railway station
    Blackheath Hill railway station was a railway station in south-east London on the border of Greenwich and Lewisham. It was opened in 1871 by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway on its Greenwich Park branch. It served as the end of the line until the stretch to Greenwich Park was opened in 1888....

     (opened 1871: closed 1917)
  • Greenwich Park
    Greenwich Park railway station
    Greenwich Park railway station was a railway station in Greenwich, London opened in 1888 by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway. It was intended to rival the South Eastern Railway's Greenwich railway station which had opened over 50 years earlier. It served as the terminus for the Greenwich Park...

     (opened 1888: closed 1917)

Formation of the South Eastern & Chatham Railway

On 1 January 1899 the undertaking of the LCDR was, by arrangement, joined with that of the South Eastern Railway for united working under a Management Committee composed of the directors of the two Companies. The arrangement was confirmed by Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament. In the Republic of Ireland the term Act of the Oireachtas is used, and in the United States the term Act of Congress is used.In Commonwealth countries, the term is used both in a narrow...

 on 5 August 1899 by the South Eastern and London, Chatham and Dover Railway Act 1899.

The rolling stock and steamboats of the two companies were thereafter worked as one concern. Some rationalisation of competing stations occurred but it was not fully resolved. Between 1902 and 1904, connections were built to allow LCDR trains through running on ex-SER lines, notably in the Bickley area where the two main lines crossed. The rationalisation of the lines in Thanet to create a line which ran through from Margate via Ramsgate to Minster did not take place until after the grouping
Railways Act 1921
The Railways Act 1921, also known as the Grouping Act, was an enactment by the British government of David Lloyd George intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, move the railways away from internal competition, and to retain some of the benefits which...

. In 1936 the former tunnel to Ramsgate Harbour became part of the Tunnel Railway
Tunnel Railway
The Tunnel Railway was an underground railway in Ramsgate, Kent, England...

 underground railway system linking Ramsgate beach to Hereson Road, near mainline station. See South Eastern and Chatham Railway
South Eastern and Chatham Railway
The South Eastern and Chatham Railway Companies Joint Management Committee , known by its shorter name of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway was a working union of two neighbouring rival railways, the South Eastern Railway and London, Chatham and Dover Railway , that operated services between...

 and South Eastern Railway
South Eastern Railway (UK)
The South Eastern Railway was a railway company in south-eastern England from 1836 until 1922. The company was formed to construct a route from London to Dover. Branch lines were later opened to Tunbridge Wells, Hastings, Canterbury and other places in Kent...

.

Principal engineering works

  • Blackfriars Bridge: 933 ft (284 m) long
  • Battersea Bridge: 740 ft (226 m)
  • Viaduct carrying extension to Blackfriars: 742 brick arches, 94 girder bridges

Tunnels

  • Lydden, or Shepherd's Well Tunnel: 2376 yd (2,173 m)
  • Penge Tunnel, adjacent to Sydenham Hill: 2200 yd (2,012 m) - this was allegedly Queen Victoria's least favourite tunnel

Locomotive Works

  • The locomotive works were at Longhedge
    Longhedge Railway Works (Battersea)
    Longhedge railway works was a locomotive and carriage works built by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in the borough of Battersea, South London to serve their new London terminus at Victoria...

    , in Battersea
    Battersea
    Battersea is an area of the London Borough of Wandsworth, England. It is an inner-city district of South London, situated on the south side of the River Thames, 2.9 miles south-west of Charing Cross. Battersea spans from Fairfield in the west to Queenstown in the east...

    , and the old erecting shop can still be seen. The former SER works at Ashford
    Ashford railway works
    Ashford railway works was in the town of Ashford in the county of Kent in England.-South Eastern Railway:Ashford locomotive works was built by the South Eastern Railway on a new site in 1847, replacing an earlier locomotive repair facility at New Cross in London...

     took over locomotive building for the joint concern, but some building work at Longhedge continued for a few years. The London, Chatham and Dover Railway Tavern, in nearby Cabul Road is widely regarded as having the longest traditional pub name in Britain.

Rolling stock

Both the South Eastern and London, Chatham and Dover Railway companies' locomotives were painted black each with their own style of lining but, when taken over by the South Eastern and Chatham Railways Managing Committee (SE&CR), dark green was adopted with an elaborate lining scheme. After some trials with a hybrid colour scheme (SER maroon on the upper parts and LC&DR teak on the lower), the SE&CR adopted the dark maroon/lake livery for passenger stock. Ex-LC&DR locomotives were renumbered by adding 459 to the running numbers (i.e. locomotive No 1 became No 460, etc.); SER locomotives retained their existing mumbers.

For a small and indigent company the Chatham was lucky in its locomotive engineers. After a very patchy start, with a miscellany of Cramptons and other oddities, it had two very competent engineers.

William Martley was appointed in 1860, and commissioned some very effective performers, notably the 0-4-2 well tanks of the 'Scotchmen' (1866) and 'Large Scotchmen' (1873) classes for the suburban services; and the 'Europa' class (1873) of 2-4-0s, which ran the mail trains to and from Dover, the Chatham's crack service.

William Kirtley
William Kirtley
William Kirtley was the Locomotive Superintendent of the London Chatham and Dover Railway in England from 1874 until the merger to form the South Eastern and Chatham Railway at the end of 1898.-Biography:...

 came from the Midland Railway in 1874, following the death of Martley. He was the nephew of Matthew Kirtley
Matthew Kirtley
Matthew Kirtley was an important early locomotive engineer. His brother Thomas Kirtley was also a locomotive engineer as was his nephew, William Kirtley, who served as locomotive superintendent on the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, 1874-1898.Kirtley was born in February 1813 at Tanfield,...

, the Midland's famous locomotive superintendent. Kirtley produced a series of excellent designs, robust and good performers - the A series of 0-4-4 tanks for suburban services, the B series of 0-6-0 goods engines; the T class of shunting engines; the M series of 4-4-0 express passenger engines; and a final R series of enlarged 0-4-4 tanks.

These rather than Stirling's Ashford products formed the basis for SE&CR development under Wainwright, not least because it was Robert Surtees from Longhedge
Longhedge Railway Works (Battersea)
Longhedge railway works was a locomotive and carriage works built by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in the borough of Battersea, South London to serve their new London terminus at Victoria...

 who led design work for the successor organisation. The R series led to the SE&CR's R1 and subsequent H class; the Bs to the famous C class; and the Ms to the D and E classes, which in their rebuilt Maunsell form may have been the best British inside-cylinder 4-4-0s.

Ships

The London, Chatham and Dover Railway operated a number of steamships from 1864, when they took over Jenkins & Churchward's fleet.
Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
1875 1,886 Owned by the Bessemer Steamship Co Ltd. Operated by LCDR for a period in 1875 then returned to her owners.
1863 385 Scrapped in 1899.
1896 979 Sold in 1911 to Hater, Boulogne
Boulogne-sur-Mer
-Road:* Metropolitan bus services are operated by the TCRB* Coach services to Calais and Dunkerque* A16 motorway-Rail:* The main railway station is Gare de Boulogne-Ville and located in the south of the city....

, renamed Au Revoir.
1878 1,924 Acquired in 1878 from English Channel Steamship Co Ltd. Previously named Express. Sold in 1891.
1889 1,212 Sold in 1900 to Liverpool & Douglas Steamers.
1874 1,533 Acquired in 1878 from English Channel Steamship Co Ltd. Sold in 1883 to Metropolitan Asylums Board for use as a hospital ship
Hospital ship
A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital; most are operated by the military forces of various countries, as they are intended to be used in or near war zones....

.
1896 979 Scrapped in 1911.
1854 196 Acquired in 1864, scrapped in 1878.
1887 1,213 Scrapped in 1906
1862 503 Renamed Petrel in 1880. Scrapped in 1899.
1862 495 Scrapped in 1901.
1864 365 Scrapped in 1899.
1882 1,282 Scrapped in 1899.
1860 220 Sold in 1863 to Belgian State Railways, renamed Perle.
1896 979 Scrapped in 1911.
1861 364 Acquired in 1864, scrapped in 1898.
1854 196 Acquired in 1864, previously named Queen. Sold in 1878 to Potter, London.
1864 338 Renamed Prince Imperial in 1891. Scrapped in 1899.
1857 219 Acquired in 1864, sold in 1874 to Potter, Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

.
1861 336 Scrapped in 1899.
1862 495 Acquired in 1864, sold c1867.
1886 1,042 Scrapped in 1904
1863 385 Acquired in 1864, scrapped in 1899

1923 Grouping

In 1923 the LCDR and the South Eastern Railway (SER), the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1922. Its territory formed a rough triangle, with London at its apex, practically the whole coastline of Sussex as its base, and a large part of Surrey...

 (LBSCR), and the London and South Western Railway
London and South Western Railway
The London and South Western Railway was a railway company in England from 1838 to 1922. Its network extended from London to Plymouth via Salisbury and Exeter, with branches to Ilfracombe and Padstow and via Southampton to Bournemouth and Weymouth. It also had many routes connecting towns in...

 (LSWR) were joined to form the Southern Railway.

External links

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