Logging
Overview
 
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks.

In forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

, the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill
Sawmill
A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.-Sawmill process:A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end....

 or a lumber yard
Lumber yard
A lumber yard is a retail location for lumber and wood related products used in construction and/or home improvement projects. Lumber yards can also provide services such as the use of a planer and other large machines....

. However, in common usage, the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities.

Illegal logging
Illegal logging
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the...

 refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft.
Encyclopedia
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks.

In forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

, the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill
Sawmill
A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.-Sawmill process:A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end....

 or a lumber yard
Lumber yard
A lumber yard is a retail location for lumber and wood related products used in construction and/or home improvement projects. Lumber yards can also provide services such as the use of a planer and other large machines....

. However, in common usage, the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities.

Illegal logging
Illegal logging
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the...

 refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft. It can also refer to the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits.

In common usage what is sometimes called clearcut logging is not is necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvest or silviculture method and is simply called clearcutting
Clearcutting
Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a controversial forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Clearcutting, along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that...

 or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors.

Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value, often diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading. It is sometimes called selective logging, and confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.

Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded by damming to create reservoir
Reservoir
A reservoir , artificial lake or dam is used to store water.Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.The term reservoir may also be used to...

s. Such trees are logged using underwater logging
Underwater logging
Underwater logging is the process of logging trees from underwater forests. When artificial reservoirs and dams are built, large areas of forest are often inundated; although the trees die, the wood is often preserved. The trees can then be felled using special underwater machinery and floated up...

 or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake
Williston Lake
Williston Lake is a reservoir created by the W. A. C. Bennett Dam and is located in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada.-Geography:...

 in British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests.

Clearcutting

Clearcutting
Clearcutting
Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a controversial forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Clearcutting, along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that...

, or clearfelling, is a harvest method that removes essentially all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture
Silviculture
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- + culture...

 objectives for clearcutting, (for example, healthy regeneration of new trees on the site) and a focus on forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

 distinguish it from deforestation
Deforestation
Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use....

. Other methods include Shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut and retention cutting.

Logging methods

The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods:

Tree-length logging

Trees are felled and then delimbed
Delimbing
*An extension or projecting part of a tree.When the tree is lying on the ground, branches may be storing enormous potential energy through mechanical strain. When a branch is cut, often with a chain saw, this energy can be released suddenly and the branch can jump dangerously. In addition, a branch...

 and topped at the stump. The log is then transported to the landing, where it is bucked
Log bucking
thumb|right|Bucker measuring and swamping or knot bumpingthumb|right|Bucker - Making the CutBucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs...

 and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash
Slash (logging)
Slash, or slashings, is a forestry term that refers to coarse and fine woody debris generated during logging operations or through wind, snow or other natural forest disturbances. Slash generated during logging operations may increase fire hazard and some North American states have passed laws...

 (and the nutrients it contains) in the cut area where it must be further treated if wildland fires are of concern.

Full-tree logging

Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. The trees are then delimbed, topped, and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped
Woodchipping
Woodchipping is the act and industry of chipping wood for pulp, processed wood products, and mulch.-Papermaking:Timber is converted to woodchips and sold, primarily, for pulp production used in paper manufacture...

 and used for the production of clean electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting also refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, however, depending on the species, many of the limbs are often broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.

Cut-to-length logging

Cut-to-length logging
Cut-to-length logging
Cut-to-length logging is a mechanized harvesting system in which trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. CTL is typically a two-man, two-machine operation with a harvester felling, delimbing, and bucking trees and a forwarder transporting the logs from the felling to a landing...

 is the process of felling, delimbing, bucking and sorting (pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvester
Harvester (forestry)
A harvester is a type of heavy forestry vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. A forest harvester is typically employed together with a forwarder that hauls the logs to a roadside landing.- History :...

s fell the tree, delimb and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder
Skidder
A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle used in a logging operation for pulling cut trees out of a forest in a process called "skidding", in which the logs are transported from the cutting site to a landing. Here they are loaded onto trucks , and sent to the mill...

 or forwarder
Forwarder
A forwarder is a forestry vehicle that carries felled logs from the stump to a roadside landing. Unlike a skidder, a forwarder carries logs clear of the ground, which can reduce soil impacts but tends to limit the size of the logs it can move...

. This method is usable for smaller timber on ground flat enough that forwarders can operate, but does not work well on steep slopes.

Springboards

The image at the top of the page illustrates the use of springboards. Loggers cut a springboard notch into which they insert the springboard, which is then used as a platform, allowing the logger to stand above obstructions/snow or to cut higher-up where the trunk is narrower.

Transporting logs

Felled logs are then generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

, a paper mill for paper pulp
Wood pulp
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops or waste paper. Wood pulp is the most common raw material in papermaking.-History:...

, or for other purposes like fence posts. There were many methods for moving logs from where they were cut to a rail line of a mill, but in the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s the most common method was the high-wheel loader which was a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxes were first used with the high-wheel loaders, but in the 1930s tractors replaces the oxes. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are often far from navigable roads. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of federal lands in the United States.National Forests are largely forest and woodland areas owned by the federal government and managed by the United States Forest Service, part of the United States Department of Agriculture. Land management of these areas...

 or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zone
Riparian zone
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is also the proper nomenclature for one of the fifteen terrestrial biomes of the earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by...

s. When felled logs sit adjacent to a road, heavy machinery may simply lift logs onto trucks. Most often, special heavy equipment is used to gather the logs from site and move them close to the road to be lifted on trucks.Many methods exist to transport felled logs lying away from roads. Cable logging
Cable Logging
thumb|right|300px| High Lead logging in Western OregonCable logging is a logging method primarily used on the West Coast of North America with yarder, loaders and grapple yarders.The cables can be rigged in several configurations.There are two classes....

 involves a yarder
Yarder
A yarder is piece of logging equipment which uses a system of cables to pull or fly logs from the stump to the landing. It generally consists of an engine, drums, and spar, but has a range of such as the Swing yarder.-Early Yarders:...

 which pulls one or several logs along the ground to platform where a truck is waiting. When the terrain is too uneven to pull logs on the ground, a skyline
Skyline logging
Skyline logging are terms in forestry, in which harvested logs are transported on a suspended steel cable, a cableway or "highline", from various locations where the trees are felled to a central location, typically next to a road for logistical reasons...

 can lift logs off the ground vertically, similar to a ski lift
Ski lift
The term ski lift generally refers to any transport device that carries skiers up a hill. A ski lift may fall into one of the following three main classes:-Lift systems and networks:...

. Heli-logging
Heli-logging
Heli-Logging, or Helicopter Logging, is a method of logging that uses helicopters to remove cut trees from forests by lifting them on cables attached to a helicopter. Helicopter logging is often used in inaccessible areas of forests...

, which uses heavy-lift helicopters to remove cut trees from forests by lifting them on cables attached to a helicopter, may be used when cable logging is not allowed due to environmental concerns or when roads are lacking. It reduces the level of infrastructure required to log in a specific location, reducing the environmental impact of logging. Less mainstream forms of log transport, or methods used previously include horses, oxen, or balloon logging.

Safety considerations

Logging is a dangerous occupation. In the United States, it has consistently been one of the most hazardous industries. In 2008, the logging industry employed 86,000 workers, and accounted for 93 deaths. This resulted in a fatality rate of 108.1 deaths per 100,000 workers that year. This rate is over 30 times higher than the overall fatality rate. Loggers work with heavy, moving weights and the use of tools such as chainsaws and heavy equipment on uneven and sometimes unstable terrain. Loggers also deal with severe environmental conditions, such as inclement weather and severe heat or cold. An injured logger is often far from professional emergency treatment.

Traditionally, the cry of "Timber!" developed as a warning alerting fellow workers in an area that a tree is being felled, so they should be alert to avoid being struck. The term "widowmaker
Widowmaker (forestry)
A Widowmaker or Fool Killer, also known as broken limbs, and broken tops, is aptly named for causing fatalities to forest workers. Used commonly in the logging and forestry professions to describe the presence of a hazardous object in the canopy of a tree...

" for timber that is neither standing nor fallen to the ground demonstrates another emphasis on situational awareness
Situation awareness
Situation awareness, situational awareness, or SA, is the perception of environmental elements with respect to time and/or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status after some variable has changed, such as time...

 as a safety principle.

In British Columbia, Canada, the BC Forest Safety Council was created in September 2004 as a not-for-profit society dedicated to promoting safety in the forest sector. It works with employers, workers, contractors and government agencies to implement fundamental changes necessary to make it safer to earn a living in forestry.

The risks experienced in logging operations can be somewhat reduced, where conditions permit, by the use of mechanical tree harvesters, skidders and forwarders.

See also

  • Benson raft
    Benson raft
    The Benson raft was a huge sea-going log raft designed to reliably transport millions of board feet of timber at one time through the open ocean. This practical transportation method was first used on the Pacific coast in 1906 by Simon Benson, a lumber baron of Portland, Oregon, in the United...

  • Clearcutting
    Clearcutting
    Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a controversial forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Clearcutting, along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that...

  • Illegal Logging
    Illegal logging
    Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the...

  • Log scaler
    Log Scaler
    The log scaler is an occupation in the timber industry. The Log Scaler measures the cut trees to determine the scale and quality of the wood to be used for manufacturing...

  • Log driving
    Log driving
    Log driving is a means of log transport which makes use of a river's current to move floating tree trunks downstream to sawmills and pulp mills.It was the main transportation method of the early logging industry in Europe and North America...

  • Logging wheels
    Michigan logging wheels
    Michigan logging wheels, also known as big wheels, high wheels, logging wheels, logger wheels, lumbering wheels, bummer carts, katydids or nibs, are a type of skidder. It extended the season in which the logging industry could extract timber from the North Woods of Michigan, by removing the need...

  • Salvage logging
    Salvage logging
    Salvage logging is the practice of logging trees in forest areas that have been damaged by wildfire, flood, severe wind, disease, insect infestation, or other natural disturbance.The primary motivation of salvage logging is economic...

  • Shovel logging
    Shovel logging
    Shovel logging, sometimes called Hoe Chucking, uses a log loader to swing logs to the forest road. Shovel logging is one of a number of methods that may be used to move logs from forest to road...

  • Sierra Nevada logging
    Sierra Nevada Logging
    Logging in the Californian Sierra Nevada arose from the need to support growing communities in the area. The Gold Rush created a high demand for timber to build housing, for mining procedures, and especially to build railroads. In these days use was unregulated and in the first 20 years after the...

  • Silviculture
    Silviculture
    Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- + culture...

  • Skyline logging
    Skyline logging
    Skyline logging are terms in forestry, in which harvested logs are transported on a suspended steel cable, a cableway or "highline", from various locations where the trees are felled to a central location, typically next to a road for logistical reasons...

  • World Forestry Congress
    World Forestry Congress
    The World Forestry Congress is the largest and most significant gathering of the world's forestry sector and it has been held every six years since 1926 under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , organized by the government of the host country...

  • World Logging Championship
    World Logging Championship
    World Logging Championship is a competition between foresters taking place usually every two years in different parts of the world.The main focus is placed on handling a chainsaw well...

  • Split log
    Split log
    Split log can refer to:*Billet , a first step in green woodworking manufacture, where logs are deliberately split into quarter, ready for further shaping with a drawknife.*Shake *Puncheon...


Sources

  • Costa, F., & Magnusson, W. (2002). Selective logging effects on abundance, diversity, and composition of tropical understory herbs. Ecological Applications, 12, 807-819.
  • Pinard, M. A., & Putz, F. E. (1996). Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage. Biotropica, 28, 278-295.
  • Shukla, J., Sellers, P., & Nobre, C. (1990). Amazon deforestation and climate change. Science, 247, 1322-1325.
  • Sokal, R. R., Gurevitch, J., & Brown, K. A. (2004). Long-term impacts of logging on forest diversity in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 6045-6049.
  • Putz, F., Sist, P., & Frederickson, T. (2008). Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities [Abstract]. Forest Ecology & Management, 256, 1427-1433.


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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