Lloyd's Register
The Lloyd's Register Group is a maritime
A sea generally refers to a large body of salt water, but the term is used in other contexts as well. Most commonly, it means a large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, and is commonly used as a synonym for ocean...

 classification society
Classification society
A classification society is a non-governmental organization that establishes and maintains technical standards for the construction and operation of ships and offshore structures...

 and independent risk management organisation providing risk assessment and mitigation services and management systems certification. Historically, as Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a specifically maritime organisation. During the late 20th century, it diversified into other industries including oil & gas, process industries, nuclear and rail. Through its 100% subsidiary LRQA, it is also a major vendor of management system quality certification
Quality Assurance
Quality assurance, or QA for short, is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximize the probability that minimum standards of quality are being attained by the production process...

 to ISO9001, ISO14001
ISO 14000
The ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations minimize how their operations negatively affect the environment The ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the...

 and OSHAS18001
Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goal of all occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe work environment...



Like the famous international insurance market, Lloyd's of London
Lloyd's of London
Lloyd's, also known as Lloyd's of London, is a British insurance and reinsurance market. It serves as a partially mutualised marketplace where multiple financial backers, underwriters, or members, whether individuals or corporations, come together to pool and spread risk...

, Lloyd's Register owes its name and foundation to the 17th century coffee house in London frequented by merchants, marine underwriters, and others, all associated with shipping. The coffeehouse owner, Edward Lloyd
Edward Lloyd (coffeehouse owner)
Edward Lloyd ran the Lloyd's Coffee House in Lombard Street in the City of London which became a meeting place for merchants and shipowners. From the habit of their members to meet there, Lloyd's Coffee House spawned Lloyd's of London, Lloyd's Register, and Lloyd's List. There is no connection...

, helped them to exchange information by circulating a printed sheet of all the news he heard. In 1760, the Register Society was formed by the customers of the coffee house who assembled the Register of Shipping, the first known register of its type. Between 1800 and 1833, a dispute between ship-owners and underwriters caused them to publish a list each - the "Red Book" and the "Green Book". Other than this historical association, Lloyd's Register is unrelated to Lloyd's of London
Lloyd's of London
Lloyd's, also known as Lloyd's of London, is a British insurance and reinsurance market. It serves as a partially mutualised marketplace where multiple financial backers, underwriters, or members, whether individuals or corporations, come together to pool and spread risk...


The Register

The Society printed the first Register of Ships in 1764 in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered: ship hulls were graded by a lettered scale (A being the best), and ship's fittings (masts, rigging, and other equipment) was graded by number (1 being the best). Thus the best classification was "A1", from which the expression A1, or A1 at Lloyd's, is derived, first appeared in the 1775–76 edition of the Register.

The Register, with information on all sea-going, self-propelled merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes or greater, is published annually. A vessel remains registered with Lloyd's until it is sunk, wrecked, hulked, or scrapped.

The Register was published formerly by the joint venture company of Lloyd's Register-Fairplay, which was formed in July 2001 by the merger of Lloyd's Register's Maritime Information Publishing Group and Prime Publications Limited. Lloyd's sold its share of the venture to IHS
IHS Inc.
IHS Inc. is a publicly traded business information services company based in Douglas County, Colorado, United States.IHS serves international clients in five major areas: energy, product lifecycle, environment, security and TMT . IHS provides industry data, technical documents, custom software...

 in 2009.

Classification Rules

Lloyd's Register provides quality assurance and certification for ships, offshore structures and shore-based installations such as power stations and railway infrastructure. However, Lloyd's Register is known best for the classification and certification of ship
Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant marine vessel. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships are used on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing,...

s, and inspects and approves important components and accessories, including life-saving appliances, marine pollution prevention, fire protection, navigation, radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 communication equipment, deck gear, cables, rodes, and anchor
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, that is used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the vessel from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα .Anchors can either be temporary or permanent...


Lloyd's Rules for Ships

Lloyd's Rules for ships are derived from principles of Naval Architecture
Naval architecture
Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

 and Marine Engineering
Marine propulsion
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, in jet...

, and govern safety and operational standards for numerous merchant, military and privately-owned vessels all around the world. Lloyd's Rules govern a number of topics including:
  • Materials used for construction of the vessel.
  • Ship structural requirements and minimum scantling
    Scantling is a measurement of prescribed size, dimensions, or cross sectional areas. For comparison, see Form Factor: -Shipping:In shipbuilding, the scantling refers to the collective dimensions of the various parts, particularly the framing and structural supports. The word is most often used in...

    s, dependent upon ship type.
  • Operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary machinery.
  • Operation and maintenance of emergency and control systems.

Specific editions of the rules are available to cater for merchant ships, naval ships, trimarans, special purpose vessels and offshore structures. A ship is known as being in class if it meets all the minimum requirements of Lloyd's Rules, and such a status affects the possibility of a ship getting insurance. Class can be withdrawn from a ship if it is in violation of any regulations and does not maintain the minimum requirements specified by the company. However, exceptional circumstances may warrant special dispensation from Lloyd's Register. Any alteration to the vessel, whether it is a structural alteration or machinery, must be approved by Lloyd's Register before it is implemented.

Ships are inspected on a regular basis by a team of Lloyd's Register surveyors, one of the most important inspections being a ship's annual Load Line Survey. Such a survey includes an inspection of the hull to make sure that the load line has not been altered. Numerous other inspections such as the condition of hatch and door seals, safety barriers and guard rails are also performed. Upon completion the ship is allowed to be operated for another year, and is issued a Load Line Certificate.


Lloyd's Register's main office is located in London at 71 Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street
Fenchurch Street is a street in the City of London home to a number of shops, pubs and offices. It links Aldgate at its eastern end with Lombard Street and Gracechurch Street to the west. To the south of Fenchurch Street and towards its eastern end is Fenchurch Street railway station...

. Lloyd's Register also maintains other offices globally, including Hong Kong (Asia Office) and Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

(Americas Office).

External links

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