List of solid waste treatment technologies
The following page contains a list of different forms of solid waste treatment
Waste treatment
Waste treatment refers to the activities required to ensure that waste has the least practicable impact on the environment. In many countries various forms of waste treatment are required by law.-Solid waste treatment:...

 technologies and facilities employed in waste management
Waste management
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal,managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics...


Waste handling facilities

  • Civic amenity site
    Civic amenity site
    A civic amenity site or household waste recycling centre is a facility where the public can dispose of household waste and also often containing recycling points. Civic amenity sites are run by the local authority in a given area. Collection points for recyclable waste such as green waste,...

     (CA Site)
  • Transfer station

Established waste treatment technologies

  • Composting
  • Incineration
    Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and...

  • Landfill
    A landfill site , is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment...

  • Recycling
    Recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse...

  • Windrow composting
    Windrow composting
    In agriculture, windrow composting is the production of compost by piling organic matter or biodegradable waste, such as animal manure and crop residues, in long rows . This method is suited to producing large volumes of compost...

Alternative waste treatment technologies

In the UK these are sometimes termed advanced waste treatment technologies, even though these technologies are not necessarily more complex than the established technologies.
  • Anaerobic digestion
    Anaerobic digestion
    Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy....

  • Alcohol/ethanol production
    • Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels (pilot scale)
  • Biodrying
    Biodrying is the process by which biodegradable waste is rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall weight....

  • Gasification
    Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures , without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam...

  • GasPlasma: Gasification followed by syngas
    Syngas is the name given to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Examples of production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy...

     plasma polishing (commercial test scale)
  • In-vessel composting
    In-vessel composting
    In-vessel composting is an industrial form of composting biodegradable waste that occurs in enclosed reactors. These generally consist of metal tanks or concrete bunkers in which air flow and temperature can be controlled, using the principles of a "bioreactor"...

  • Mechanical biological treatment
    Mechanical biological treatment
    A mechanical biological treatment system is a type of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion...

  • Mechanical heat treatment
    Mechanical heat treatment
    Mechanical heat treatment is an alternative waste treatment technology. This technology is also commonly termed Autoclaving. MHT involves a mechanical sorting or pre-processing stage with technology often found in a material recovery facility. The mechanical sorting stage is followed by a form of...

  • Plasma arc waste disposal
    Plasma arc waste disposal
    Plasma arc gasification or Plasma Gasification Process abbreviated PGP is a waste treatment technology that uses electrical energy and the high temperatures created by an electric arc gasifier. This arc breaks down waste primarily into elemental gas and solid waste , in a device called a plasma...

     (commercial demonstration scale)
  • Pyrolysis
    Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures without the participation of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible...

  • Sewage treatment
    Sewage treatment
    Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants...

  • Tunnel composting
  • UASB (applied to solid wastes)
  • Waste autoclave
    Waste autoclave
    A waste autoclave is a form of solid waste treatment that utilises heat, steam and pressure of an industrial autoclave in the processing of waste. Waste autoclaves process waste either in batches or in continuous-flow processes. In batch processes, saturated steam is pumped into the autoclave at...

See also

  • Bioethanol
  • Biodiesel
    Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids with an alcohol....

  • List of waste management companies
  • List of waste water treatment technologies
  • Pollution control
  • Waste-to-energy
    Waste-to-energy or energy-from-waste is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. WtE is a form of energy recovery...

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