Liggett Group
Overview
 
Liggett Group formerly known as Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, is the fourth largest tobacco company in the United States. Its headquarters are located in Durham, North Carolina
Durham, North Carolina
Durham is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is the county seat of Durham County and also extends into Wake County. It is the fifth-largest city in the state, and the 85th-largest in the United States by population, with 228,330 residents as of the 2010 United States census...

, though its manufacturing facility is 30 miles to the west in Mebane, North Carolina
Mebane, North Carolina
Mebane is a city located mostly in Alamance County, North Carolina, United States, with a part of it in Orange County, North Carolina. It is part of the Burlington, North Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. The current population estimate is 10,624. According to the , the town was named for...

. The company is a subsidiary of holding company Vector Group
Vector Group
Vector Group Ltd. is a Miami, Florida-based, publicly traded holding company founded by its Chairman, Bennett S. LeBow. Howard Lorber serves as President and Chief Executive Officer of Vector Group Ltd.. The company is headquartered in the Miami Tower in Downtown Miami.The company's holdings...

.
John Edmund Liggett's grandfather, Christopher Foulks, was the owner of a snuff mill in New Egypt, New Jersey
New Egypt, New Jersey
New Egypt is a census-designated place and unincorporated area located within Plumsted Township, in Ocean County, New Jersey. As of the 2000 United States Census, the CDP population was 2,519.-Geography:New Egypt is located at ....

. During the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

 the mill was razed by British soldiers.
Encyclopedia
Liggett Group formerly known as Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, is the fourth largest tobacco company in the United States. Its headquarters are located in Durham, North Carolina
Durham, North Carolina
Durham is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is the county seat of Durham County and also extends into Wake County. It is the fifth-largest city in the state, and the 85th-largest in the United States by population, with 228,330 residents as of the 2010 United States census...

, though its manufacturing facility is 30 miles to the west in Mebane, North Carolina
Mebane, North Carolina
Mebane is a city located mostly in Alamance County, North Carolina, United States, with a part of it in Orange County, North Carolina. It is part of the Burlington, North Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. The current population estimate is 10,624. According to the , the town was named for...

. The company is a subsidiary of holding company Vector Group
Vector Group
Vector Group Ltd. is a Miami, Florida-based, publicly traded holding company founded by its Chairman, Bennett S. LeBow. Howard Lorber serves as President and Chief Executive Officer of Vector Group Ltd.. The company is headquartered in the Miami Tower in Downtown Miami.The company's holdings...

.

History

John Edmund Liggett's grandfather, Christopher Foulks, was the owner of a snuff mill in New Egypt, New Jersey
New Egypt, New Jersey
New Egypt is a census-designated place and unincorporated area located within Plumsted Township, in Ocean County, New Jersey. As of the 2000 United States Census, the CDP population was 2,519.-Geography:New Egypt is located at ....

. During the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

 the mill was razed by British soldiers. Foulks moved west around 1820 and opened a new snuff shop in Belleville, Illinois
Belleville, Illinois
Belleville is a city in St. Clair County, Illinois, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city has a population of 44,478. It is the eighth-most populated city outside of the Chicago Metropolitan Area and the most populated city south of Springfield in the state of Illinois. It is the county...

, in 1822. In 1833 he moved his tobacco business to St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, where in 1844 - 1847 (dates uncertain) John Edmund Liggett entered his grandfather's business.

By 1858, Foulks's company was known as J. E. Liggett and Brother. Around 1869 the company created the first blended cigarettes, using a mixture of Turkish and Virginia tobaccos. A partnership was formed with George Smith Myers of Missouri, and in 1873 The Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company was incorporated.

In 1876, Liggett & Myers introduced L&M plug chewing tobacco, during the 1880s it entered the cigarette business and by 1885 the company had become the world's largest manufacturer of plug chewing tobacco.

John E. Liggett died in 1897 and two years later Liggett & Myers was acquired by American Tobacco Company
American Tobacco Company
The American Tobacco Company was a tobacco company founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke through a merger between a number of U.S. tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter and Goodwin & Company...

, controlled by James Buchanan Duke
James Buchanan Duke
James Buchanan Duke was a U.S. tobacco and electric power industrialist best known for his involvement with Duke University.-Personal life:...

. George S. Myers died in 1910 and the following year the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a Dissolution Decree to the American Tobacco Company which created the opportunity for Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company to be reborn.

Liggett & Myers continued to release new brands. In 1912, Chesterfield
Chesterfield (cigarette)
Chesterfield is a brand of cigarette made by Altria. It was one of the most recognized brands of the early 20th century, but sales have declined steadily over the years. It was named for Chesterfield County, Virginia. Chesterfield is still being made today; it is still popular in Europe, but has...

 was reintroduced as a Turkish-Virginia blended cigarette and in 1915 Burley and Maryland tobaccos were added to Chesterfield blend. It was in 1916 that Chesterfield became the first cigarette to add a moisture-proof, overall cover to the paper and foil pack. In 1917, the company built a warehouse and factory at Huntington, West Virginia
Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company (Huntington, West Virginia)
Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company is a historic factory building located at Huntington, Cabell County, West Virginia. The original building was built in 1917, and is a four story, red brick, Commercial Style warehouse building, measuring . At the rear of the building is an addition built in 1920....

. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 in 1998.

By 1921, cigarettes had become the most used form of tobacco. Continuing to innovate, in 1952, Liggett & Myers using Chesterfield became the first to offer cigarettes in two sizes: King and Regular.

In 1953, L&M
L&M
Created by the company Liggett & Myers in 1953, L&M is a brand of cigarettes produced by Altria Group, Inc. . "L&M" is one of the earliest, perhaps the earliest brand to have a filter that was not a one sided filter...

 filter cigarettes were introduced.

In 1963, Lark charcoal filter cigarettes were introduced. In 1968 the company changed its name to Liggett & Myers, Incorporated.

In 1970, the Eve
Eve (cigarette)
Eve Cigarettes, are manufactured in the USA as a product of the Liggett Group, the smallest of the major U.S. tobacco companies, as well as in Germany, as a product of Philip Morris International. Within the USA, they were introduced in 1971 as competition for rival Philip Morris corporation's...

 brand was launched in regular and menthol
Menthol cigarette
A menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol, a substance which triggers the cold-sensitive nerves in the skin without actually providing a drop in temperature....

.

The company again changed its name in 1976 to Liggett Group, Inc., with Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company as a division.

In 1980, Eve 120's
Eve (cigarette)
Eve Cigarettes, are manufactured in the USA as a product of the Liggett Group, the smallest of the major U.S. tobacco companies, as well as in Germany, as a product of Philip Morris International. Within the USA, they were introduced in 1971 as competition for rival Philip Morris corporation's...

 were launched nationally and the same year Liggett was acquired by Grand Metropolitan
Grand Metropolitan
Grand Metropolitan plc is a former United Kingdom-based company operating hotels, holiday centres, entertainment centres, public houses and casinos...

 PLC. In 1981 Liggett introduces generic cigarette concept. Another name change took place in 1983, this time the head company becoming GrandMet USA with the tobacco company officially named Liggett Group Inc.

In 1983, smoker Rose Cipollone filed a lawsuit
Lawsuit
A lawsuit or "suit in law" is a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff, a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy. The defendant is required to respond to the plaintiff's complaint...

 against the Liggett Group and two other tobacco companies that produced the cigarettes she smoked. Cipollone died of lung cancer
Lung cancer
Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and, eventually, into other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary...

 in 1984, but the trial continued. The Liggett Group was charged $400,000 in damages in a 1988 court decision, but in 1992 the decision was reversed on appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court in the case Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc.
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc.
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., , was a United States Supreme Court case. In a split opinion, the court held that the Surgeon General's warning did not preclude suit by smokers against tobacco companies on several claims...



In 1986, Bennett S. LeBow
Bennett S. LeBow
Bennett S. LeBow is a financier and corporate raider. He is also the former Chairman of the Board and CEO of Borders Group, an international bookseller based in Ann Arbor, Michigan and Chairman of the Board of Vector Group, a holding company primarily involved in the manufacturing of cigarette...

 purchased Liggett from Grand Metropolitan
Grand Metropolitan
Grand Metropolitan plc is a former United Kingdom-based company operating hotels, holiday centres, entertainment centres, public houses and casinos...

. In 1987, Liggett's stock was offered publicly on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1988, Liggett introduces Pyramid cigarettes. In 1990 Liggett became a subsidiary of Brooke Group Ltd., a holding company owned by Mr. LeBow. In 1990, The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is an American English-language international daily newspaper. It is published in New York City by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corporation, along with the Asian and European editions of the Journal....

 acclaims Pyramid as "one of the most successful cigarette introductions of the decade". 1992 marked the year that Eve
Eve (cigarette)
Eve Cigarettes, are manufactured in the USA as a product of the Liggett Group, the smallest of the major U.S. tobacco companies, as well as in Germany, as a product of Philip Morris International. Within the USA, they were introduced in 1971 as competition for rival Philip Morris corporation's...

 & Lark were relaunched with new packaging and backed by large advertising and promotional campaigns. In 1993, Liggett developed its Control Label concept, offering customers exclusivity to market Control Brands owned by Liggett. By 1994 Liggett had expanded its Control Label family to a total of 8 brands.

In 1995-1996, the company attempted unsuccessfully to take over the much larger R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company , based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and founded by R. J. Reynolds in 1875, is the second-largest tobacco company in the U.S. . RJR is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc...

.

In 1996 - 1997, Liggett Group had become the first tobacco company to settle smoking related litigation brought by the Attorneys General of several states. In 1998 Liggett signed tobacco litigation Master Settlement Agreement and 1999 saw the formation of Vector Tobacco Inc.

In 1999, Liggett Vector Brands Inc. sold L&M, Lark and Chesterfield brands to Philip Morris Companies Inc., now known as the Altria Group
Altria Group
Altria Group, Inc. is based in Henrico County, Virginia, and is the parent company of Philip Morris USA, John Middleton, Inc., U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company, Inc., Philip Morris Capital Corporation, and Chateau Ste. Michelle Wine Estates. It is one of the world's largest tobacco corporations...

.

Liggett's sister company Vector Tobacco currently makes a genetically engineered reduced-nicotine cigarette: Quest (cigarette)
Quest (cigarette)
Quest is a cigarette brand manufactured by Vector Tobacco, based in Mebane, North Carolina. It is manufactured using genetically altered tobacco plants.The product is available in three versions...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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