Lebanese cuisine
Overview
 
Lebanese cuisine includes an abundance of starches, fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

s, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood
Seafood
Seafood is any form of marine life regarded as food by humans. Seafoods include fish, molluscs , crustaceans , echinoderms . Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are also seafood, and are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia...

; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten it is usually lamb on the coast and goat meat in the mountain regions. It also includes copious amounts of garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

 and olive oil
Olive oil
Olive oil is an oil obtained from the olive , a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps...

, often seasoned by lemon juice
Lemon juice
The lemon fruit, from a citrus plant, provides a useful liquid when squeezed. Lemon juice, either in natural strength or concentrated, is sold as a bottled product, usually with the addition of preservatives and a small amount of lemon oil.-Uses:...

.; olive oil, herbs, garlic and lemon are typical flavours found in the Lebanese diet.

Most often foods are either grilled, baked or sautéed in olive oil; butter or cream is rarely used other than in a few desserts.
Encyclopedia
Lebanese cuisine includes an abundance of starches, fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

s, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood
Seafood
Seafood is any form of marine life regarded as food by humans. Seafoods include fish, molluscs , crustaceans , echinoderms . Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are also seafood, and are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia...

; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten it is usually lamb on the coast and goat meat in the mountain regions. It also includes copious amounts of garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

 and olive oil
Olive oil
Olive oil is an oil obtained from the olive , a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps...

, often seasoned by lemon juice
Lemon juice
The lemon fruit, from a citrus plant, provides a useful liquid when squeezed. Lemon juice, either in natural strength or concentrated, is sold as a bottled product, usually with the addition of preservatives and a small amount of lemon oil.-Uses:...

.; olive oil, herbs, garlic and lemon are typical flavours found in the Lebanese diet.

Most often foods are either grilled, baked or sautéed in olive oil; butter or cream is rarely used other than in a few desserts. Vegetables are often eaten raw or pickled as well as cooked. Herb
Herb
Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

s and spice
Spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

s are used and the freshness of ingredients is important. Like most Mediterranean countries, much of what the Lebanese eat is dictated by the seasons.

In Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, very rarely are drinks served without being accompanied by food. Similar to the tapas
Tapas
Tapas are a wide variety of appetizers, or snacks, in Spanish cuisine. They may be cold or warm ....

 of Spain and antipasto
Antipasto
Antipasto , means "before the meal" and is the traditional first course of a formal Italian meal. Traditional antipasto includes cured meats, olives, roasted garlic, peperoncini, mushrooms, anchovies, artichoke hearts, various cheeses...

 of Italy, mezze is an array of small dishes placed before the guests creating an array of colors, flavors, textures and aromas. This style of serving food is less a part of family life than it is of entertaining and cafes. Mezze may be as simple as pickled vegetables or raw vegetables, hummus, baba ghanouj and bread, or it may become an entire meal consisting of grilled marinated seafood, skewered meats, a variety of cooked and raw salads and an arrangement of desserts.

Although simple fresh fruits are often served towards the end of a Lebanese meal, there is also dessert
Dessert
In cultures around the world, dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal, usually consisting of sweet food. The word comes from the French language as dessert and this from Old French desservir, "to clear the table" and "to serve." Common Western desserts include cakes, biscuits,...

, such as Baklava
Baklava
Baklava is a rich, sweet pastry made of layers of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and much of central and southwest Asia....

, and coffee. Although Baklava is the most internationally known dessert, Lebanese sweets have got a lot more to offer.

A typical Mezze will consist of an elaborate variety of thirty hot and cold dishes and may include:
  • salads such as the Tabouleh and Fattoush
    Fattoush
    Fattoush is a Levantine bread salad made from toasted or fried pieces of pita bread combined with mixed greens and other vegetables. Fattoush belongs to the family of dishes known as fattat or fatta, which are made in the Levant by Arab cooks using stale flatbread as a base...

    , together with dip such as Hummus
    Hummus
    Hummus is high in iron and vitamin C and also has significant amounts of folate and vitamin B6. The chickpeas make it a good source of protein and dietary fiber; the tahini consists mostly of sesame seeds, which are an excellent source of the amino acid methionine, complementing the proteins in the...

    , Baba ghanoush
    Baba ghanoush
    Baba ghanoush, baba ganush, baba ghannouj or baba ghannoug is a Levantine dish of aubergine mashed and mixed with virgin olive oil and various seasonings. A popular preparation method is for the eggplant to be baked or broiled over an open flame before peeling, so that the pulp is soft and has a...

     or Moutabal, Kebbeh * some patties such as the Sambusacs
  • stuffed grape leaves


Family cuisine offers also a range of dishes, such as stews or Yakhnehs, which can be cooked in many forms depending on the ingredients used and are usually served with meat and rice vermicelli.

The Lebanese flat bread is a staple
Staple food
A staple food is one that is eaten regularly and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a diet, and that supplies a high proportion of energy and nutrient needs. Most people live on a diet based on one or more staples...

 to every Lebanese meal and can be used to replace the usage of the fork.

Arak
Arak (distilled beverage)
Arak or Araq , is a highly alcoholic spirit from the anis drinks family. It is a clear, colorless, unsweetened anise-flavoured distilled alcoholic drink...

, an anise-flavored liqueur, is the Lebanese national alcoholic drink and is usually served with the traditional convivial Lebanese meals. Another drink is Lebanese wine.

Lebanese sweets include:
  • pastries such as baklava
    Baklava
    Baklava is a rich, sweet pastry made of layers of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and much of central and southwest Asia....

  • the Lebanese ice cream with its oriental flavors
  • the Lebanese roasted nuts variety and mixes


Some dishes are also specifically prepared on special occasions: the Meghli
Meghli
Meghli or Moghli is a traditional Lebanese dessert based on a floured rice pudding and spiced with anise, caraway and cinnamon. The dish is often garnished with shredded coconut and various nuts including almonds, walnuts, pine nuts and pistachios...

 dessert, for instance is served to celebrate a newborn baby in the family.

History

For most of its past, Lebanon has been ruled by foreign powers that have influenced the types of food the Lebanese ate. From 1516 to 1918, the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 controlled Lebanon and introduced a variety of foods that have become staples in the Lebanese diet, such as cooking with lamb.

After the Ottomans were defeated in World War I (1914–1918), France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 took control of Lebanon until 1943, when the country achieved its independence. During this time, the French introduced foods such as flan
Flan
Crème caramel , flan , or caramel custard is a custard dessert with a layer of soft caramel on top, as opposed to crème brûlée, which is custard with a hard caramel top...

, a caramel custard dessert dating back to the 16th century, and buttery croissant
Croissant
A croissant is a buttery flaky pastry named for its distinctive crescent shape. It is also sometimes called a crescent, from the French word for "crescent". Croissants are made of a leavened variant of puff pastry...

s.

The Lebanese themselves have also helped bring foods of other cultures into their diet. Ancient tribes journeyed throughout the Middle East, carrying with them food that would not spoil easily, such as rice and dates.

Dishes and ingredients

  • Ackawi
    Ackawi cheese
    Akkawi cheese is a white brine cheese, native to the historical region of Palestine in modern day Israel. It is named after the city of Acre, where it first originated, the Arabic akkawi meaning "from akka". It is commonly made using cow milk, but can be made with goat or sheep's milk as well...

     - white cheese salty or not depending on choice .
  • Baba ghanouj - char-grilled aubergine (eggplant), tahina, olive oil, lemon juice, and garlic puree—served as a dip.
  • Baklava
    Baklava
    Baklava is a rich, sweet pastry made of layers of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and much of central and southwest Asia....

     - a dessert of layered pastry filled with nuts and steeped in Attar Syrup (orange [or] rose water and sugar), usually cut in a triangular or diamond shape that originates in Lebanon.
  • Roasted
    Roasting
    Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat, whether an open flame, oven, or other heat source. Roasting usually causes caramelization or Maillard browning of the surface of the food, which is considered by some as a flavor enhancement. Roasting uses more indirect, diffused heat , and is...

     nuts
    Nut (fruit)
    A nut is a hard-shelled fruit of some plants having an indehiscent seed. While a wide variety of dried seeds and fruits are called nuts in English, only a certain number of them are considered by biologists to be true nuts...

     - a mix of more than 20 kinds and flavors of kernels, mostly dry roasted.
  • Balila
    Balila
    Balila also is a name for a town in North Jordan, between Irbid and Jerash located in the Irbid Governorate. Balila is located in the far northwest of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It covers 40 km², and has a population of over 8,000 people.-Name:...

     - known as Cumin Chickpeas.
  • Batata harra
    Batata harra
    Batata harra is a Indian vegetable dish. It consists of potatoes, red peppers, coriander, chili, and garlic which are all fried together in olive oil....

     - literally "spicy potatoes".
  • Fattoush
    Fattoush
    Fattoush is a Levantine bread salad made from toasted or fried pieces of pita bread combined with mixed greens and other vegetables. Fattoush belongs to the family of dishes known as fattat or fatta, which are made in the Levant by Arab cooks using stale flatbread as a base...

     - 'peasant' salad of toasted pita bread, cucumbers, tomatoes, chickweed, and mint.
  • Falafel
    Falafel
    Falafel is a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flatbread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables, hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

     - small deep-fried patties made of highly-spiced ground chick-peas.
  • Fried cauliflower
    Fried cauliflower
    Fried cauliflower, also known as Zahra Mekleyah , is a Levantine vegetarian dish served cold or hot, consisting of fried cauliflower, often accompanied by tahini sauce, lettuce, parsley and tomatoes, served on pita bread or sliced bread, often grilled or toasted...

  • Fried eggplant
    Fried eggplant
    Fried aubergine is a vegetarian dish often served cold, consisting of fried aubergine with tahini sauce, lettuce, parsley and tomatoes, garnished with sumac and served on pita bread or sliced bread, often grilled, toasted, and sometimes fried. Variations include bell peppers, or a garlic lemon...

  • Fuul
    Ful Medames
    Fūl medammis , or simply fūl, is an Egyptian dish of cooked and mashed fava beans served with olive oil, chopped parsley, onion, garlic, and lemon juice. A staple meal in Egypt, it is popular in the cuisines of the Levant, Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and Saudi Arabia.-History:The roots of fūl...

     (Vicia faba
    Vicia faba
    This article refers to the Broad Bean plant. For Broadbean the company, see Broadbean, Inc.Vicia faba, the Broad Bean, Fava Bean, Field Bean, Bell Bean or Tic Bean, is a species of bean native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. A variety is provisionally...

    ) slow cooked mash of brown beans and red lentils dressed with lemon olive oil and cumin.
  • Halva
    Halva
    Halva refers to many types of dense, sweet confections, served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish world.The term halva ,...

     - sesame paste sweet, usually made in a slab and studded with fruit and nuts.
  • Hummus
    Hummus
    Hummus is high in iron and vitamin C and also has significant amounts of folate and vitamin B6. The chickpeas make it a good source of protein and dietary fiber; the tahini consists mostly of sesame seeds, which are an excellent source of the amino acid methionine, complementing the proteins in the...

     - dip or spread made of blended chickpeas, sesame tahini, lemon juice, and garlic, and typically eaten with pita bread
  • Kunafi
    Kanafeh
    Kenafeh , also spelled knafeh, kunafeh, or kunafah, is a Middle Eastern sweet made of very fine vermicelli-like pastry. It is sometimes known as shredded phyllo.- Origin :...

     - either shoelace pastry dessert stuffed with sweet white cheese, nuts and syrup, or more commonly the version with semolina pastry served on a sesame bun with sweet sugar syrup (very popular for breakfast). Generally these can be found in sweet shops, as well as bigger bakeries.
  • Kibbeh
    Kibbeh
    Kibbeh or kibbe is an Arab dish made of bulgur or rice and chopped meat. The best-known variety is a torpedo-shaped fried croquette stuffed with minced beef or lamb. Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, and baked or cooked in broth.Kibbeh is a popular dish in Levantine...

     - the national dish, mainly stuffed, can be made in different forms including fried,uncooked, and cooked with yogurt.
  • Kibbeh nayye - raw kibbeh eaten like steak tartar.
  • Kofta or Kafta
    Kofta
    Kofta is a Middle Eastern and South Asian meatball or meatloaf.In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef or lamb—mixed with spices and/or onions...

     - fingers, stars or a flat cake of minced meat and spices that can be baked or charcoal-grilled on skewers.
  • Kousa Mahshi
    Kousa Mahshi
    Kousa Mahshi or Stuffed Marrows is squash or zucchini stuffed with rice and meat. Originated in Egypt, it is also made in Syria, Cyprus, Lebanon, the Palestinian territories, and Libya. This dish is served hot as a main course. In Syria, this dish is flavored with mint and garlic. In Cyprus, the...

    - stuffed zucchini, many varieties are used
  • Kubideh - served with pivaz (a mix of minced parsley, onions, ground cumin and sumac).
  • Labneh- strained yogurt, spreadable and garnished with good olive oil and sea salt.
  • Znood Es-sett - filo pastry cigars with various fillings
  • Lahm bil ajĩn
    Sfiha
    Sfihah or lahm bi`ajin , also known as Arab or Chaldean Pizza, is a pizza-like dish originating from the Levant , and introduced in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina by Levantine immigrants ....

     a pastry covered with minced meat, onions, and nuts.
  • Ma'amoul
    Ma'amoul
    Ma'amoul are small shortbread pastries filled with dates, pistachios or walnuts . They are popular in Levantine cuisine and in the Gulf countries. They may be in the shape of balls or of domed or flattened cookies...

     - date, pistachio or walnut filled cookies shaped in a wooden mould called a tabi made specially for Christian (traditionally Eastern) and Muslim holidays (such as Ramadan).
  • Makdous
    Makdous
    Makdous are oil cured eggplants. Part of Levantine cuisine, they are tiny, tangy eggplants stuffed with walnuts, red pepper, garlic, olive oil and salt. Sometimes chilli powder is added....

     - stuffed eggplant in olive oil
  • Manaeesh - mini pizzas that are made in any number of local bakeries or Furns (Furn Assalam, Ain El Hilwe, Saida), traditionally garnished with cheese, Za'atar
    Za'atar
    Za'atar is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum , Calamintha , Thymus vulgaris and Satureja . It is also the name for a condiment made from the dried herb, mixed together with sesame seeds, dried sumac, and often salt, as well as other spices...

    , spicy diced tomatoes, Kashk
    Kashk
    Kashk , keshk, kishk, or kishik is a large family of foods found in Iranian, Lebanese and Syrian cuisines. There are three main kinds of food with this name: foods based on curdled milk products like yoghurt or cheese; foods based on barley broth, bread, or flour; and foods based on cereals...

     in its Lebanese version, or minced meat and onions. Some bakeries allow you to bring your own toppings and build your own or buy the ones they sell there. Breakfast, lunch and dinner.
  • Mujaddara
    Mujaddara
    Mujaddara consists of cooked lentils together with groats, generally rice, and garnished with roasted onions that have been sauteed in olive oil or butter.-Name and origin:...

     (Imjaddarra) - cooked lentils together with wheat or rice, garnished with onions that have been sauteed in vegetable oil.
  • Mulukhiyah
    Mulukhiyah
    Mulukhiyah, mloukhiya, molokhia, mulukhiyya, or malukhiyah is the leaves of jute and related Corchorus species used as a vegetable in Middle Eastern, East African, North African, and South Asian cuisine...

     - A stew with mallow leaves, chicken, beef, and in the Lebanese fashion, topped with raw chopped onions, and vinegar over rice. It sometimes has toasted pita chips under the rice.
  • Mutabbel - made from eggplant
  • Pastirma or Bastirma
    Pastirma
    Pastirma or bastirma is a highly seasoned, air-dried cured beef in the cuisines of the former Ottoman countries.-Etymology:The name bastirma is from . bastırma is the gerund of the verb bastırmak , which means "to depress, restrain"...

  • Samkeh harra - literally translated to "hot fish" - grilled fish that has been marinated with chilis, citrus,and cilantro
  • Shanklish
    Shanklish
    Shanklish , also known as shinklish, shankleesh, sorke, or sürke, is a type of cow's milk or sheep milk cheese in Levantine. It is typically formed into balls of approximately 6 cm diameter, which are often covered in za'atar and Aleppo pepper, and then aged and dried...

     -Aged cheese balls
  • Shawarma
    Shawarma
    Shawarma is a Levantine Arab sandwich-like wrap of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats. The meat is placed on a spit, and may be grilled for as long as a day. It is eaten with pita bread, tabbouleh, fattoush, taboon bread, tomato and cucumber. Toppings include tahini, hummus,...

     - marinated meat (either chicken or lamb) that is skewered on big rods and cooked slowly, then shaved and placed in a 10 inch pita roll with pickles, tomatoes, and other tangy condiments.
  • Shish taouk- grilled chicken skewers that utilize only white meat, marinated in olive oil, lemon, parsley, and sumac
  • Siyyadiyeh - delicately spiced fish served on a bed of rice. fish cooked in saffron and served on rice with onions, sumac, and a tahini sauce (the most important part of the dish) originated in Saida (saidon).
  • Tabbouleh - diced parsley salad with burghul, tomato and mint.
  • Tahini
    Tahini
    Tahini or sesame paste , is a paste of ground sesame seeds used in cooking. North African, Greek and West Asian tahini is made of hulled, lightly roasted seeds. East Asian sesame paste is made of unhulled seeds. The Arabic word tahin simply means flour.Tahini is a major component of hummus and...

    - sesame paste
  • Toum
    Toum
    Toum is a garlic sauce as prepared in Lebanon, the Levant and Egypt similar to the European aioli. As well as garlic, it contains salt, olive oil or vegetable oil and lemon juice crushed using a wooden mortar and pestle. There is also a variation popular in many villages where mint is added,...

    - garlic sauce
  • Wara' Enab
    Dolma
    Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions such as Russia, Middle East and the Caucasus and Central and South Asia. Perhaps the best-known is the grape-leaf dolma. Common vegetables to stuff include onion, zucchini, eggplant,...

     - stuffed grape leaves
  • Za'atar
    Za'atar
    Za'atar is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum , Calamintha , Thymus vulgaris and Satureja . It is also the name for a condiment made from the dried herb, mixed together with sesame seeds, dried sumac, and often salt, as well as other spices...

     - dried thyme and sumac that can differ from region to region and from family to family. Most are made in house, but can be bought at Lebanese larders.
  • 7 Spice Blend- a mixture of equal parts of allspice, black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, fenugreek, nutmeg and ginger. It is commonly used to flavor many Lebanese dishes.

Regional cuisine

These recipes are attributed to these regions in Lebanon.
  • Douma: Laban Immo (cooked yoghurt and lamb with rice)
  • Hammana
    Hammana
    Hammana is a town in Lebanon, about 26 km East of Beirut. Hammana sits at an altitude of 1200m above sea-level. It is in the Mount Lebanon Governorate in the district of Baabda. Nearby are the towns of Falougha, Chbaniyeh and Mdeyrig.Hammana has multiple water sources...

    : Fasoulya Hammanieh (kidney bean stew)
  • Beit Shabab: Riz bi-Djaj (chicken with rice)
  • Kfar meshki: Kebbe bil-Kishk (meat mixed with wheat and yoghurt)
  • Baskinta
    Baskinta
    Baskinta is a Lebanese village situated at an altitude of 1300 meters above sea level. It is renowned for its natural beauty and moderate climate. It is the birth place of Mikhail Naime....

    : Makhlouta (meat, rice, and nuts)
  • Tripoli, Lebanon
    Tripoli, Lebanon
    Tripoli is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in Lebanon. Situated 85 km north of the capital Beirut, Tripoli is the capital of the North Governorate and the Tripoli District. Geographically located on the east of the Mediterranean, the city's history dates back...

    : Mjadrah and Fattoush (crushed lentils and salad)
  • Broummana: Deleh Mehshi (stuffed rib cage of lamb)
  • Baino: Kebbe and Lahme bil-khal (meat mixed with crushed wheat and meat soaked in vinegar)
  • Dhour Choueir: Shish Barak
    Shishbarak
    Shishbarak is a pasta or jiaozi dish made in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine that has been described as a kind of local variation on ravioli. After being stuffed with ground beef and spices, thin wheat dough parcels are cooked in yogurt and served hot in this sauce....

     (dough balls stuffed with ground beef and cooked in yoghurt)
  • Firzel: Freikeh (cooked wheat with meat)
  • Ehden
    Ehden
    Ehden is a mountainous town situated in the heart of the northern mountains of Lebanon and on the southwestern slopes of Mount Makmal and Kornet el Sawda, the highest peak in Lebanon...

    : Kebbe Zghartweih (oven-cooked meat and crushed wheat blend)
  • Beit Mery
    Beit Mery
    Beit Mery is a Lebanese town overlooking the capital Beirut. The town has been a summer mountain resort since the times of the Phoenicians and later the Romans Romans The name derives from Aramaic and it means "The house of my Lord or Master"...

    : Kebbe Lakteen (pumpkin-flavoured meat)
  • Beirut
    Beirut
    Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

    : Samkeh Harra and Akhtabout (spicy fish and octopus), Roasted Nuts
  • Zahlé
    Zahlé
    Zahlé is the capital and largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. With around 50,000 inhabitants, it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon, after Beirut, Tripoli and Jounieh...

    : Kebbe Zahleweieh (meat and crushed wheat blend)
  • Rashaya Al-Wadi: Kebbe Heeleh (meatballs)
  • Ras al-Metn: Fatet (yoghurt, fried bread and nuts)
  • Ain-Zibdeh: Hareeseh (wheat and chicken)
  • Rashana: Mjadrat Fasoulya (lentils and kidney beans)
  • Beiteddine: Kafta Bithine (spiced meat with sesame concentrate)
  • Ihmej: Ghameh (stuffed cow intestines)
  • Sidon
    Sidon
    Sidon or Saïda is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate of Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast, about 40 km north of Tyre and 40 km south of the capital Beirut. In Genesis, Sidon is the son of Canaan the grandson of Noah...

    : Riz bil-Foul (Rice and fava beans)
  • Bsharri
    Bsharri
    Bsharri , is a Lebanese town at about 1,450 m of altitude, near the Kadisha Valley. It is located at , in the Bsharri District of the North Governorate. Bsharri is the town of the only remaining Original Cedars of Lebanon...

    : Koussa bil-Laban (meat and rice-stuffed zucchini cooked in yoghurt)
  • Deir al-Kamar: Fatet Batinjan (yoghurt, fried bread and aubergine)
  • Saghbeen: Zinkoul bil-Laban (meat filled pastry and yoghurt)
  • Tyre: Saiyadit al-Samak (rice and fish)
  • El-Koura: Abu Shoushe (topinambur and lentils stew)
  • Baalbek
    Baalbek
    Baalbek is a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude , situated east of the Litani River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the Roman period, when Baalbek, then known as Heliopolis, was one of the largest sanctuaries in the Empire...

    : Safiha Baalbakieh (meat-stuffed puff pastry)
  • Jbeil: Koussa and Wark Inab bil-Kastaletah (stuffed zucchini, grape vines and steak)
  • Kalamoun, Lebanon: Fresh Carrot juice with ice cream inside

Beverages

  • Almaza Beer
  • Arak
  • Ayran
    Ayran
    Ayran or laban is a cold beverage of yogurt mixed with cold water and sometimes salt; it is popular in many Central Asian, Middle Eastern and South-eastern European countries....

  • Jallab
    Jallab
    Jallab is a type of syrup popular in the Middle East made from carob, dates, grape molasses and rose water.In Syria, Palestine and Lebanon Jallab is very popular. It is made mainly of grape molasses and artificial coloring, then smoked with Arabic incense. It is usually sold with crushed ice and...

  • Lebanese wine
    Lebanese wine
    Lebanon is among the oldest sites of wine production in the world. The Israelite prophet Hosea is said to have urged his followers to return to Yahweh so that "they will blossom as the vine, [and] their fragrance will be like the wine of Lebanon"...

  • Tahn
  • Turkish coffee
    Turkish coffee
    Turkish coffee is a method of preparing coffee where finely powdered roast coffee beans are boiled in a pot , with sugar according to taste, before being served into a cup where the dregs settle...

  • White coffee
    White coffee
    White coffee can refer to any of a number of coffee or herbal tea beverages worldwide.- Coffee with whitener :In many English-speaking countries, "white coffee" is used to refer to regular black coffee that has had milk, cream or some other "whitener" added to it, though the term is almost entirely...

  • Arabic coffee
    Arabic coffee
    Arabic coffee is a general name that refers to the way coffee is prepared in many Arab Gulf countries.There are two main ways of preparing Arabic coffee. Traditional coffee brewing, more common in Najd and Hijaz, is flavor-rich with cardamom, and sometimes other spices like saffron , cloves, and...

     qahwa saada (plain coffee) is plain and more bitter,although it originates in Lebanon

Coffee

The coffee served in Lebanon is sometimes a variation of Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee is a method of preparing coffee where finely powdered roast coffee beans are boiled in a pot , with sugar according to taste, before being served into a cup where the dregs settle...

, but a dark type of coffee is the main type served.

Coffee is served throughout the day, at home and in the public cafes. Lebanese coffee is strong, thick and often flavored with cardamom
Cardamom
Cardamom refers to several plants of the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India and Bhutan; they are recognised by their small seed pod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds...

. It is also usually unsweetened and bitter. When guests arrive at one's home, they are invariably persuaded to stay for a coffee, no matter how short their visit. It is made with a long-handled coffee pot called rakwe, served in a demitasse
Demitasse
A demitasse is a small cup used to serve Arabic coffee or espresso. In some languages it is called fincan, fildžan, filxhan or φλιτζάνι . In Spanish, it is called a pocillo....

, and poured out in front of the guest from the rakwe itself.

The Lebanese host usually asks the guests how they take their coffee; with or without sugar, since sugar is added during preparation.

See also

  • Arab cuisine
    Arab cuisine
    Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab World, from Morocco and Tunisia to Saudi Arabia, and incorporating Levantine, Egyptian .-History:...

  • Cypriot cuisine
    Cypriot cuisine
    Cypriot cuisine is the cuisine of Cyprus and can be described as a blend of Greek cuisines. Greek Cypriot cuisine is another regional Greek cuisine along with Cretan, Ionian, or Attic....

  • Jordanian cuisine
    Jordanian cuisine
    Jordanian cuisine is a traditional style of food preparation originating from Jordan that has developed from centuries of social and political change with roots as far back as 2000 B.C.There is a wide variety in the Jordanian style of cooking...

  • Iraqi cuisine
    Iraqi cuisine
    Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine has a long history going back some 10,000 years - to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals - the first cookbooks in the world...

  • Islamic dietary laws
    Islamic dietary laws
    Islamic dietary laws provide direction on what is to be considered clean and unclean regarding diet and related issues.-Overview:Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are ' and which are '...

  • Greek cuisine
  • Levantine cuisine
    Levantine cuisine
    Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham. This region shared many culinary traditions under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today...

  • Mediterranean cuisine
  • Middle Eastern cuisine
    Middle Eastern cuisine
    Middle-Eastern cuisine, West Asian cuisine, or in some place in the United States, Persian-Mediterranean cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East . The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity...

  • Ottoman cuisine
    Ottoman cuisine
    Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its successors in Anatolia, the Balkans, and much of the Middle East.- Description :...

  • Palestinian cuisine
    Palestinian cuisine
    Palestinian cuisine consists of foods from or commonly eaten by Palestinians — which includes those living in the Palestinian territories, Israel, refugee camps in nearby countries as well as by the Palestinian Diaspora...

  • Syrian cuisine
  • Turkish cuisine
    Turkish cuisine
    Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe...


External links

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