Leafhopper
Overview
 
Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 from the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insect
Insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

s in the superfamily
Taxonomic rank
In biological classification, rank is the level in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories...

 Membracoidea
Membracoidea
The superfamily Membracoidea includes two of the largest families among what used to be the "Homoptera"; the leafhoppers and the treehoppers . The other families in this group are quite small, and have, at various points, generally been included as members within other families, though they are...

 in the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Hemiptera
Hemiptera
Hemiptera is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs , comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others...

. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha
Cicadomorpha
The Cicadomorpha is the infraorder of the Hemiptera which contains the cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, and spittlebugs. There are approximately 35000 described species worldwide...

 in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha
Auchenorrhyncha
The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. The aphids and scale insects are the other well-known "Homoptera", and they are in...

, but as the latter taxon
Taxon
|thumb|270px|[[African elephants]] form a widely-accepted taxon, the [[genus]] LoxodontaA taxon is a group of organisms, which a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit. Usually a taxon is given a name and a rank, although neither is a requirement...

 is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha.

Leafhoppers are found all over the world, and constitute the second-largest hemipteran family.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 from the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insect
Insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

s in the superfamily
Taxonomic rank
In biological classification, rank is the level in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories...

 Membracoidea
Membracoidea
The superfamily Membracoidea includes two of the largest families among what used to be the "Homoptera"; the leafhoppers and the treehoppers . The other families in this group are quite small, and have, at various points, generally been included as members within other families, though they are...

 in the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Hemiptera
Hemiptera
Hemiptera is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs , comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others...

. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha
Cicadomorpha
The Cicadomorpha is the infraorder of the Hemiptera which contains the cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, and spittlebugs. There are approximately 35000 described species worldwide...

 in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha
Auchenorrhyncha
The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. The aphids and scale insects are the other well-known "Homoptera", and they are in...

, but as the latter taxon
Taxon
|thumb|270px|[[African elephants]] form a widely-accepted taxon, the [[genus]] LoxodontaA taxon is a group of organisms, which a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit. Usually a taxon is given a name and a rank, although neither is a requirement...

 is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha.

Leafhoppers are found all over the world, and constitute the second-largest hemipteran family. They have at least 20,000 described species. The tribe
Tribe (biology)
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank between family and genus. It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes.Some examples include the tribes: Canini, Acalypheae, Hominini, Bombini, and Antidesmeae.-See also:* Biological classification* Rank...

 Proconiini of the subfamily Cicadellinae is commonly known as sharpshooters.

Description and ecology

The Cicadellidae combine the following features:
  • The thickened part of the antenna
    Antenna (biology)
    Antennae in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. More recently, the term has also been applied to cilium structures present in most cell types of eukaryotes....

    e is very short and ends with a bristle (arista).
  • Two ocelli
    Ocellus
    A simple eye refers to a type of eye design or optical arrangement that contains a single lens which detect light. A "simple eye" is so-called in distinction from a multi-lensed "compound eye", and is not necessarily at all simple in the usual sense of the word...

     (simple eyes) are present on the top or front of the head.
  • The tarsi
    Arthropod leg
    The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments are of Latin origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa , trochanter , femur, tibia, tarsus, ischium, metatarsus, carpus, dactylus ,...

     are made of three segments.
  • The femora are at front with, at most, weak spines.
  • The hind tibiae have one or more distinct keels, with a row of movable spines on each, sometimes on enlarged bases.
  • The base of the middle legs is close together where they originate under the thorax
    Thorax
    The thorax is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.-In tetrapods:...

    .
  • The front wings not particularly thickened.


An additional and unique character of leafhoppers is the production of brochosome
Brochosome
Brochosomes are intricately structured microscopic granules secreted by leafhoppers and typically found on their body surface and, more rarely, eggs. Brochosomes were first described in 1952 with the aid of an electron microscope...

s, which are thought to protect the animals, and particularly their egg clutch
Clutch (eggs)
A clutch of eggs refers to all the eggs produced by birds or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest.In birds, destruction of a clutch by predators, , results in double-clutching...

es, from predation and pathogens.

Like other Exopterygota
Exopterygota
The Exopterygota, also known as Hemipterodea, are a superorder of insects of the subclass Pterygota in the infraclass Neoptera, in which the young resemble adults but have externally-developing wings. They undergo a modest change between immature and adult, without going through a pupal stage...

, the leafhoppers undergo direct development from nymph
Nymph (biology)
In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis before reaching its adult stage. Unlike a typical larva, a nymph's overall form already resembles that of the adult. In addition, while a nymph moults it never enters a...

 to adult without a pupa
Pupa
A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, going through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa and imago...

l stage. While many leafhoppers are drab little insects as is typical for the Membracoidea
Membracoidea
The superfamily Membracoidea includes two of the largest families among what used to be the "Homoptera"; the leafhoppers and the treehoppers . The other families in this group are quite small, and have, at various points, generally been included as members within other families, though they are...

, the adults and nymphs of some species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 are quite colorful. Some – in particular Stegelytrinae – have largely translucent wings and resemble flies
Fly
True flies are insects of the order Diptera . They possess a pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax...

 at a casual glance.

Leafhoppers have piercing-sucking mouthparts, enabling them to feed on plant sap
Plant sap
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant. It transports water and nutrients throughout the plant....

. A leafhoppers' diet commonly consists of sap from a wide and diverse range of plants, but some are more host
Host (biology)
In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter. In botany, a host plant is one that supplies food resources and substrate for certain insects or other fauna...

-specific. Leafhoppers mainly are herbivore
Herbivore
Herbivores are organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-based foods. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in...

s, but some are known to eat smaller insects, such as aphid
Aphid
Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies or whiteflies, are small sap sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions...

s, on occasion. A few species are known to be mud-puddling
Mud-puddling
Mud-puddling is the phenomenon mostly seen in butterflies and involves their aggregation on substrates like wet soil, dung and carrion to obtain nutrients such as salts and amino acids. This behaviour has also been seen in some other insects, notably the leafhoppers.Lepidoptera are diverse in...

, but as it seems, females rarely engage in such behavior. Leafhoppers can transmit plant pathogens, such as viruses
Plant virus
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants...

, phytoplasma
Phytoplasma
Phytoplasma are specialised bacteria that are obligate parasites of plant phloem tissue and transmitting insects . They were first discovered by scientists in 1967 and were named mycoplasma-like organisms or MLOs. They cannot be cultured in vitro in cell-free media...

s and bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

. Cicadellidae species that are significant agricultural pests include the beet leafhopper
Beet leafhopper
The beet leafhopper is a species of leafhopper with a longer, thinner build than most. It is found across much of the United States and Mexico, in South Africa and from the countries around the Mediterranean Sea to Central Asia ....

 (Circulifer tenellus), potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia), glassy-winged sharpshooter
Glassy-winged sharpshooter
The glassy-winged sharpshooter is a large leafhopper insect from the family Cicadellidae, similar to other species of sharpshooter.-Description:These sharpshooters are about in length...

 (Homalodisca vitripennis), the common brown leafhopper
Common brown leafhopper
The common brown leafhopper, Orosius orientalis is one of the most common species of Australian leafhoppers with a very wide host range. It is an important vector of several viruses and phytoplasmas worldwide. In Australia, phytoplasmas vectored by O...

 (Orosius orientalis), the Maize streak virus
Maize streak virus
Maize streak virus is an insect-transmitted maize pathogen in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The A-strain of MSV causes sporadic maize streak disease epidemics throughout the maize growing regions of Africa...

 vector Cicadulina mbila, and the white apple leafhopper (Typhlocyba pomaria).

In some cases, the plant pathogens distributed by leafhoppers are also pathogen
Pathogen
A pathogen gignomai "I give birth to") or infectious agent — colloquially, a germ — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host...

s of the insects themselves, and can replicate
Replicate
Replicate may refer to:* In biology, replication is a process by which genetic material, a cell, or an organism reproduces or makes an exact copy or copies...

 within the leafhoppers' salivary gland
Salivary gland
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva. They also secrete amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose...

s. Leafhoppers are also susceptible to various insect pathogens, including Dicistroviridae
Dicistroviridae
The Dicistroviridae are a family of Group IV insect-infecting viruses. Some of the insects commonly infected by dicistroviruses include aphids, leafhoppers, flies, bees, ants, silkworms.-Taxonomy:...

 viruses, bacteria and fungi; numerous parasitoid
Parasitoid
A parasitoid is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host...

s attack the eggs and the adults provide food for small insectivore
Insectivore
An insectivore is a type of carnivore with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures. An alternate term is entomophage, which also refers to the human practice of eating insects....

s.

Systematics

In the now-obsolete classification that was used throughout much of the 20th century, the leafhoppers were part of the Homoptera", a paraphyletic assemblage uniting the less advanced lineages of Hemiptera
Hemiptera
Hemiptera is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs , comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others...

 and ranked as suborder. The splitting of the "Homoptera is likely to be repeated for the Auchenorrhyncha
Auchenorrhyncha
The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. The aphids and scale insects are the other well-known "Homoptera", and they are in...

 for similar reasons, as the Auchenorrhyncha simply seem to group the moderately advanced Hemiptera, regardless of the fact the highly apomorphic Coleorrhyncha
Coleorrhyncha
Peloridiidae is a family of true bugs, comprising 17 genera and 36 species. They are small, ranging in length from 2 to 4 mm, rarely seen, peculiarly lumpy, flattened bugs found in Patagonia , New Zealand, eastern Australia, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. All the Peloridiidae species are...

 and Heteroptera
Heteroptera
Heteroptera is a group of about 40,000 species of insects in the Hemiptera. Sometimes called "true bugs", that name more commonly refers to Hemiptera as a whole, and "typical bugs" might be used as a more unequivocal alternative since among the Hemiptera the heteropterans are most consistently and...

 (typical bugs) evolved from auchenorrhynchans. Hence, there is a recent trend to treat the most advanced hemipterans as three or four lineages, namely Archaeorrhyncha (Fulgoromorpha if included in Auchenorrhyncha), Coleorrhyncha and Heteroptera (sometimes united as Prosorrhyncha
Prosorrhyncha
The name Prosorrhyncha is a name for a suborder of Hemiptera, comprising a grouping of the traditional taxon "Heteroptera" plus its sister taxon, the family Peloridiidae...

) and Clypeorrhyncha.

Within the latter, the three traditional superfamilies – Cercopoidea (froghoppers and spittlebugs), Cicadoidea (cicadas) and Membracoidea
Membracoidea
The superfamily Membracoidea includes two of the largest families among what used to be the "Homoptera"; the leafhoppers and the treehoppers . The other families in this group are quite small, and have, at various points, generally been included as members within other families, though they are...

 – appear to be monophyletic. The leafhoppers are the most basal living lineage of Membracoidea, which otherwise include the families
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Aetalionidae (aetalionid treehoppers), Membracidae (typical treehoppers and thorn bugs), Melizoderidae and the strange Myerslopiidae.

Subfamilies

The leafhoppers are divided into a high number (about 40) of subfamilies, which are listed here alphabetically, as too little is known about the family's internal phylogeny. Some notable genera and species are also listed.
  • Acostemminae
  • Agalliinae
  • Aphrodinae
  • Arrugadinae
  • Austroagalloidinae
  • Bythoniinae
  • Cicadellinae
    • Bothrogonia
      Bothrogonia
      Bothrogonia is a genus of leafhopper with a large number of species distributed across the Old World. They can be told apart from others in their tribe by the pattern of setae on the hind tibia....

    • Graphocephala
      Graphocephala
      Graphocephala is a large genus of leafhoppers, found from southern Canada to northern South America.-Species:...

    • Homalodisca
    • Zyzzogeton
      Zyzzogeton
      Zyzzogeton is a rare genus of leafhopper endemic to South America.The word is known for being the last word defined in the Webster's New International Dictionary, Unabridged released in September 1961. It also appears in the 1939 Second edition, and is still present in current versions....

  • Coelidiinae
  • Deltocephalinae
    Deltocephalinae
    Deltocephalinae is a subfamily of leafhoppers.- Tribes :* Acinopterini Oman, 1943* Athysanini Van Duzee, 1892** Genus Laburrus* Balcluthini Baker, 1915* Cerrillini Linnavuori, 1975* Chiasmini Distant 1908...

    • Circulifer
    • Graminella
    • Hecalusina He, Zhang & Webb, 2008
  • Errhomeninae
  • Euacanthellinae
  • Eupelicinae
  • Eurymelinae
    • Eurymela
    • Eurymeloides
  • Euscelinae
  • Evacanthinae
  • Evansiolinae
  • Gyponinae
  • Hylicinae
  • Iassinae
  • Idiocerinae
    • Idiocerus
      Idiocerus
      Idiocerus is a large genus of homopteran bugs belonging to the family Cicadellidae . The group is characterized by a very short and broadly-rounded vertex ; many species are very similar and difficult to identify. Most are found on specific host plants, particularly poplars and willows. For...

  • Ledrinae
    • Neotituria
  • Macropsinae
  • Makilingiinae
  • Megophthalminae
  • Membracidae
    • Bocydium globulare
  • Mileewinae
  • Mukariinae
  • Neobalinae
  • Neocoelidiinae
  • Neopsinae
  • Nioniinae
  • Nirvaninae
    • Nirvana
      Nirvana (leafhopper)
      Nirvana is a leafhopper genus belonging to the Nirvaninae subfamily and the tribe Nirvanini. Distinguishable from other leafhopper subfamilies by their uniquely shaped head and the presence of two preapical cells alone on the tegemen, they comprise some of the most beautiful and iridescent of the...

    • Sophonia
  • Phereurhininae
  • Selenocephalinae
  • Signoretiinae
  • Stegelytrinae
    • Aculescutellaris
    • Cyrta Melichar, 1902 (including Placidus)
    • Doda
    • Paracyrta Wei, Webb & Zhang, 2008
    • Pseudododa
  • Tartessinae
  • Tinterominae
  • Typhlocybinae
    • Dziwneono
      Dziwneono
      Dziwneono is a genus of Australian leafhoppers, with more than ten undescribed species.The genus name is a biological nomenclature curiosity. "Dziwne ono" is Polish for "A strange it".-Distribution:...

    • Empoasca
    • Erasmoneura Young, 1952
    • Eupteryx
    • Sweta
      Sweta
      Sweta hallucinata is a species of leafhopper in the subfamily Typhlocybinae, the only species in the genus Sweta. The genus name is derived from the Sanskrit word for white, the type species being predominantly whitish....

       Viraktamath & Dietrich, 2011
    • Typhlocyba
  • Xestocephalinae
  • incertae sedis
    Incertae sedis
    , is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is attributed by , , and similar terms.-Examples:*The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any...

    • Mesojassoides
      Mesojassoides
      Mesojassoides is a genus of extinct leaf hopper from the Late Cretaceous, approximately 70-65 million years ago, Fox Hills Formation. The genus contains a single species Mesojassoides gigantea, described from a fore wing found in 1932 by C.H. Dane and W. G. Pierce in Adams County, Colorado. ...

       (extinct, late Cretaceous
      Cretaceous
      The Cretaceous , derived from the Latin "creta" , usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide , is a geologic period and system from circa to million years ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the...

      )


Further reading

  • Carver, M, FG. Gross, and TE. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects, etc.) In: The Insects of Australia - a Textbook for Students and Research Workers Volume 1. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia".

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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