Land Rover Discovery
Overview
 
The Discovery was introduced into the United Kingdom in 1989. The company code-named the vehicle "Project Jay". The new model was based on the chassis and drivetrain
Powertrain
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive...

 of the more upmarket Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

, but with a lower price aimed at a larger market segment and intended to compete with Japanese offerings. This was the only Discovery generation with four-cylinder engines.

The Discovery was initially available in a three door version.
Encyclopedia
The Discovery was introduced into the United Kingdom in 1989. The company code-named the vehicle "Project Jay". The new model was based on the chassis and drivetrain
Powertrain
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive...

 of the more upmarket Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

, but with a lower price aimed at a larger market segment and intended to compete with Japanese offerings. This was the only Discovery generation with four-cylinder engines.

The Discovery was initially available in a three door version. The five door became available the following year. Both were fitted with five seats, and an option was made available to have two further seats fitted in the "boot" area at the back of the car. Land Rover employed an external consultancy, Conran Design Group in London, to design the interior. The brief was to ignore current car interior design and position the vehicle as a 'lifestyle accessory'. The interior incorporated a number of original features, although some ideas shown on the original interior mock-ups constructed inside a Range Rover bodyshell at Conran's workshops were left on the shelf, such as a custom sunglasses holder built into the centre of the steering wheel. The design was unveiled to critical acclaim, and won a British Design Award in 1989. The features that were retained included the majority of the interior being constructed from 'Sonar Blue' plastic (with blue cloth trim), map/magazine holding slots above the windscreen, hand-holds for rear passengers being incorporated into the head restraints of the front seats, remote radio controls on the instrument cluster, twin removable sunroof panels (including a special zip-up storage bag behind the rear seats) and the inclusion of a Land Rover-branded cloth fabric holdall in the front centre console for oddments storage that could be removed from the vehicle and worn as a 'handbag
Handbag
A handbag, or purse in American English, is a handled medium-to-large bag that is often fashionably designed, typically used by women, to hold personal items such as wallet/coins, keys, cosmetics, a hairbrush, pepper spray, cigarettes, mobile phone etc....

' using a supplied shoulder strap (relatively few of these bags have survived, making them collectable items). Despite such features the interior's basic structure was the same as the Range Rover and virtually all the switchgear and instruments came from other Rover Group
Rover Group
The Rover Group plc was the name given in 1986 to the British state-owned vehicle manufacturer previously known as British Leyland or BL. Owned by British Aerospace from 1988 to 1994, when it was sold to BMW, the Group was broken up in 2000 with the Rover and MG marques being acquired by the MG...

 cars such as the Maestro
Austin Maestro
The Austin Maestro is a compact-sized 5-door hatchback car that was produced from 1983 to 1994, initially by the Austin Rover subsidiary of British Leyland , and from 1988 onwards by its successor, Rover Group. The car was produced at the former Morris plant in Cowley, Oxford. It was initially...

 and Montego
Austin Montego
The Austin Montego is a British mid-size saloon car that was produced by the Austin Rover subsidiary of British Leyland , and its successors, from 1984 until 1994. The Montego was the replacement for the Morris Ital, to give British Leyland a modern competitor for the Ford Sierra and Vauxhall...

. Similarly on the exterior, as well as the necessary Range Rover panels, the Discovery used headlights from the Freight Rover
LDV Pilot
The LDV Pilot is a panel van that was produced by LDV Limited from 1997 until 2006, and closely based on preceding models dating back to 1974 ....

 van and taillights from the Maestro van. The latter would continue to bear the Austin Rover 'chevron' logo on their lenses until production of the first generation Discovery ended in 1998, ten years after Austin Rover ceased to exist.
Pre-1994, the Discovery was available with either the 2.5 litre 200 Tdi engine or the 3.5 litre Rover V8
Rover V8 engine
The Rover V8 engine is a compact V8 internal combustion engine with aluminium cylinder heads and cylinder block, originally designed by General Motors and later re-designed and produced by Rover in the United Kingdom...

. Early V8 engines used a twin SU carburettor system, moving over to Lucas 14CUX
Lucas 14CUX
The Lucas 14CUX is an automotive electronic fuel injection system developed by Lucas Industries and fitted to the Rover V8 engine in Land Rover vehicles between 1990 and 1995...

 fuel injection in 1990. In the North American market, the only engine available was the V8. A 2.0 litre petrol engine from the Rover stable was briefly available in a model known as the 2.0 L Mpi I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

. This was intended to attract fleet managers, since UK (and also Italian) tax laws benefited vehicles under two litres. A combination of changes in taxation and the engine being underpowered for such a heavy vehicle led to the demise of this engine, despite the kudos of being the engine fitted to several Discoveries supplied to the British Royal family
British Royal Family
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with...

, most notably driven by Prince Philip
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Elizabeth II. He is the United Kingdom's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning British monarch....

 around Windsor Great Park
Windsor Great Park
Windsor Great Park is a large deer park of , to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England. The park was, for many centuries, the private hunting ground of Windsor Castle and dates primarily from the mid-13th century...

, in his position as Park Ranger
Park ranger
A park ranger or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks. Different countries use different names for the position. Ranger is the favored term in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Within the United...

 of the park. In 1992 the Discovery received several additions and improvements. The interior was now offered in a more traditional beige as well as the distinctive (but controversial) light blue, an automatic transmission
Automatic transmission
An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

 was made available on 200Tdi models, new colours were added to the range (and the large 'compass and mountain' side decals worn by early Discoveries were removed) and the 'SE' pack incorporating alloy wheels, front driving lights, roof bars and a special range of metallic paints was introduced as an option. A two-seater, three-door Discovery Commercial version, lacking rear side windows, was later offered by Land Rover Special Vehicles.

In 1994, many changes were made to the Discovery and reached some markets as "Discovery 2"; the 200Tdi and 3.5 L V8 engines were replaced with the 2.5 L 300TDi 4-cylinder and 3.9 L Rover V8 engines, the 300Tdi introducing a Bosch electronic emissions control for certain models and markets. At around this time a stronger R380 gearbox was fitted to all manual models combined with the flexible cardan coupling GAJ-1 from SGF for more comfort. The newer models featured larger headlamps and a second set of rear lights in the bumper. The new rear lights had the wiring changed several times to meet real or expected European safety legislation. Some vehicles are left with an arrangement where the vulnerable bumper contains the only working direction-indicator lights; other examples have these lights duplicated in the traditional rear pillar location.

The designers of the original model had been forced to economise and use the "parts-bin" of the then parent-company, Rover. The 200 series used the basic bodyshell structure from the Range Rover, door handles from the Morris Marina
Morris Marina
The Morris Marina is a car which was manufactured by the Morris division of British Leyland in the UK throughout the 1970s, which was a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the British car industry. It was known in some markets as the Austin Marina, Leyland Marina, and Morris 1.7...

, tail lights from the Austin Maestro
Austin Maestro
The Austin Maestro is a compact-sized 5-door hatchback car that was produced from 1983 to 1994, initially by the Austin Rover subsidiary of British Leyland , and from 1988 onwards by its successor, Rover Group. The car was produced at the former Morris plant in Cowley, Oxford. It was initially...

 van, and interior switchgear and instrumentation from the Rover
Austin Rover Group
The Austin Rover Group was a British motor manufacturer. It was formed in 1981 as the mass-market car manufacturing subsidiary of British Leyland...

 "parts bin". The favour was returned when the facelifted Discovery dashboard was also fitted as part of the final facelift to the first-generation Range Rover, though with minor differences reflecting the vehicle's higher status, such as an analogue rather than digital clock.

The 1994 model year
Model year
The model year of a product is a number used worldwide, but with a high level of prominence in North America, to describe approximately when a product was produced, and indicates the coinciding base specification of that product....

 marked the first year that the Discovery was sold in the United States. Airbags were incorporated into the design of the 1995 model to meet the requirements of US motor vehicle regulations, though they were not fitted as standard in all markets. 1995 models sold in the US utilised the 3.9 L V8 from the Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

 SE models, and later models saw a change to the 4.0 L version of the engine.

Technically speaking, the 1996 to 1998 US models with 4.0 L engines had the same displacement as the 3.9 L engines fitted to the earlier 1994 to 1995 US models; the differences between the engines involved improvements to the block rigidity and pistons, and a change from the Lucas 14CUX engine management to the distributorless Generic Engine Management System ("GEMS"). In earlier 3.9 L US engines the fuel injection computer (14CUX) did not control the ignition, which was instead controlled by a traditional system with ignition coil and distributor made by Lucas. The 4.0 L engines had a few important differences: larger, cross-bolted main bearings, revised pistons, revised intake and the GEMS system. It was developed jointly by Lucas and SAGEM
SAGEM
SAGEM was a major French company involved in defence electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems.In 2005, Sagem merged with SNECMA to form SAFRAN...

 and it controlled both spark and fuel injection. Unlike the earlier systems fitted to Rover V8 engines, GEMS was made OBD-II compliant. This change was largely driven by the federal requirement (starting in 1996) for vehicles sold in the United States to meet the OBD-II specification.

As with all Land Rover vehicles designed since the Land Rover Series
Land Rover Series
The Land Rover Series I, II, and III are off-road vehicles produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover that were inspired by the US-built Willys Jeep...

, which had switchable two-wheel
Two-wheel drive
Two wheel drive or 2WD describes vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.-Four wheeled vehicles:...

 and four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

, the transmission is a permanent four wheel drive system, with a locking
Locking differential
A locking differential, diff-lock or locker is a variation on the standard automotive differential. A locking differential may provide increased traction compared to a standard, or "open" differential by restricting each of the two wheels on an axle to the same rotational speed without regard to...

 centre differential at the transfer box
Transfer case
A transfer case is a part of a four-wheel-drive system found in four-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive vehicles. The transfer case is connected to the transmission and also to the front and rear axles by means of drive shafts...

. In common with much of the rest of the Land Rover range, the handbrake acts on the transmission at the back of the transfer box, therefore locking all wheels when applied.

In Japan, a badge-engineered
Badge engineering
Badge engineering is an ironic term that describes the rebadging of one product as another...

 version of the Series I was offered, called the Honda Crossroad
Honda Crossroad
The Honda Crossroad refers to two specific types of SUVs made by Honda. One of them is a rebadged Land Rover Discovery Series I SUV, while the other is a completely different vehicle introduced in 2008.-Rebadged version :...

. The Rover
Rover (car)
The Rover Company is a former British car manufacturing company founded as Starley & Sutton Co. of Coventry in 1878. After developing the template for the modern bicycle with its Rover Safety Bicycle of 1885, the company moved into the automotive industry...

 companies had cross-holding relationship with Honda
Honda
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than...

 U.K. since early-1980s. The relationship ended after Rover was taken over by BMW in 1994. (Honda revived the nameplate 'Crossroad' in another small sport utility vehicle in 2007.)

Discovery Series II

The Series II Discovery debuted in autumn 1998 and in the US in 1999. Land Rover promoted that the Discovery Series II had been modified with 720 'differences'. The interior and exterior was re-worked to be less utilitarian, but it was still similar to the Series I. Every body panel was new except the rear door outer skin. The rear body was extended to improve load space but at the expense of added rear overhang, which adversely impacted off-road ability. Changes to the diesel engined models saw the 2495 cc Td5 (in-line direct-injected 5 cylinder
Straight-5
The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase...

) engine introduced, in line with the updated Defender models. This electronically managed engine was smoother, producing more usable torque at lower revs than its 300 Tdi predecessor. The Td5 engine is often mistakenly attributed to BMW but the engine was derived from the Rover L-series
Rover L-Series engine
The L-Series engine is an automotive diesel engine built by Powertrain Ltd, a sister company of MG Rover.-History:The L-Series engine commenced production in January 1995 and was the first Rover designed and manufactured direct injection diesel for use in Rover Cars applications and derived from...

 passenger car engine and developed by Land Rover. The 3948 cc V8 petrol version from the Disco 1 was replaced with the Range Rover P38 Thor 4.0  litre Rover derived V8. There was no actual increase in capacity over the previous 3.9 L engine. Although the basic design of the engine was similar it was actually quite different internally. It used a different crankshaft, had larger bearing journals with cross bolted caps and different con rods and pistons. The blocks were machined differently to accept extra sensors for the Gems and Bosch (thor) injection system and to allow the extra stroke of the 4.6 crankshaft. For the 2003 and 2004 model year Discovery II they changed to the 4.6L V8. ACE (Active Cornering Enhancement, an electronically controlled hydraulic anti-roll bar system) was fitted to some versions, which reduced cornering roll. Self-levelling air springs were fitted to some models and European type-approval for 7-seat vehicles was only given for air-sprung cars.

The locking centre differential was still fitted until early 2001, although the linkage to operate it was not attached, as Land Rover believed that the traction control
Traction control system
A traction control system , also known as anti-slip regulation , is typically a secondary function of the anti-lock braking system on production motor vehicles, designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels...

 and newly-developed Hill Descent Control
Hill Descent Control system
Four-wheel-drive and All Wheel Drive vehicles such as the Australian made Ford Territory may have a Hill Descent Control system installed, using the ABS braking to control the car's motion downhill, initially developed by Bosch for Land Rover...

 would render it redundant. The actual locking mechanism was removed in early 2001, before being fully reinstated (with linkage) with the face-lifted 2004 model. Whilst the traction control system worked very effectively, it did not offer the same level of control and smooth operation as the vehicles fitted with the diff lock. Customer demand saw the diff lock controls fully reinstated as a cost option only (standard on top of range HSE/SE vehicles) on UK/Irish models, and aftermarket kits are offered by several vendors for those vehicles which were produced with the lock, but not the linkage.

The "face-lift" models are easily identified by new "pocketed" headlamps which matched the Range Rover and face-lifted Freelander models as well as redesigned turn and brake lamps on the rear of the vehicle; the turn signals were moved from the bumper to the high side fixtures. The earlier Series II models could in turn be easily distinguished from the original Discovery by the position of those stop light fixtures above the window-line (earlier models had them below), and by the replacement of paddle door handles with the current sort. The Series II also differs in dimensions, but this can be difficult to discern unless one of each are sitting next to one another in a car park.

A small number of Discovery II Commercial models were produced by Land Rover Special Vehicles, this time based on the five-door bodyshell but with the windows rendered opaque to give van-like appearance and security. Normal vehicles were exported to Republic of Ireland, where the rear side windows were smashed and rear seats were destroyed in the presence of a Revenue official, to offer a model that avoided the Vehicle Registration Tax (saving approximately 40%).

In the final production run of the Discovery II, only two models were offered for sale in the UK market, the 'base' Pursuit, which still retained a high level of equipment as standard, and the top specification Landmark, which offered all Leather interior, twin sunroofs, Active Cornering Enhancement six-disc CD player and Heated Windscreen. The final vehicles left the production lines in late May 2004 to make way for the all new Discovery 3 (LR3) models

The Commercials released by Special Vehicles came with rear self levelling suspension as standard, and on the facelifted vehicles the rendered windows are fixed in place so while a retrofit of seats is viable, it does not offer any significant comforts to the rear passengers unless the doors are almost completely rebuilt to facilitate windows that actually open – this also would require additional wiring. The last revision of this vehicle still had a high spec and came with climate control, roof bars, alloy wheels and marine ply boarding with full-length rubber mat in the loadspace as standard.

Discovery 3 / LR3

On 2 April 2004, Land Rover introduced the Discovery 3, marketed as the LR3 in North America. It retained the key features of the Discovery, such as the stepped roofline and steeply-raked windscreen. The LR3 name was chosen for North American markets due to negative quality associations with the Discovery name and (according to Land Rover) a preference in the American market for alpha-numeric model designations – the second generation Freelander
Land Rover Freelander
The Land Rover Freelander is a compact crossover SUV made by Land Rover.The current generation is sold as the LR2 in North America and as the Freelander 2 in Europe...

 was also re-designated for the North American market as the LR2.

Land Rover developed a body construction method, marketed as Integrated Body Frame (IBF),
where the engine bay and passenger compartment is built as a monocoque, then mated to a basic
ladder-frame chassis for the gearbox and suspension. Land Rover claims IBF combines the virtues of monocoque and ladder-frame – though it makes for a heavy vehicle, compromising performance and agility. The LR3 became the first Land Rover to be offered with a rear locking differential
Locking differential
A locking differential, diff-lock or locker is a variation on the standard automotive differential. A locking differential may provide increased traction compared to a standard, or "open" differential by restricting each of the two wheels on an axle to the same rotational speed without regard to...

.
The LR3 features full independent suspension
Independent suspension
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects...

 (FIS). Like the Series III Range Rover, this was an air suspension
Air suspension
Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an engine driven or electric air pump or compressor. This pump pressurizes the air, using compressed air as a spring. Air suspension replaces conventional steel springs. If the engine is left off for an extended period, the car will settle...

 system, enabling ride-height adjustment by simply pumping up or deflating the air bags. The vehicle can be raised to provide ground clearance when off-road, but lowered at high speeds to improve handling. FIS had been seen as inferior to the older beam-axle when off-road due to its tendency to make the vehicle bottom out. Land Rover developed 'cross-linked' air suspension
Air suspension
Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an engine driven or electric air pump or compressor. This pump pressurizes the air, using compressed air as a spring. Air suspension replaces conventional steel springs. If the engine is left off for an extended period, the car will settle...

 to solve this problem – when needed, the suspension mimics the action of a beam axle (as one wheel drops, the other rises). If the chassis of the vehicle contacts the ground when the suspension was at its 'off road' height, the system senses the reduction in load on the air springs and raises the vehicle an extra inch. In the UK and European markets, a coil-spring independent suspension system was offered on the base model. This model was unique in the range by having only five seats and only being available with the 2.7 litre diesel engine. This model lacked the Terrain Response system.

The engines used in the Discovery 3 were all taken from Land Rover's sister company at the time, Jaguar. A Ford-developed 2.7 litre, 195 hp, 440 Nm V6
V6 engine
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a right angle or an acute angle to each other, with all six pistons driving a common crankshaft...

 diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 (the TdV6) was intended to be the biggest seller in Europe. For the US market and as the high-performance option elsewhere, a 4.4 litre petrol V8
V8 engine
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 of 300 hp was chosen. A 216 hp 4.0 litre SOHC Ford V6 petrol engine
Ford Cologne V6 engine
The original Ford Cologne V6, also known as the 'Ford Taunus V6', is a series of 60° cast iron block V6 engines produced continuously by the Ford Motor Company in Cologne, Germany since 1968...

 was available in North America and Australia.

The gearboxes on the Discovery 3 were also all-new. For the diesel engine, a 6-speed manual
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 gearbox was standard. As an option, and as standard on the V8 engine, a 6-speed automatic transmission
Automatic transmission
An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

 was available. Both came with a 2-speed transfer box and permanent 4-wheel-drive. A computer controlled progressively locking central differential ensured traction was retained in tough conditions. A similar differential was available on the rear axle to aid traction.

The Discovery 3 was fitted with multiple electronic traction control systems. Hill Descent Control (HDC) prevented vehicle 'runaways' when descending steep gradients and 4-wheel Electronic Traction Control (4ETC) prevented wheel spin in low-traction conditions. An on-road system, Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) prevented skidding when steering and braking at speed. The vehicle also featured the 'Terrain Response' system, which won a Popular Science award in 2005. Previously, off-road driving had been a skill that many drivers found daunting. A wide-ranging knowledge of the vehicle was needed to be able to select the correct gear, transfer ratio, various differential systems and master various techniques required for tackling steep hills, deep water and other tough terrain. Terrain Response attempted to take away as many of the difficulties as possible. The driver selected a terrain type on a dial in the cab of the vehicle. The options are "Sand", "Grass, Gravel & Snow", "Mud & Ruts" and "Rock Crawl". The on-board computer systems then select the correct gearbox settings, adjust the suspension height, adjust the differential lock settings and even alter the throttle response of the engine suitable for the terrain. For example, in "Rock Crawl", the suspension is raised to its maximum height and set to allow maximum wheel articulation, the differentials are locked, the driver is prompted to switch to Low Range, and the throttle response is altered to provide low-speed control. In "Sand" mode, the traction control system is 'primed' to be more sensitive to any wheelspin, the differential locks are partly locked up and the throttle response is re-mapped to produce high power outputs with short pedal movement. The driver retained some manual control over the off-road systems, being able to select the Transfer Box ratio and the suspension height manually, although use of the Terrain Response system is needed to allow full use of the vehicles' capabilities.

As well as new mechanical and electronic systems, the Discovery 3 introduced a new design to the interior and exterior of the vehicle. The original 1989 Discovery's looks had been determined by limited funds and the consequent use of first-generation Range Rover components. These continued to influence the Series II. The Discovery 3 was able to have a fresh, minimalist style. The interior featured a flexible seven seat layout. Passengers in the rearmost row now entered through the rear side doors, instead of the tailgate as in previous versions. The driver benefited from a DVD
DVD
A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

 navigation system
Automotive navigation system
An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations...

, including some optional features like Bluetooth
Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks with high levels of security...

 telephony in later models. Like the Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

, this audio, information & entertainment ("infotainment") system in the Discovery 3 adopted an electronics architecture whereby the system's distributed control units pass information and audio amongst one another and throughout the vehicle via optical links based on the MOST (or, Media Oriented Systems Transport) fiber-optic automotive networking standard (informally called the "MOST-bus"). The system's navigation functions were unique to Land Rover because, in addition to the typical road map navigation, benefits included an off-road navigation and four-wheel drive information mode. When in four-wheel drive information mode, the screen showed a schematic
Schematic
A schematic diagram represents the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures. A schematic usually omits all details that are not relevant to the information the schematic is intended to convey, and may add unrealistic elements that aid comprehension...

 of the vehicle, displaying the amount of suspension movement, angle the front wheels were steering, the status of the locking differentials and icons showing which mode the Terrain Response was in, and what gear was selected on automatic versions.

The vehicle was well received by the press on its launch, with the Terrain Response system, improved on-road dynamics and interior design being selected for praise. Jeremy Clarkson
Jeremy Clarkson
Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson is an English broadcaster, journalist and writer who specialises in motoring. He is best known for his role on the BBC TV show Top Gear along with co-presenters Richard Hammond and James May...

 of the BBC's Top Gear
Top Gear (current format)
Top Gear is a British television series about motor vehicles, primarily cars. It began in 1977 as a conventional motoring magazine show. Over time, and especially since a relaunch in 2002, it has developed a quirky, humorous style...

motoring show drove one to the top of Cnoc an Fhreiceadain
Cnoc an Fhreiceadain
Cnoc an Fhreiceadain is a seaside mountain peak in northern Scotland. It is modest in height at 312 m , but both commands the township of Coldbackie and provides dramatic views across to Kyle of Tongue, to Orkney in the east, and Arkle in the West.Cnoc an Fhreiceadain is an Old Red Sandstone...

, a 307 m (1,007.2 ft) mountain near Tongue in northern Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, where no vehicle had previously reached. Richard Hammond
Richard Hammond
Richard Mark Hammond is an English broadcaster, writer, and journalist most noted for co-hosting car programme Top Gear with Jeremy Clarkson and James May, as well as presenting Brainiac: Science Abuse on Sky 1.-Early life:...

, presenter of Top Gear
Top Gear (current format)
Top Gear is a British television series about motor vehicles, primarily cars. It began in 1977 as a conventional motoring magazine show. Over time, and especially since a relaunch in 2002, it has developed a quirky, humorous style...

, praised it as the "Best 4X4 of all time". In Australia, the vehicle was awarded "4WD of the Year" by the 4WD press.

In 2006, Land Rover used the Discovery 3 in its G4 Challenge, alongside the Range Rover Sport
Range Rover Sport
The Range Rover Sport is a luxury-type sport utility vehicle produced by the Jaguar Land Rover business unit of India's Tata Motors.-Chassis:...

. The vehicles used are all in standard mechanical form, and are fitted with equipment from the standard Land Rover brochures.

The first all-new model placement since the Freelander, the Range Rover Sport
Range Rover Sport
The Range Rover Sport is a luxury-type sport utility vehicle produced by the Jaguar Land Rover business unit of India's Tata Motors.-Chassis:...

 is based on the Discovery 3 platform, rather than on the larger Range Rover.

A facelift model of the Discovery 3 (2009 Model Year), made in the UK from August 2008 onwards offered an upgrade to the stereo system (Harman Kardon) as standard with integrated steering wheel controls and a six CD stacker, clear indicator side lights, and colour coded bumpers.

In North America, the LR3 was renamed LR4, debuting at the 2009 New York International Auto Show
New York International Auto Show
The New York International Auto Show is an annual auto show held in New York City in late March or early April. It is usually held at the Jacob Javits Convention Center. It usually opens on or just before Easter weekend and closes on the first Sunday after Easter...

.

Armoured Discovery 3 (2008-)

It is an armoured Discovery 3 S with B6 ballistic level of protection, Side blast and under floor grenade protection, Independent ballistic and blast certification, Uprated suspension, handling and braking system, Wheels fitted with run-flat tyre system.

Engine choice include 2720 cc V6 turbo diesel, with 5L V8 in 2010 model year.

The vehicle was unveiled in Gerotek, outside Pretoria.

Awards

Since its launch, Discovery 3 / LR3 has won a number of awards, including 'Best Compact 4x4' at the WHATCAR? awards,North American Truck of the Year
North American Car of the Year
The North American Car of the Year is an automobile award voted annually in January at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. The jury consists of no more than 50 automotive journalists.-Example:-Pre-1994:-1994-1999:-2000-2009:...

award and won Motor Trend
Motor Trend
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine. It first appeared in September 1949, issued by Petersen Publishing Company in Los Angeles, and bearing the tag line "The Magazine for a Motoring World". Petersen Publishing was sold to British publisher EMAP in 1998, who sold the former Petersen...

magazine's Sport/Utility of the Year
Car of the Year
Car of the Year is a phrase usually considered to have been invented by Motor Trend magazine in the 1950s for their annual award for best American automobile...

 for 2005. It also won a Popular Science
Popular Science
Popular Science is an American monthly magazine founded in 1872 carrying articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the ASME awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004...

award on account of its ground-breaking on-board systems. Also the British motoring magazine What Car?
What Car?
What Car? is a long-running UK monthly automobile magazine and website, currently edited by Steve Fowler and published by Haymarket Motoring. First published in 1973, it is intended primarily as a magazine for consumers rather than dedicated automobile enthusiasts...

 awarded it 2005 "Car of the Year".

Reliability

Discovery 3 was described as "unreliable" by several consumer reports, including "Least Reliable Luxury Cars 2006" by Forbes

Discovery 4 / LR4

The Discovery 4 (called the LR4 in North America) is a heavily updated version of the Discovery 3. Using the same Integrated Body Frame structure, the new Discovery has altered front and rear light units and a restyled front grille and bumper to adopt the same smoother, rounder style as also adapted for the 2010 Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

 and Range Rover Sport
Range Rover Sport
The Range Rover Sport is a luxury-type sport utility vehicle produced by the Jaguar Land Rover business unit of India's Tata Motors.-Chassis:...

. The Discovery 4 also retains the body-coloured wheel arches and bumpers as the late D3s (early D3s had black plastic trim). The D4 is the first Discovery model to incorporate Daytime Running Lights
Daytime running lamp
A daytime running lamp is an automotive lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle, installed in pairs, automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight...

, these being a row of white LED
LEd
LEd is a TeX/LaTeX editing software working under Microsoft Windows. It is a freeware product....

s added to the main front lamp unit.

The majority of the changes are mechanical. The D4 receives two engines from Jaguar Land Rover's
Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover is a British automotive company owned by Tata Motors of India. It develops, manufactures and sells vehicles under the Jaguar and Land Rover marques.-History:...

 'Gen III' range. The TDV6 Gen III is a 3-litre development of the 2.7-litre engine used in the D3. The new version features advanced twin-sequential turbocharger
Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or turbo , from the Greek "τύρβη" is a centrifugal compressor powered by a turbine that is driven by an engine's exhaust gases. Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of air entering the engine , thereby resulting in greater performance...

s where a Variable geometry turbocharger
Variable geometry turbocharger
Variable-geometry turbochargers are a family of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio of the turbo to be altered as conditions change. This is done because optimum aspect ratio at low engine speeds is very different from that at high engine speeds...

 is used at low engine speeds, with a second standard turbo is brought online at higher engine speeds. This system provides greater output than the older engine (now 241 bhp and 600 newton metre whilst reducing CO2 emissions by 10%. The Gen III version of the V8 petrol engine (available in markets outside the UK and Europe such as North America, Russia and Australia) is now a 5-litre unit with Direct Petrol Injection
Gasoline direct injection
In internal combustion engines, gasoline direct injection , also known as petrol direct injection or direct petrol injection, is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines...

 developing 385 bhp and 520 newton metre.
The D3s 6-speed manual transmission is no longer available (except on the basic GS model, see below). An improved version of the ZF
ZF Friedrichshafen
ZF Friedrichshafen AG, also known as ZF Group, and commonly abbreviated to ZF, is a German public company headquartered in Friedrichshafen, in the south-west German region of Baden-Württemberg....

 6-speed automatic/sequential gearbox is now fitted which includes taller gearing to take advantage of the new engines' greater torque output and an updated lock-up system to further reduce fuel consumption. Other technical changes include the fitting of the more powerful brakes from the Range Rover Sport
Range Rover Sport
The Range Rover Sport is a luxury-type sport utility vehicle produced by the Jaguar Land Rover business unit of India's Tata Motors.-Chassis:...

 and thicker anti-roll bars
Sway bar
A sway bar or anti-roll bar or stabilizer bar is a part of an automobile suspension that helps reduce the roll of a vehicle that is induced by cornering or road irregularities. It connects opposite wheels together through short lever arms linked by a torsion spring...

 to improve on-road handling. The electronic handling system have been updated- the Stability Control System now includes a programme that detects the onset of understeer
Understeer
Understeer and oversteer are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering. Simply put, oversteer is what occurs when a car turns by more than the amount commanded by the driver...

 and applies the brakes. The D4 retains its predecessor's fully independent
Independent suspension
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects...

 air suspension
Air suspension
Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an engine driven or electric air pump or compressor. This pump pressurizes the air, using compressed air as a spring. Air suspension replaces conventional steel springs. If the engine is left off for an extended period, the car will settle...

 with cross-linking when off-road and the twin-range transfer gearbox with an electronic infinitely-variable locking centre differential. As before a similar locking rear differential is available. The Terrain Response system remains but with two new features- the 'Sand' mode incorporates a new traction control mode to prevent loss of traction when starting off and stopping in soft sand, and the 'Rock Crawl' mode gains a feature that applies gentle brake pressure at low (less than walking pace) speeds to improve grip and stability on slick rock. The system is also 'retuned' to account for the new engines and gearboxes with their different torque characteristics. Other new electronic systems include Trailer Stability Assist which can adjust the throttle and brakes to prevent a dangerously swaying trailer.

The 2.7-litre TDV6 engine is still available in Europe on the basic 2.7 GS variant. Unlike the D3 base model this is equipped with air suspension and the Terrain Response system. The automatic transmission is an option on this model. The 3.0-litre Gen III model (only with automatic transmission) is also available in the GS trim level.

The Discovery 4 also features a redesigned interior (again in keeping with the new styles introduced elsewhere in the LR range for 2010). The instrument cluster is updated with the speedometer and tachometer
Tachometer
A tachometer is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device usually displays the revolutions per minute on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly common...

 analogue gauges being redesigned to improve clarity. The analogue temperature and fuel gauges of the D3, and the electronic information display are replaced by a single TFT
Thin-film transistor
A thin-film transistor is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of a semiconductor active layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting substrate. A common substrate is glass, since the primary application of TFTs is in liquid...

 screen capable of displaying information in a variety of modes and formats. The D4's interior also has a new centre console, which includes redesigned and simplified switches and controls. The D4 also has a new seat design and a wider range of available interior materials-some (such as the highly polished 'Piano Black' and wood veneer) are materials previously only seen in Range Rover models. The stated aim of the interior redesign was to lift the vehicle upmarket, especially the higher-spec models which are now aimed at the luxury and executive markets.

The D4 gains some electronic systems from the Range Rover
Range Rover
The Range Rover is a large luxury four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle produced by British car maker Land Rover. The model, launched in 1970, is now in its third generation...

 lineup such as the optional 'Venture Camera'- a series of cameras located in the front and rear bumpers which can display their images on the centre console screen to improve visibility when off-road, when hitching up to a trailer or when parking. Other electronic systems are intended to improve efficiency- for example the engines feature a 'Smart' alternator
Alternator
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used...

 that only charges the battery when engine load is low, thus helping to reduce fuel consumption when the engine is working harder.

The Discovery 4 was unveiled in the summer of 2009 and went on sale in the United Kingdom on 1 September that year. A Commercial van variant was released in the UK at the same time using the 2.7 engine and offered in GS and XS trim levels. In the Republic of Ireland a Commercial van was offered from 1 January 2010 based on the XE 2.7 manual and HSE 3.0 auto engines.

For the 2011 model year announced late 2010, the 2.7 engine was dropped and two versions of the 3.0 litre engine were made available - one called the TDV6 and one called the SDV6 (the latter offering 245 bhp).

Engines

ModelYearsType/codePower, torque@rpm
Petrol engines
5.0l V8 petrol 2009 (MY2010)- 4999 cc V8 32v (AJ133) 375 PS@6500, 510 newton metre@3500
Diesel engines
2.7l TDV6 2009–end 2010 2720 cc V6 single turbo (Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17) 191 PS@4000, 440 newton metre@1900
3.0l TDV6 2011 (MY2011) 2993 cc V6 twin turbo (Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17) 211 PS@4000, 520 newton metre@2000
3.0l SDV6 2009- 2011 2993 cc V6 twin turbo (Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17) 244.5 PS@4000, 600 newton metre@2000
3.0l SDV6 2011 (MY2012) - 2993 cc V6 twin turbo (Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17) 257 PS@4000, 600 newton metre@2000

Transmissions

ModelYearsType/code
Petrol engines
5.0l V8 petrol 2009 (MY2010)- ZF 6HP28 6-speed automatic
Diesel engines
2.7l TDV6 2009– ZF S6-53 6-speed manual, ZF 6HP26 6-speed automatic
3.0l TDV6 2009 (MY2010)- ZF 6HP28 automatic

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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