Labour movement
Overview
 
The term labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people
Working class
Working class is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs , often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes...

, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour relations
Labour and employment law
Labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees...

. Trade union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

s are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class.
Quotations

The story of the labor movement|labor movement needs to be taught in every school in this land... America is a living testimonial to what freeman|free men and women, organized in Labor unions in the United States|free democratic trade unions can do to make a better life ... we ought to be proud of it!

Hubert Humphrey

Encyclopedia
The term labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people
Working class
Working class is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs , often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes...

, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour relations
Labour and employment law
Labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees...

. Trade union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

s are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many ruling class
Ruling class
The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political policy - assuming there is one such particular class in the given society....

 individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement.

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and Australia
Australian labour movement
The Australian labour movement has its origins in the early 19th century and includes both trade unions and political activity. At its broadest, the movement can be defined as encompassing the industrial wing, the unions in Australia, and the political wing, the Australian Labor Party and minor...

 the labour movement is understood to encompass a formal "political wing", frequently known by the name labour party or workers' party
Workers' Party
Workers' Party is a name used by a number of political parties throughout the world. While the name has been used by both left-wing and right-wing organizations, it is currently used by left-wing followers of Communism, Maoism, Marxism, Marxism-Leninism, Social Democracy, Socialism and...

, which complements the aforementioned "industrial wing".

History

In Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the 18th century and early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs
Tolpuddle Martyrs
The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century Dorset agricultural labourers who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. The rules of the society show it was clearly structured as a friendly society and operated as...

 of Dorset
Dorset
Dorset , is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The county town is Dorchester which is situated in the south. The Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch joined the county with the reorganisation of local government in 1974...

 were punished and transported
Penal transportation
Transportation or penal transportation is the deporting of convicted criminals to a penal colony. Examples include transportation by France to Devil's Island and by the UK to its colonies in the Americas, from the 1610s through the American Revolution in the 1770s, and then to Australia between...

 for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time.

The labour movement was active in the early to mid 19th century and various labour parties were formed throughout the industrialised world. The works of Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx led to the formation of the first Communist International whose policies were summarized in The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto, originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party is a short 1848 publication written by the German Marxist political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the...

. The key points were the right of the workers to organize themselves, the right to an 8 hour working day etc. In 1871 the workers in France rebelled and the Paris Commune was formed.

The movement gained major impetus in the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries from the Catholic Social Teaching
Catholic social teaching
Catholic social teaching is a body of doctrine developed by the Catholic Church on matters of poverty and wealth, economics, social organization and the role of the state...

 tradition which began in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII , born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci to an Italian comital family, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903...

's foundational document, Rerum Novarum
Rerum Novarum
Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. It was an open letter, passed to all Catholic bishops, that addressed the condition of the working classes. The encyclical is entitled: “Rights and Duties of Capital and Labour”...

, also known as "On the Condition of the Working Classes," in which he advocated a series of reforms including limits on the length of the work day, a living wage, the elimination of child labour, the rights of labour to organize, and the duty of the state to regulate labour conditions. Following the release of the document, the labour movement which had previously floundered began to flourish in Europe and later in North America.

Throughout the world, action by the labour movement has led to reforms and workers' rights
Labor rights
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe...

, such as the two-day weekend
Workweek
The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest respectively. The legal working week , or workweek , is the part of the seven-day week devoted to labor. In most Western countries it is Monday to Friday. The weekend comprises the two traditionally...

, minimum wage
Minimum wage
A minimum wage is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers. Equivalently, it is the lowest wage at which workers may sell their labour. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in a great many jurisdictions, there are differences of opinion about...

, paid holiday
Holiday
A Holiday is a day designated as having special significance for which individuals, a government, or a religious group have deemed that observance is warranted. It is generally an official or unofficial observance of religious, national, or cultural significance, often accompanied by celebrations...

s, and the achievement of the eight-hour day
Eight-hour day
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. With working conditions...

 for many workers. There have been many important labour activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as "Mother Jones", and the National Catholic Welfare Council
National Catholic Welfare Council
The National Catholic Welfare Council was the annual meeting of the American Catholic hierarchy and its standing secretariat; it was established in 1919 as the successor to the emergency organization, the National Catholic War Council....

 were central in the campaign to end child labour in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 during the early 20th century. An active and free labour movement is considered by many to be an important element in maintaining democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

 and for economic development.

Labour parties

Modern labour parties originated from an upsurge in organizing activities in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and European colonies during the 19th century, such as the Chartist movement
Chartism
Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century, between 1838 and 1859. It takes its name from the People's Charter of 1838. Chartism was possibly the first mass working class labour movement in the world...

 in Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 during 1838–50.

In 1891, localised labour parties were formed, by trade union members in the British colonies of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. They later amalgamated to form the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

 (ALP). In 1893, Members of Parliament in the Colony of Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

 briefly formed the world's first labour government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

.

The British Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 was created as the Labour Representation Committee, as a result of an 1899 resolution by the Trade Union Congress.

While archetypal labour parties are made of direct union representatives, in addition to members of geographical branches, some union federations or individual unions have chosen not to be represented within a labour party and/or have severed ties with them.

Labour and racial equality

A degree of strategic bi-racial cooperation existed among black and white dockworkers on the waterfronts of New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans dock workers and unionization
-Overview:Dockworkers in the United States city of New Orleans at the turn of the 20th century often coordinated their unionization efforts across racial lines...

 during the turn of the 20th century. Although the groups maintained racially separate labor unions, they coordinated efforts to present a united front when making demands of their employers. These pledges included a commitment to the "50-50" or or "half-and-half" system wherein a dock crew would consist of 50% black and 50% white workers and agreement on a single wage demand to reduce the risk of ship owners pitting one race against the other. Black and white dockworkers also stood together during protracted labor strikes, including general levee strikes in 1892 and 1907 as well as smaller strikes involving skilled workers such as screwmen in the early 1900s.

Development of labour movements within nation states

Historically labour markets
Labour economics
Labor economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the market for labor. Labor markets function through the interaction of workers and employers...

 have often been constrained by national borders that have restricted movement of workers. Labour laws are also primarily determined by individual nations or states within those nations. While there have been some efforts to adopt a set of international labour standards through the International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues pertaining to international labour standards. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Its secretariat — the people who are employed by it throughout the world — is known as the...

 (ILO), international sanctions for failing to meet such standards are very limited. In many countries labour movements have developed independently and reflect those national boundaries.

Development of an international labour movement

With ever increasing levels of international trade and rising influence of multinational corporations, there has been debate and action within the labour movement broadly to attempt international co-operation. This has led to renewed efforts to organize and collectively bargain internationally. A number of international union organizations have been established in an attempt to facilitate international collective bargaining, to share information and resources and to advance the interests of workers generally.

List of national labour movements

  • Trade unions in Albania
    Trade unions in Albania
    Trade unions in Albania have had an unstable existence in recent decades, mirroring the regional political turbulance in Albania. Since the 1991 defeat of the Albanian Party of Labour , independent trade unions have asserted themselves, with two main national trade union centres; theUnited...

  • Trade unions in Algeria
    Trade unions in Algeria
    Prior to Algerian independence in 1962, trade unions in Algeria were structured within regional organizations of French trade unions. After independence the General Union of Algerian Workers became the sole trade union center...

  • Trade unions in Andorra
    Trade unions in Andorra
    Trade unions in Andorra have had a brief existence, with the first trade union, the Andorran Workers' Union , being formed in 1990.Andorra is not a member of the International Labour Organization and ICTUR reports that the Constitution of Andorra recognizes general trade union rights, but there is...

  • Trade unions in Angola
    Trade unions in Angola
    Before 1975, while under Portuguese rule, Trade unions in Angola existed primarily as "occupational syndicates" - operating welfare services, but banned from collective bargaining and strike action...

  • Trade unions in Antigua and Barbuda
    Trade unions in Antigua and Barbuda
    Trade unions in Antigua and Barbuda have a significant presence in the workforce, representing approximately 75% of Antigua and Barbuda workers.Trade unions operate freely, and the Labour code recognizes the right to collective bargaining and strike action...

  • Trade unions in Argentina
    Trade unions in Argentina
    Trade unions in Argentina have traditionally played a strong role in the politics of the nation. The largest trade union association, the Confederación General del Trabajo has been a force since the 1930s, and approximately 40% of workers in the formal economy are unionized.- The FORA :The...

  • Trade unions in Armenia
    Trade unions in Armenia
    Trade unions in Armenia are afforded the right to organized by the Armenian Constitution. The primary trade union centre is the Confederation of Trade Unions of Armenia , which is the reconstituted remains of the former Soviet trade union structure....

  • Australian labour movement
    Australian labour movement
    The Australian labour movement has its origins in the early 19th century and includes both trade unions and political activity. At its broadest, the movement can be defined as encompassing the industrial wing, the unions in Australia, and the political wing, the Australian Labor Party and minor...

  • Trade unions in Benin
    Trade unions in Benin
    Trade unions in Benin operate in relative freedom, with approximately 75% of the formal sector being unionized. There are, however, concerns expressed by the International Labour Organization and the International Trade Union Confederation about the discrepancies between the government's Labour...

  • Trade unions in Botswana
    Trade unions in Botswana
    Trade unions in Botswana operate within a longstanding democratic system in which the government of Botswana has ratified the International Labour Organization's core conventions, including Conventions 87 and 98 ....

  • Trade unions in Burkina Faso
    Trade unions in Burkina Faso
    Burkina Faso is a landlocked African country located in the middle of West Africa. It has a population of 13.9 million people.Workers have the right to organise trade unions, engage in collective bargaining, and strike for better pay and working conditions. Unions have held an important role in...

  • Trade unions in Egypt
    Trade unions in Egypt
    There are currently 24 registered trade unions in Egypt. The oldest is the Lawyers Union, founded in 1922. Among the labor organizations in Egypt are:* Egyptian Trade Union Federation* Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions...

  • Trade unions in Ethiopia
    Trade unions in Ethiopia
    The trade unions of Ethiopia have a total membership of approximately 300,000. Over 203,000 are members of the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions ....

  • Trade unions in Germany
    Trade unions in Germany
    Trade unions have a long history in Germany, reaching back to the German revolution in 1848, and still play an important role in German economy and society...

  • Trade unions in Ghana
    Trade unions in Ghana
    Trade unions in Ghana have a total membership of over 350,000 out of a total workforce of around 9 million. There are two national trade union centers, the Trades Union Congress of Ghana and the Ghana Federation of Labour.-Pre-independence:...

  • Trade unions in India
  • Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions
    Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions
    The Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions is the largest union federation in Iraq and the only officially recognized trade union body. It was formed in the aftermath of the Iraq War by several groups, most prominently the Iraqi Communist Party, which wished to disassociate itself from the National...

  • Trade unions in Ireland
  • Labor unions in Japan
    Labor unions in Japan
    Labour unions emerged in Japan in the second half of the Meiji period as the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization. Until 1945, however, the labour movement remained weak, impeded by lack of legal rights, anti-union legislation, management-organized factory councils, and political...

  • Trade unions in Malaysia
    Trade unions in Malaysia
    Trade unions in Malaysia are regulated by the Industrial Relations Act 1967.-Membership:The IRA protects the right of every worker in Malaysia to join or not to join a trade union....

  • Trade unions in Maldives
    Trade unions in Maldives
    Until 2008 trade unions were not allowed in the Maldives, however with the passing of the Employment Act and the ratification of a new constitution, trade union rights were formalised...

  • Trade unions in Nauru
    Trade unions in Nauru
    Trade unions in Nauru. With a tiny population of 13,000 Nauru does not have a trade union structure.-Trade union rights:There are constitutional provisions for the general right to belong to trade unions and other associations, however, in the past efforts to form unions have met with government...

  • Labour unions in Nepal
  • Trade unions in Nepal
  • Trade unions in Niger
    Trade unions in Niger
    Trade unions in Niger are free to engage in regular unionist activities, with constitutionally protected provisions for forming and joining trade unions...

  • Trade unions in Oman
    Trade unions in Oman
    There are few trade unions in Oman, established following a 2006 Decree by the Sultan of Oman permitting their organization. Some of these, have done completed elections, they are members of the General Foundation of Oman Trade Union...

  • Trade unions in Pakistan
    Trade unions in Pakistan
    The Trade Unions in Pakistan are involved in Collective bargaining for a labor contract between an employer and employees.-External links:* * *...

  • Trade unions in Qatar
    Trade unions in Qatar
    Trade unions in Qatar.Qatar has been a member of the International Labour Organization since 1972, but has not ratified the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948, or the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949.Until recently trade...

  • Trade unions in Senegal
    Trade unions in Senegal
    Trade unionism is a powerful force in the politics, economy, and culture of Senegal, and was one of the earliest trades union movements to form in Francophone West Africa.-History of Trade unionism in Senegal:...

  • Trade unions in South Africa
    Trade unions in South Africa
    Trade unions in South Africa have a history dating back to the 1880s. From the beginning unions could be viewed as a reflection of the racial disunity of the country, with the earliest unions being predominantly for white workers...

  • Swedish labour movement
    Swedish labour movement
    The labour movement in Sweden dates back to at least the 1850's, when Swedish workers initiated the organizing of previously spontaneous food riots into strikes, hence acting as an autonomous group. Modern types av labour unions emerged in the 1870's...

  • Trade unions in Switzerland
    Trade unions in Switzerland
    Compared with other Western European countries, Trade unions play a rather minor role in Switzerland with only every fourth employee organized in a union or confederation. The most important organization is the Swiss Trade Union Confederation with approximately 385,000 members and 16 individual...

  • Trade unions in Tanzania
    Trade unions in Tanzania
    The trade unions of Tanzania have a total membership of approximately 370,000. 350,000 of these belong to the Trade Union Congress of Tanzania, another 15,000 to the Zanzibar Trade Union Congress, and 2,400 are members of the Tanzania Fishing Crew and Allied Workers’ Union.-Pre-independence:The...

  • Trade unions in the United Kingdom
    Trade unions in the United Kingdom
    Trade unions in the United Kingdom were first decriminalised under the recommendation of a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organisations was to the advantage of both employers and employees...

  • Labor unions in the United States
    Labor unions in the United States
    Labor unions in the United States are legally recognized as representatives of workers in many industries. The most prominent unions are among public sector employees such as teachers and police...


See also

  • Activism industry
    Activism industry
    The activism industry is composed of organizations and individuals who make a living from activism, involvement in action to bring about change. The number of organizations who employ people to perform this work is sufficiently large that Activism is now a job classification...

  • AFL-CIO
    AFL-CIO
    The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL–CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 56 national and international unions, together representing more than 11 million workers...

  • Anarchism
    Anarchism
    Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority in the conduct of human relations...

  • Anarcho-syndicalism
    Anarcho-syndicalism
    Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. The word syndicalism comes from the French word syndicat which means trade union , from the Latin word syndicus which in turn comes from the Greek word σύνδικος which means caretaker of an issue...

  • Canadian Labour Congress
    Canadian Labour Congress
    The Canadian Labour Congress, or CLC is a national trade union centre, the central labour body in English Canada to which most Canadian labour unions are affiliated.- Formation :...

  • Catholic social teaching
    Catholic social teaching
    Catholic social teaching is a body of doctrine developed by the Catholic Church on matters of poverty and wealth, economics, social organization and the role of the state...

  • Catholic trade unions
  • Change to Win
  • Christian socialism
    Christian socialism
    Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two philosophies as being interrelated. This category can include Liberation theology and the doctrine of the social gospel...

  • Christian trade unions
  • Class struggle
    Class struggle
    Class struggle is the active expression of a class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote "The [written] history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle"....

  • Communism
    Communism
    Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

  • Council communism
    Council communism
    Council communism is a current of libertarian Marxism that emerged out of the November Revolution in the 1920s, characterized by its opposition to state capitalism/state socialism as well as its advocacy of workers' councils as the basis for workers' democracy.Originally affiliated with the...

  • Democratic socialism
    Democratic socialism
    Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation...

  • Eight hour day
  • Far-left
  • Filippo Turati
    Filippo Turati
    Filippo Turati was an Italian sociologist, poet and Socialist politician.-Early life:Born in Canzo, province of Como, he graduated in law at the University of Bologna in 1877, and participated in the Scapigliatura movement with the most important artists of the period in Milan, publishing poetry...

  • Freelancers Union
    Freelancers Union
    Freelancers Union is a non-profit organization in the United States that provides health insurance to its members through its for-profit Freelancers Insurance Company as well as service information through monthly meetings and information on its website....

  • Industrial Workers of the World
    Industrial Workers of the World
    The Industrial Workers of the World is an international union. At its peak in 1923, the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict...

  • Labour and employment law
    Labour and employment law
    Labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees...

  • Labor history
    Labor history (discipline)
    Labor history is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the labor movement and the working class. The central concerns of labor historians include the development of labor unions, strikes, lockouts and protest movements, industrial relations, and the progress of working class and...

     including art and culture
  • Left-wing politics
    Left-wing politics
    In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

  • List of international labor organizations
  • Living wage
    Living wage
    In public policy, a living wage is the minimum hourly income necessary for a worker to meet basic needs . These needs include shelter and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition...

  • Marxism
    Marxism
    Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. Marxism was pioneered in the early to mid 19th...

  • New Unionism
    New Unionism
    New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the trade union agenda.-1880s:First was the development within the British trade union movement in the late 1880s...

  • Social criticism
    Social criticism
    The term social criticism locates the reasons for malicious conditions of the society in flawed social structures. People adhering to a social critics aim at practical solutions by specific measures, often consensual reform but sometimes also by powerful revolution.- European roots :Religious...

  • Social democracy
    Social democracy
    Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

  • Socialism
    Socialism
    Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

  • Trade unionism

  • Further reading

    • Robert N. Stern, Daniel B. Cornfield, The U.S. labor movement:References and Resources, G.K. Hall & Co 1996
    • John Hinshaw and Paul LeBlanc (ed.), U.S. labor in the twentieth century : studies in working-class struggles and insurgency, Amherst, NY : Humanity Books, 2000
    • Philip Yale Nicholson, Labor's story in the United States, Philadelphia, Pa. : Temple Univ. Press 2004 (Series ‘Labor in Crisis’), ISBN 1-59213-239-1
    • Beverly Silver: Forces of Labor. Worker's Movements and Globalization since 1870, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-52077-0
    • St. James Press Encyclopedia of Labor History Worldwide, St. James Press 2003 ISBN 1-55862-542-9
    • Lenny Flank (ed), IWW: A Documentary History, Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-5-1
    • Tom Zaniello: Working Stiffs, Union Maids, Reds, and Riffraff: An Expanded Guide to Films about Labor (ILR Press books), Cornell University Press, revised and expanded edition 2003, ISBN 0801440092

    External links

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