Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis (14 May 1914 - 28 June 1975), was a Greek
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 and town planner. He became world wide known as the lead architect of Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, the new capital of Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, and later as the father of Ekistics
The term Ekistics applies to the science of human settlements. It includes regional, city, community planning and dwelling design...

. Described as a scientist, salesman, visionary and man of action, he was an apt public speaker.


Doxiadis graduated in architectural engineering
Architectural engineering
Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction...

 from the Technical University of Athens in 1935, obtaining a doctorate from Charlottenburg University (today Technical University of Berlin
Technical University of Berlin
The Technische Universität Berlin is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. Translating the name into English is discouraged by the university, however paraphrasing as Berlin Institute of Technology is recommended by the university if necessary .The TU Berlin was founded...

) a year later. In 1937 he was appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area. During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 he held the post of Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works. He took part in the Greek resistance and was decorated by the Greek and British governments. He distinguished himself as Minister of Reconstruction at the end of the war and it was this experience that allowed him in the 1950s to gain large housing contracts in dozens of countries.

In 1951 he founded Doxiadis Associates, a private firm of consulting engineers, which grew rapidly until it had offices on five continents and projects in 40 countries. In 1963 the company changed its name to DA International Co. Ltd. Consultants on Development and Ekistics.

One of his most well known town planning works is Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. Designed as a new city it was fully realised, unlike many of his other proposals in already existing cities, where shifting political and economic forces did not allow full implementation of his plans. The plan for Islamabad, separates cars and people, allows easy and affordable access to public transport and utilities and permits low cost gradual expansion and growth without losing the human scale of his "communities".


Doxiadis proposed ekistics
The term Ekistics applies to the science of human settlements. It includes regional, city, community planning and dwelling design...

 as a science of human settlement and outlined its scope, aims, intellectual framework and relevance. A major incentive for the development of the science is the emergence of increasingly large and complex settlements, tending to regional conurbations and even to a worldwide city (Doxiadis uses the word "ecumenopolis
Ecumenopolis is a word invented in 1967 by the Greek city planner Constantinos Doxiadis to represent the idea that in the future urban areas and megalopolises would eventually fuse and there would be a single continuous worldwide city as a...

"). However, ekistics aims to encompass all scales of human habitation and seeks to learn from the archaeological and historical record by looking not only at great cities, but, as much as possible, at the total settlement pattern.


In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis (Constantinos Doxiadis) authored books, studies, and reports including those regarding the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis
Great Lakes Megalopolis
The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of North American metropolitan areas which surround the Great Lakes region mainly within the Midwestern United States, the Southern Ontario area of Canada, along with large parts of Pennsylvania, New York, and Quebec...

. At the peak of his popularity, in the 1960s, he addressed the US Congress on the future of American cities, his portrait illustrated the front cover of Time Magazine, his company Doxiadis Associates was implementing large projects in housing, urban and regional development in more than 40 countries, his Computer Centre (UNIVAC-DACC) was at the cutting edge of the computer technology of his time and at his annual "Delos Symposium" the World Society of Ekistics attracted the worlds foremost thinkers and experts.

In Greece, he faced persistent suspicion and opposition and his recommendations were largely ignored. Having won two large contracts (National Regional Plan for Greece and Master Plan for Athens) from the Greek Junta he was criticised by competitors, after its fall in 1974, portrayed as a friend of the colonel's. His visions for Athens airport to be constructed on the adjacent island of Makronissos, where political prisoners were held, together with a bridge, a rail link and a port at Lavrion were never realised.

His influence had already diminished at his death in 1975, unable to speak for the last two years of his life, a victim of multiple sclerosis
Sclerosis (medicine)
In medicine, sclerosis refers to the stiffening of a structure, usually caused by a replacement of the normal organ-specific tissue with connective tissue.Types include:...

. His company Doxiadis Associates changed owners several times after his death, the heir to his computer company remained but without any links to planning or Ekistics. The Delos Symposium was discontinued, and the World Society of Ekistics is today an obscure organisation.


  • Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
  • Anthropopolis: City for Human Development.New York: W.W. Norton, 1974.
  • Ecumenopolis: The Inevitable City of the Future. With J.G. Papaioannou. Athens: Athens Center of Ekistics, 1974.
  • Building Entopia. Athens: Athens Publishing Center, 1975.
  • Action for Human Settlements. New York: W.W. Norton, 1976.

External links

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