Kiowa
Overview
 
The Kiowa are a nation of American Indians and indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated from the northern plains to the southern plains in the late 17th century. In 1867, the Kiowa moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

. Today, they are a federally recognized tribe, the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma, with over 11,500 members.
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Kiowa call themselves Kaui-gu.
Encyclopedia
The Kiowa are a nation of American Indians and indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated from the northern plains to the southern plains in the late 17th century. In 1867, the Kiowa moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

. Today, they are a federally recognized tribe, the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma, with over 11,500 members.
'

Name

Kiowa call themselves Kaui-gu. Ancient names were Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the myth pulling or coming out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman
Pregnancy
Pregnancy refers to the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, in a woman's uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets...

 got stuck. Later, they called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi
Tipi
A tipi is a Lakota name for a conical tent traditionally made of animal skins and wooden poles used by the nomadic tribes and sedentary tribal dwellers of the Great Plains...

 flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" (Kaui-kope) in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, just south of the border with Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. The mountain pass they came through was populated heavily by grizzly bear
Grizzly Bear
The grizzly bear , also known as the silvertip bear, the grizzly, or the North American brown bear, is a subspecies of brown bear that generally lives in the uplands of western North America...

 Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot
Blackfoot
The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi is the collective name of three First Nations in Alberta and one Native American tribe in Montana....

 people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language
Sign language
A sign language is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker's...

 to describe them by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled as an arrow was let loose from a bow string. George Catlin
George Catlin
George Catlin was an American painter, author and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West.-Early years:...

 painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle.

Characteristics

The Kiowa were patrilineal with a chiefdom living in semi-sedentary structures. They were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowas migrated with the American bison because it was their main food source along with an abundant supply of antelope, deer, wild berries, wild fruit, turkeys and other wild game. Dogs dragged travois and rawhide parfleche
Parfleche
A parfleche is a Native American rawhide bag, typically used for holding dried meats and pemmican.The word was originally used by French fur traders...

 that contained camping goods for short moves that were for long periods of time. With the introduction of the horse the Kiowa revolutionized their economy and when they arrived on the Plains they were a fully mounted warrior nation. The horses were acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande River.

The new Kiowa and Plains Apache
Plains Apache
The Plains Apache are a Southern Athabaskan group that traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America and today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma...

 homeland lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

 in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Kiowas had a well structured tribal government like most tribes on the Northern Plains. They had a yearly Sun Dance gathering and a chieftain who was considered to be the leader of the entire tribe. There were warrior societies and religious societies that made up the Kiowa society. Kiowa government was democratic. The ideal personality of the Kiowas was that of the young fearless warrior. The entire tribe was structured around this individual. The warrior was the ideal to which young men aspired. Because of these factors, the Kiowa was of utmost importance in the history of the Southern Plains. The women gain prestige through the achievements of their husbands, sons, and fathers or through their own achievements in the arts. Kiowa women tanned, skin-sewed, quilled, painted geometric designs on parfleche and later beaded hides. The Kiowa women took care of the camp while the men were away. They gathered and prepared food for winter months and participated in events.

Kiowa Calendars

The Kiowa people told James Mooney that the first calendar keeper in their tribe was Little Bluff, or Tohausan, who was the principal chief of the tribe from 1833 to 1866. Mooney also worked with two other calendar keepers, Settan, or Little Bear, and Ankopaingyadete, In the Middle of Many Tracks, commonly known as Anko. Other Plains tribes kept pictorial records, known as "winter counts", however the Kiowa calendar system is unique recording two events for each year, offering a finer grained record of the passage of time and twice as many entries for any given period. Silver Horn (1860–1940), or Haungooah, was the most highly esteemed artist of the Kiowa tribe in the 19th and 20th century and a respected religious leader in his later years. He was a silversmith, working both in sterling silver, often made from coins, and in German silver. He did beadwork and featherwork. He was also a graphic artist. He applied his graphic skills to his calendars and he produced at least three different calendar records, adding new entries over time. He drew a calendar for the anthropologist James Mooney in 1904, working in a field notebook that Mooney brought with him from Washington. That calendar is in the Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives (NAA). He created over one thousand drawings and paintings using Western art media to describe Kiowa daily and ceremonial life at the turn of the 20th century.

Language

The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan
Kiowa-Tanoan languages
Tanoan is a family of languages spoken in New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.Most of the languages – Tiwa , Tewa, and Towa – are spoken in the Pueblos of New Mexico and were the ones first given the collective name Tanoan, while Kiowa is spoken mostly in southwestern...

 language family. The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, and was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learned English when he began school. He worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language. He went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language.

History

After A'date famous Kiowa leaders were Dohäsan
Dohäsan
Dohäsan, Dohosan, Tauhawsin or Tohausen was a prominent Native American. He was War Chief of the Kata or Arikara band of the Kiowa Indians, and then Principal Chief of the entire Kiowa Tribe, a position he held for an extraordinary 33 years...

 (Tauhawsin), Over-Hanging Butte, alias Little Mountain, alias Little Bluff; Lone Wolf, The Elder (Gui-pah-gho), alias Guibayhawgu (Rescued From Wolves); sub-leaders Satanta (White Bear)and Satank. Dohosan is considered by many to be the greatest Kiowa Chief (1805–1866), who unified and ruled the Kiowa for 30 years. He signed several treaties such as the Fort Atkinson Treaty of July 27, 1852 and the Arkansas River Treaty in 1865. Lone Wolf, The Elder (Gui-Pah-gho), became the head chief of the Kiowa when Dohosan (Little Bluff) named Guipahgo as his successor to become the Principal Chief of the Kiowa people. Lone Wolf, The Elder (Gui-Pah-gho), died in 1879. In 1871 Satanta and Big Tree were accused, arrested, transported, and confined at Fort Richardson, Texas, after being convicted by a "cowboy jury" in the Trial of Satanta and Big Tree in Jacksboro, Texas, for participating in the Warren Wagon Train Raid
Warren Wagon Train Raid
The Warren Wagon Train Raid, also known as the Salt Creek Massacre, occurred on May 18, 1871. Henry Warren was contracted to haul supplies to forts in the west of Texas, including Fort Richardson, Fort Griffin, and Fort Concho. Traveling down the Jacksboro-Belknap road heading towards Salt Creek...

. In some documents Big Tree is translated as Addo-etta (Big Tree). During the transport to Fort Richardson, Satank was shot in an escape attempt by accompanying cavalry troops near Fort Sill, Indian Territory.

The sculptor of the Indian Head nickel
Indian Head nickel
The Buffalo nickel or Indian Head nickel was a copper-nickel five-cent piece struck by the United States Mint from 1913 to 1938. It was designed by sculptor James Earle Fraser....

, James Earle Fraser, is reported to have said that Chief Big Tree (Adoeette) was one of his models for the U.S. coin that was minted from 1913 through 1938. The last federally-recognized Chief of the Kiowa Tribe was Chief Ahpeahtone, born in 1855 and died Aug. 8, 1930. Through his chieftainship he developed and decided the use of the democratic system of nominating and voting maintaining Kiowa government as the white leaders. He developed the system and organization of tribal business committees to transact tribal business. He saw this would be the best way to govern and lead the Kiowa people. Ahpeahtone invested money, establishing the Kiowa Indian Hospital in Lawton in 1914 that is now part of the Indian Public Health Service.

Indian wars

Plains tribes fought for territory of hunting grounds against other tribes. In the early spring of 1790 at the place that would become Las Vegas, New Mexico, a Kiowa party led by war leader Guikate, made an offer of peace to a Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

 party while both were visiting the home of a mutual friend of both tribes. This led to a later meeting between Guikate and the head chief of the Nokoni Comanche. The two groups made an alliance to share the same hunting grounds and entered into a mutual defense pact and became the dominant inhabitants of the Southern Plains. From that time on the Comanche and Kiowa hunted, traveled, and made war together. An additional group the Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache), affiliated with the Kiowa at this time.

In closing years of the 18th century and in the first quarter of the 19th century the Kiowa feared little from European neighbors. Kiowa ranged north of the Wichita Mountains. The Kiowa and Comanche controlled a vast expanse of territory from the Arkansas River to the Brazos River. The enemies of the Kiowa were usually the enemies of the Comanche. To the east there was warfare with the Osage and Pawnee. In the early 18th century the Cheyenne and Arapaho began camping on the Arkansas River and new warfare broke out. In the south of the Kiowa and Comanche were Caddoan speakers, but the Kiowa and Comanche were friendly toward these bands. The Comanche were at war with the Apache of the Rio Grande region. They warred with the Cheyenne and Arapaho, Pawnee, Sac & Fox and Osages. They traded with the Wichita south along Red River and with Mescalero Apache and New Mexicans to the southwest. After 1840 the Kiowa with their former enemies the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Cheyenne are a Native American people of the Great Plains, who are of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two united tribes, the Só'taeo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese .The Cheyenne are thought to have branched off other tribes of Algonquian stock inhabiting lands...

, as well as their allies the Comanche and the Apache
Apache
Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan...

 fought and raided the Eastern natives moving into the Indian Territory.

Transition period

The years from 1873 to 1878 marked a drastic change in Kiowa lifestyle. In June 1874, the Kiowa, along with a group of Comanche and Cheyenne warriors made their last protest against the invasion of the white man in the Battle of Adobe Walls in Texas which proved futile to the Indians. In 1877 the first homes for the Indian chiefs and initiated a plan to employ Indians at the Agency. Thirty Indians were hired to form the first police force on the Reservation. The Kiowa agreed to settle on a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Some bands of Kiowas remained at large until 1875
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a significant United States victory that brought about the end of the Red River War.-Background:Ever since the summer of 1874 the Comanches, Cheyenne and Kiowas had sought refuge in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas panhandle. There they had been stockpiling food and...

. By the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 the Kiowas settled in Western Oklahoma and Kansas. They were forced to move south of the Washita River to the Red River and Western Oklahoma with the Comanches and the Kiowa-Apache Tribe. The reservation period lasted from 1868 to 1906. The transition from the free life of Plains people to a restricted life of the reservation was more difficult for some families than others.

An agreement made with the Cherokee Commission
Cherokee Commission
The Cherokee Commission, was a three-person bi-partisan body created by President Benjamin Harrison to operate under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, as empowered by Section 14 of the Indian Appropriations Act of March 2, 1889. Section 15 of the same Act empowered the President to...

 signed by 456 adult male Kiowa, Comanche, and Kiowa-Apache on Sept. 28, 1892, cleared the way for the opening of the country to white settlers. The agreement provided for an allotment of 160 acre (0.6474976 km²) to every individual in the tribes and for the sale of the reservation lands (2488893 acres (10,072.2 km²)) to the United States – was to go into effect immediately upon ratification by Congress, even though the Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867 had guaranteed Indian possession of the reservation until 1898. The Indian signers wanted their names stricken but it was too late. A'piatan, as the leader, went to Washington to protest. Chief Lone Wolf (the Younger) immediately file proceedings against the act in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided against him on June 26, 1901.

Agents were assigned to the Kiowa people. 1873 the first school among the Kiowa was established by Quaker Thomas C. Battey. In 1877 the federal government built the first homes for the Indian chiefs and a plan was to employ Indians so 30 Indians were hired to form the first police force on the reservation. 1879 the agency was moved from Ft. Sill to Anadarko. Since 1968 the Kiowa have been governed by the Kiowa Tribal Council, which preside over business related to health, education, and economic and industrial development programs.

On March 13, 1970 the Constitution and Bylaws of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma, was ratified to voters of the Kiowa Tribe on May 23, 1970, which currently governs the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma. A landmark decision and significant legal development occurred in 1998. In Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma v Manufacturing Technologies, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Indian tribes retain their sovereign immunity from suit without their consent even in off-reservation transactions where they do not waive that immunity.

In the year 2000 more than four thousand out of 12,500 Kiowa lived near the towns of Anadarko, Fort Cobb, and Carnegie, in Caddo and Kiowa counties, Oklahoma. Kiowas also reside in urban and suburban communities from San Jose, California to Washington, D.C. World War II rekindled the Kiowa warrior spirit and urbanization and modernization occurred in the war's aftermath. Each year Kiowa veterans commemorate the warlike spirit of the 19th century leaders performed by the Kiowa Gourd Clan and Kiowa Black Leggings Warrior Society. Kiowa cultural identity and pride is apparent in their expressive culture and strong influence on the Gourd Dance and southern plains art.

Government

The Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Carnegie, Oklahoma
Carnegie, Oklahoma
Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 1,723 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Carnegie is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , all of it land....

. Their current business committee is as follows.
  • Chairman: Ronald "Dawes" Twohatchet
  • Vice-Chairman: Amber Toppah
  • Secretary: Charlotte Bointy
  • Treasurer: June Artichoker
  • Committeemen: Steven Smith
  • Committeeman: Alva D. Tsoodle
  • Committeeman: Ricky Horse

Socio-political organization

The Kiowa men lived in the families of their wives extended families, which merged to become a band (topadoga). These bands were led by a chief
Tribal chief
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age.In the case of ...

, the Topadok'i. The Kiowa had two political subdivisions (particularly with regard to their relationship with the Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

):
  • To-kinah-yup (‘Men of the Cold’, ‘northern Kiowa’, lived along the Arkansas River
    Arkansas River
    The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

     and the Kansas border)
  • Gwa-kelega (‘southern Kiowa’, lived in the Llano Estacado
    Llano Estacado
    Llano Estacado , commonly known as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, including the South Plains and parts of the Texas Panhandle...

     (Staked Plains), Oklahoma Panhandle
    Oklahoma Panhandle
    The Oklahoma Panhandle is the extreme western region of the state of Oklahoma, comprising Cimarron County, Texas County, and Beaver County. Its name comes from the similarity of shape to the handle of a cooking pan....

     and Texas Panhandle
    Texas Panhandle
    The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. The panhandle is a rectangular area bordered by New Mexico to the west and Oklahoma to the north and east...

    , allies of the Comanche).


Kiowa bands within the tipi ring during the annual Sun Dance
Sun Dance
The Sun Dance is a religious ceremony practiced by a number of Native American and First Nations peoples, primarily those of the Plains Nations. Each tribe has its own distinct practices and ceremonial protocols...

:
  • Kâtá (‘Biters’, often called Arikara, most powerful and largest Kiowa band)
  • Kogui (‘Elks Band’)
  • Kaigwa (‘Kiowa Proper’)
  • Kinep or Khe-ate (‘Big Shields’)
  • Semat (‘Stealers’, name by which the Kiowa called their allies, the Kiowa Apache)
  • Soy-hay-talpupé (‘Blue Boys’) or Pahy-dome-gaw (‘Under-the-Sun-Men’)


During the Sun Dance, some bands had a special obligation which was traditionally defined:

The Kâtá had the traditional right (duty or task) to supply the Kiowa during the Sun Dance with enough bison meat and other means. This band was particularly wealthy in horses, tipis and other goods. One of the famous Kiowa chiefs, Dohäsan
Dohäsan
Dohäsan, Dohosan, Tauhawsin or Tohausen was a prominent Native American. He was War Chief of the Kata or Arikara band of the Kiowa Indians, and then Principal Chief of the entire Kiowa Tribe, a position he held for an extraordinary 33 years...

, was a member of this band.

The Kogui were responsible for conducting the war ceremonies during the Sun Dance. Many famous families and leaders because of their military exploits and bravery, like Ad-da-te (‘Islandman’), Satanta
Satanta (White Bear)
This article refers to the Kiowa chief Satanta. For the Irish hero Sétanta, please see Cú Chulainn.Satanta was a Kiowa war chief. He was a member of the Kiowa tribe, he was born around 1820, during the height of the power of the Plains Tribes, probably along the Canadian River in the traditional...

, Big Bow, and others belonged to this band.

The Kaigwu were the guardians of the Sacred
Sacred bundle
Sacred bundle are medicine bundles or collections of sacred items held by designated carriers from Native American tribes. According to a Harvard University report, tribal elders are entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining the bundles....

 or Medicine bundle
Medicine bundle
A medicine bundle is a wrapped package used by Native Americans for religious purposes. A package of this type can also be referred to as a medicine bag. Medicine bundles are usually employed as a ritual aid in Shamanistic religions...

 (Tai-mé, Taimay) and the holy lance. Therefore they were very respected by the other groups and enjoyed a special prestige.

The Kinep or Khe-ate were often called ‘Sun Dance Shields’ because during the dance they observed police duties and ensured security.

The Semat were allowed to participate equally, but had no specific duties and obligations during the Sun Dance.

The Soy-hay-talpupé were often called Montalyui (‘Black Boys’). Like the Semat, they had no specific duties or responsibilities.

Art, literature and music

Documentation of the history and development of contemporary Kiowa art formulates one of the most unique records in Native American culture. As early as 1891, Kiowa artists were being commissioned to produce works for display at international expositions. The "Kiowa Five" were some of the earliest Native Americans to receive international recognition for their work in the fine art world. They influenced generations of Indian artists among the Kiowa, and other Plains tribes. Traditional craft skills are not lost among the Kiowa people today and the talented fine arts and crafts produced by Kiowa Indians helped the Oklahoma Indian Arts and Crafts Cooperative flourish over its 20 year existence.

Ledger art and hide painting

Early Kiowa ledger artists were those held in captivity by the U.S. Army at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida (1875–1878) at the conclusion of the Red River War
Red River War
The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army in 1874, as part of the Comanche War, to remove the Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Native American tribes from the Southern Plains and forcibly relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory...

, which also is known as the Southern Plains Indian War. Ledger art emerges from the Plains hide painting
Plains hide painting
Plains hide painting is a traditional Plains Indian artistic practice of painting on either tanned or raw animal hides. Tipis, tipi liners, shields, parfleches, robes, clothing, drums, and winter counts could all be painted.-Genres:...

 tradition. These Fort Marion artists include Etadleuh Doanmoe and Zotom, who was a prolific artist who he chronicled his experiences before and after becoming a captive at the fort. After his release from Fort Marion, Paul Zom-tiam (Zonetime, Koba) studied theology from 1878 until 1881, when he was ordained as a deacon in the Episcopal church
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a mainline Anglican Christian church found mainly in the United States , but also in Honduras, Taiwan, Colombia, Ecuador, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, the British Virgin Islands and parts of Europe...

. He went back to the Indian culture to become a medicine man and a very useful man. Artists' media for their pictographic images were natural objects and animal skins, but for the Kiowa in captivity the lined pages of record keeping books became a frequent substitute for the unavailable natural materials.

Kiowa Five

Following in Silver Horn's footsteps are the Kiowa Five
Kiowa Five
The Kiowa Five or Kiowa Six is a group of six Kiowa artists from Oklahoma in the 20th century. They were Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Lois Smoky, and Monroe Tsatoke.-Background:...

, or, as they increasingly are known, the Kiowa Six. They are Spencer Asah
Spencer Asah
Spencer Asah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Spencer Asah was born around 1905 in Carnegie, Oklahoma. His Kiowa name was Lallo . His father was a buffalo medicine man. His father provided Asah extensive cultural information that he later used in his art.Asah...

, James Auchiah
James Auchiah
James Auchiah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:James Auchiah was born in on 17 November 1906 in Oklahoma Territory, near present day Meers and Medicine Park, Oklahoma...

, Jack Hokeah
Jack Hokeah
Jack Hokeah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Jack Hokeah was born around 1900 or 1902 in western Oklahoma. He was orphaned at a very young age and raised by his grandmother. His grandfather was the Kiowa warrior, White Horse.Hokeah attend St...

, Stephen Mopope
Stephen Mopope
Stephen Mopope was a Kiowa painter, dancer, and flute player of Spanish descent, from Oklahoma. He was the most prolific member of the Kiowa Five-Early life:...

, Lois Bougetah Smoky, and Monroe Tsatoke
Monroe Tsatoke
Monroe Tsatoke was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Monroe Tsatoke was born on 29 September 1904 in Oklahoma Territory, near present day Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma. Tsatokee was his Kiowa name, which meant "Hunting Horse." His father was also named Tsatokee, and was...

 Coming from the area around Anadarko
Anadarko, Oklahoma
Anadarko is a city in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 6,645 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Caddo County.-Early History:Anadarko got its name when its post office was established in 1873...

, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

, these artists studied at the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. the university had 29,931 students enrolled, most located at its...

. Lois Smoky left the group in 1927, but James Auchiah took her place in the group. The Kiowa Five gained international recognition as fine artists by exhibiting their work in the 1928 International Art Congress in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

 and then participated in the Venice Biennale
Venice Biennale
The Venice Biennale is a major contemporary art exhibition that takes place once every two years in Venice, Italy. The Venice Film Festival is part of it. So too is the Venice Biennale of Architecture, which is held in even years...

 in 1932.

Painters and artists

Besides the Kiowa Five and Silver Horn, Kiowa painters active in the 20th and 21st centuries include Homer Buffalo, Charley Oheltoint, T. C. Cannon
T. C. Cannon
Tommy Wayne Cannon was an important Native American artist of the 20th century. An enrolled member of the Kiowa Tribe and of Caddo, French, and Choctaw descent, he was popularly known as T.C...

, Woody Big Bow, George Geionty, Bobby Hill (1933—1984), Harding Bigbow (1921–1997), Jim Tartsah, Mirac Creepingbear (1947—1990), Herman Toppah, Ernie Keahbone, C.E. Rowell, Dixon Palmer, Roland Whitehorse, Blackbear Bosin
Blackbear Bosin
Blackbear Bosin was a Comanche-Kiowa sculptor and painter, also known as Tsate Kongia.-Background:Francis Blackbear Bosin was born June 5, 1921 in Cyril, Oklahoma near Anadarko. His parents were Frank Blackbear and Ada Tivis Bosin. His Kiowa name, Tsate Kongia, means "Blackbear" and belongs to his...

, Woody Big Bow (1914—1998), Parker Boyiddle (1947—2007), Dennis Belindo (1938—2009), Clifford Doyeto (1942—2010), Al Momaday, George Keahbone, Joe Lucero (Hobay), Ladonna Tsatoke Silverhorn, R.G. Geionty, Huzo Paddelty, Keri Ataumbi, David Williams, Micah Wesley, Thomas Poolaw, Tennyson Reid, Sherman Chaddlesone, Sharon Ahtone Harjo, Cruz McDaniels, Robert Redbird (b. 1939), Gus Hawziptaw, Gerald Darby, Lee Tsatoke, Jr., N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
Navarre Scott Momaday is a Kiowa-Cherokee Pulitzer Prize-winning writer from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona.-Background:...

, and Barthell Little Chief.

Bead artists

Noted Kiowa beadwork artists include Donna Jean Tsatoke, Alice Littleman, Venice Reid, Nettie Standing, Edna Hokeah Pauahty, Leona Geimasaddle, Kathy Littlechief, Marilyn Yeahquo, Katherine Dickerson, Charlie Silverhorn, Paul McDaniels, Jr., Grace Tsontekoy, Richard Aitson
Richard Aitson
Richard Aitson is a Kiowa-Kiowa Apache bead artist, curator, and poet from Oklahoma.-Background:Richard Aitson was born on December 26, 1953 in Anadarko, Oklahoma. His mother was the Kiowa traditionalist Alecia Keahbone Gonzales , who taught the Kiowa language at the University of Science and Arts...

, Judy Beaver, Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings, Leatrice Geimasaddle, and Teri Greeves
Teri Greeves
Teri Greeves is an award-winning Kiowa-Comanche-Italian beadwork artist, living in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She is enrolled in the Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma.-Background:...

.

Authors

Kiowa-Cherokee author N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
Navarre Scott Momaday is a Kiowa-Cherokee Pulitzer Prize-winning writer from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona.-Background:...

 won the 1969 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction has been awarded for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life. It originated as the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, which was awarded between 1918 and 1947.-1910s:...

 for his novel House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn is a novel by N. Scott Momaday, widely credited as leading the way for the breakthrough of Native American literature into the mainstream...

. Other Kiowa authors include playwright Hanay Geiogamah, playwright Diane Yeahquo, poet and filmmaker Gus Palmer, Jr., Alyce Sadongei, Marian Kaulaity Hansson, and Tocakut.

Musicians and composers

Kiowa music
Kiowa music
Kiowa music is the traditional and contemporary music of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma. The Kiowa are a federally recognized tribe, meaning they have a functioning government-to-government relationship with the United States Government.-Development and genres:...

 often is noted for its hymn
Hymn
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification...

s that traditionally were accompanied by dance or played on the flute. Noted Kiowa composer of contemporary music include James Anquoe and noted for his contributions to Native American culture. Contemporary Kiowa musicians include Cornel Pewewardy, Phillip Bread, Tom Mauchahty-Ware
Tom Mauchahty-Ware
Tom Mauchahty-Ware is a Kiowa-Comanche musician. He is known for his work playing the Native American flute, and has been a successful Indian dancer, and has sung in a popular blues band. He is also a skilled traditional artist: painting, sculpting, making flutes, bead working, and feather working...

, and Terry Tsotigh.

Photographers

Kiowa photographer Horace Poolaw
Horace Poolaw
Horace Poolaw was a Kiowa photographer from Mountain View, Oklahoma.-Background:Born in Oklahoma in 1906, Horace Poolaw apprenticed himself to a local photographer at age 17, later becoming the most prolific Indian photographer of his generation...

 (1906–1984) was one of the most prolific Native American photographers of his generation. He documented the Kiowa people living near his community in Mountain View, Oklahoma
Mountain View, Oklahoma
Mountain View is a town in Kiowa County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 795 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Mountain View is located at ....

 beginning the 1920s. His legacy is continued today by his grandson, Thomas Poolaw, a prominent Kiowa photographer and digital artist.

Notable Kiowas

  • Richard Aitson
    Richard Aitson
    Richard Aitson is a Kiowa-Kiowa Apache bead artist, curator, and poet from Oklahoma.-Background:Richard Aitson was born on December 26, 1953 in Anadarko, Oklahoma. His mother was the Kiowa traditionalist Alecia Keahbone Gonzales , who taught the Kiowa language at the University of Science and Arts...

     (b. 1953), bead artist and poet
  • Spencer Asah
    Spencer Asah
    Spencer Asah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Spencer Asah was born around 1905 in Carnegie, Oklahoma. His Kiowa name was Lallo . His father was a buffalo medicine man. His father provided Asah extensive cultural information that he later used in his art.Asah...

    , painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • James Auchiah
    James Auchiah
    James Auchiah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:James Auchiah was born in on 17 November 1906 in Oklahoma Territory, near present day Meers and Medicine Park, Oklahoma...

    , painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • Blackbear Bosin
    Blackbear Bosin
    Blackbear Bosin was a Comanche-Kiowa sculptor and painter, also known as Tsate Kongia.-Background:Francis Blackbear Bosin was born June 5, 1921 in Cyril, Oklahoma near Anadarko. His parents were Frank Blackbear and Ada Tivis Bosin. His Kiowa name, Tsate Kongia, means "Blackbear" and belongs to his...

     (1921–1980), painter and sculptor
  • T. C. Cannon
    T. C. Cannon
    Tommy Wayne Cannon was an important Native American artist of the 20th century. An enrolled member of the Kiowa Tribe and of Caddo, French, and Choctaw descent, he was popularly known as T.C...

    , painter and print maker
  • Cozad Singers
    Cozad Singers
    The Cozad Singers are a Kiowa drum group from Anadarko, Oklahoma. The group was founded by Leonard Cozad, Sr. in the 1930s, and consists of Leonard, his sons, grandsons, and other members of the family. Cozad, as they are commonly known, are southern style pow-wow and gourd drum, and have...

    , drum group and NAMMY winners
  • Dohäsan
    Dohäsan
    Dohäsan, Dohosan, Tauhawsin or Tohausen was a prominent Native American. He was War Chief of the Kata or Arikara band of the Kiowa Indians, and then Principal Chief of the entire Kiowa Tribe, a position he held for an extraordinary 33 years...

     (ca. 1785–1866), chief of Kata band and Principal Chief of the Kiowas, artist, calendar keeper
    Winter count
    Winter counts are pictorial calendars or histories in which tribal records and events were recorded. The Blackfeet, Mandan, Kiowa, Lakota, and other Plains tribes used winter counts extensively...

  • Teri Greeves
    Teri Greeves
    Teri Greeves is an award-winning Kiowa-Comanche-Italian beadwork artist, living in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She is enrolled in the Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma.-Background:...

     (b. 1970), bead artist
  • Jack Hokeah
    Jack Hokeah
    Jack Hokeah was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Jack Hokeah was born around 1900 or 1902 in western Oklahoma. He was orphaned at a very young age and raised by his grandmother. His grandfather was the Kiowa warrior, White Horse.Hokeah attend St...

    , painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings (b. 1952), bead artist, clothing and regalia maker
  • Kicking Bird
    Kicking Bird
    Kicking Bird Also known as Tene-angop'te, "The Kicking Bird," or "Eagle Striking," and as Watohkonk, "Black Eagle," was the high chief of the Kiowa Native American tribe. He was born around 1835, not a lot is known of his early life except his grandfather was a Crow captive that was adopted by the...

     (1835–1875), war chief
  • Lone Wolf (Kiowa)
    Lone Wolf (Kiowa)
    Lone Wolf the Elder was a Principal Chief of the Kiowa tribe and was the last Principal Chief of the Kiowa Tribe. He should not be confused with Lone Wolf II , a young Kiowa brave whom he adopted. Indian Territory or the place called "Oklahoma" lived this great Kiowa Chief named Lone Wolf, the...

    , Gui-pah-gho, The Elder and Principal Chief
  • Tom Mauchahty-Ware
    Tom Mauchahty-Ware
    Tom Mauchahty-Ware is a Kiowa-Comanche musician. He is known for his work playing the Native American flute, and has been a successful Indian dancer, and has sung in a popular blues band. He is also a skilled traditional artist: painting, sculpting, making flutes, bead working, and feather working...

    , musician and dancer
  • Parker McKenzie
    Parker McKenzie
    Parker Paul McKenzie was an American linguist and, at the time of his death, the oldest living Kiowa Native American.McKenzie was born in a teepee, and baptised in the Washita River...

     (1897–1999), traditionalist and linguist
  • N. Scott Momaday
    N. Scott Momaday
    Navarre Scott Momaday is a Kiowa-Cherokee Pulitzer Prize-winning writer from Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona.-Background:...

    , Pulitzer Prize Winner, author, painter, and activist
  • Stephen Mopope
    Stephen Mopope
    Stephen Mopope was a Kiowa painter, dancer, and flute player of Spanish descent, from Oklahoma. He was the most prolific member of the Kiowa Five-Early life:...

    , painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • Horace Poolaw
    Horace Poolaw
    Horace Poolaw was a Kiowa photographer from Mountain View, Oklahoma.-Background:Born in Oklahoma in 1906, Horace Poolaw apprenticed himself to a local photographer at age 17, later becoming the most prolific Indian photographer of his generation...

     (1906–1984), photographer
  • Red Warbonnet
    Red Warbonnet
    According to tribal history, Red Warbonnet was a Kiowa. Red Warbonnet died in 1849, according to the Kiowa calendar of a cholera epidemic. Red Warbonnet II pronounced in Kiowa as Tan-guadal was the hereditary owner of the arrow lance and owner of the morning star tipi of the Kiowa Tribe in...

     (d. 1849), traditionalist
  • Satanta
    Satanta (White Bear)
    This article refers to the Kiowa chief Satanta. For the Irish hero Sétanta, please see Cú Chulainn.Satanta was a Kiowa war chief. He was a member of the Kiowa tribe, he was born around 1820, during the height of the power of the Plains Tribes, probably along the Canadian River in the traditional...

     (Set'tainte) (ca. 1820–1878), war chief
  • Silver Horn
    Silver Horn
    Silver Horn or Haungooah was a Kiowa Ledger Artist from Oklahoma.-Background:Silver Horn was born circa 1860 and was a member of the Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. His Kiowa name, Haungooah, refers to sunlight reflecting off a buffalo horn, making it gleam like a polished, white metal...

     (1860–1940), artist and calendar keeper
  • Sitting Bear
    Sitting Bear
    Satank , was a prestigious Kiowa warrior and medicine man. He was born about 1800, probably in Kansas, and killed June 8, 1871. An able warrior, he became part of the Koitsenko , the society of the bravest Kiowa warriors. He led many raids against the Cheyennes, the Sacs, and the Foxes...

     (Set-Tank, Set-Angia, called Satank) (ca. 1800—1871), warrior and medicine man
  • Lois Smoky
    Lois Smoky
    Lois Smoky Kaulaity was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Lois Smoky was born in 1907 near Anadarko, Oklahoma. Bougetah was her Kiowa name, meaning "Of the Dawn." Her father, Enoch Smoky, was the great-nephew of Kiowa Chief Appiatan.Smoky first studied art at St...

    , bead artist and painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • Monroe Tsatoke
    Monroe Tsatoke
    Monroe Tsatoke was a Kiowa painter, one of the Kiowa Five, from Oklahoma.-Early life:Monroe Tsatoke was born on 29 September 1904 in Oklahoma Territory, near present day Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma. Tsatokee was his Kiowa name, which meant "Hunting Horse." His father was also named Tsatokee, and was...

    , painter, one of the Kiowa Six
  • White Horse
    White Horse (chief)
    White Horse White Horse White Horse (Kiowa: Tsen-tainte (? - 1892), was a chief of the Kiowa. White Horse attended the council between southern plains tribes and the United States at Medicine Lodge in southern Kansas which resulted in the Medicine Lodge Treaty...

     (Tsen-tainte) (d. 1892), chief
  • Chris Wondolowski
    Chris Wondolowski
    Christopher Elliott Wondolowski is an American soccer player who currently plays for San Jose Earthquakes in Major League Soccer.-Youth and College:...

    , US professional soccer player

See also

  • Gourd dance
    Gourd Dance
    The Gourd Dance is a type of Native American celebration dance and ceremony. It is believed that the dance originated with the Kiowa tribe. Gourd dances are often held to coincide with a pow-wow, although the Gourd Dance has its own unique dance and history...

  • Koitsenko
    Koitsenko
    The Koitsenko was a group of the ten greatest warriors of the Kiowa tribe as a whole, from all bands. Probably the most famous of them was Satank who died while being taken to trial for the Warren Wagon Train Raid...

    , Kiowa warrior society
  • Plains hide painting
    Plains hide painting
    Plains hide painting is a traditional Plains Indian artistic practice of painting on either tanned or raw animal hides. Tipis, tipi liners, shields, parfleches, robes, clothing, drums, and winter counts could all be painted.-Genres:...



Further reading

  • Boyd, Maurice (1983). Kiowa Voices: Myths, Legends and Folktales. Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 0-912646-76-4.
  • Corwin, Hugh (1958). The Kiowa Indians, their history and life stories.
  • Hoig, Stan (2000). The Kiowas and the Legend of Kicking Bird. Boulder: The University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-564-4
  • Mishkin, Bernard (1988). Rank and Warfare Among The Plains Indians. AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62903-2.
  • Nye, Colonel W.S. (1983). Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1856-3.
  • Momaday, N. Scott (1977). The Way to Rainy Mountain. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0436-2.
  • Richardson, Jane (1988). Law & Status Among the Kiowa Indians (American Ethnological Society Monographs; No 1). AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62901-6.
  • US Department of the Interior (1974). "The Kiowa". Southern Plains Indian Museum and Crafts Center.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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