Kimberley, Northern Cape
Overview
 


Kimberley is a city in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, and the capital of the Northern Cape. It is located near the confluence of the Vaal
Vaal River
The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. The river has its source in the Drakensberg mountains in Mpumalanga, east of Johannesburg and about 30 km north of Ermelo and only about 240 km from the Indian Ocean. It then flows westwards to its conjunction...

 and Orange River
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

s. The town has considerable historical significance due its diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

 mining past and siege
Siege of Kimberley
The Siege of Kimberley took place during the Second Boer War at Kimberley, Cape Colony , when Boer forces from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal besieged the diamond mining town. The Boers moved quickly to try to capture the British enclave when war broke out between the British and the two...

 during the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

. Notable personalities such as Cecil Rhodes made their fortune here and the roots of the De Beers
De Beers
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

 corporation can also be traced to the early days of the mining town.
In 1866, Erasmus Jacobs found a small brilliant pebble on the banks of the Orange River
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

, on the farm De Kalk leased from local Griquas, near Hopetown
Hopetown
Hopetown lies at the edge of the Great Karoo in South Africa's Northern Cape province. It stands on an arid slope leading down to the Orange River. The first diamond discovered in South Africa, the Eureka Diamond, was found at Hopetown.-History:...

, which was his father's farm.
Encyclopedia


Kimberley is a city in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, and the capital of the Northern Cape. It is located near the confluence of the Vaal
Vaal River
The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. The river has its source in the Drakensberg mountains in Mpumalanga, east of Johannesburg and about 30 km north of Ermelo and only about 240 km from the Indian Ocean. It then flows westwards to its conjunction...

 and Orange River
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

s. The town has considerable historical significance due its diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

 mining past and siege
Siege of Kimberley
The Siege of Kimberley took place during the Second Boer War at Kimberley, Cape Colony , when Boer forces from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal besieged the diamond mining town. The Boers moved quickly to try to capture the British enclave when war broke out between the British and the two...

 during the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

. Notable personalities such as Cecil Rhodes made their fortune here and the roots of the De Beers
De Beers
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

 corporation can also be traced to the early days of the mining town.

Discovery of diamonds

In 1866, Erasmus Jacobs found a small brilliant pebble on the banks of the Orange River
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

, on the farm De Kalk leased from local Griquas, near Hopetown
Hopetown
Hopetown lies at the edge of the Great Karoo in South Africa's Northern Cape province. It stands on an arid slope leading down to the Orange River. The first diamond discovered in South Africa, the Eureka Diamond, was found at Hopetown.-History:...

, which was his father's farm. He showed the pebble to his father who sold it. The pebble was purchased from Jacobs by Schalk van Niekerk, who later sold it, and turned out to be a 21.25 carat (4.25 g
Gram
The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

) diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

, known as the Eureka
Eureka Diamond
The Eureka Diamond was the first diamond discovered in South Africa. It weighed , and was found near Hopetown on the Orange River in 1867. The diamond, cut to a cushion-shaped brilliant, is currently on display at the Mine Museum in Kimberley.-Discovery:...

. Three years later Schalk van Niekerk sold another diamond also found in the De Kalk vicinity, the Star of South Africa for £11,200. The second diamond was promptly resold in the London markets for £25,000.
In 1871, an even larger 83.50 carat (16.7 g) diamond was found on the slopes of Colesberg Kopje on the farm Vooruitzigt belonging to the De Beers brothers. Henry Richard Giddy recounted how Esau Damoense (or Damon), the cook for prospector Fleetwood Rawstone's "Red Cap Party", made the discovery on Colesberg Kopje after he was sent there to dig as punishment. Rawstorne took the news to the nearby diggings of the De Beer brothers — his arrival there sparking off the famous "New Rush" which, as historian Brian Roberts
Brian Roberts (Historian)
Brian Roberts, born in London in 1930, authored numerous historical and biographical works around prominent persons, places and themes shaping South African history. Educated at St Mary's College, Twickenham, and at the University of London, he qualified as a sociologist and a teacher. It was as a...

 puts it, was practically a stampede. Within a month 800 claims were cut into the hillock which were worked frenetically by two to three thousand men. As the land was lowered so the hillock became a mine – in time, the world renowned Kimberley Mine
Big Hole
The Big Hole, Open Mine or Kimberley Mine is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the largest hole excavated by hand.-History:...

.

The Cape Colony
Cape Colony
The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town. It was subsequently occupied by the British in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France, so that the French revolutionaries could not take...

, Transvaal
South African Republic
The South African Republic , often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Boer-ruled country in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the present-day Republic of South Africa, it occupied the area later known as the South African...

, Orange Free State
Orange Free State
The Orange Free State was an independent Boer republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, and later a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. It is the historical precursor to the present-day Free State province...

 and the Griqua leader Nikolaas Waterboer all laid claim to the diamond fields. The Free State Boers in particular wanted the area as it lay inside the natural borders created by Orange
Orange River
The Orange River , Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean...

 and Vaal River
Vaal River
The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. The river has its source in the Drakensberg mountains in Mpumalanga, east of Johannesburg and about 30 km north of Ermelo and only about 240 km from the Indian Ocean. It then flows westwards to its conjunction...

s. Following the mediation that was overseen by the governor of Natal, the Keate Award went in favour of Waterboer, who placed himself under British protection. Consequently, the territory known as Griqualand West
Griqualand West
Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km² that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people - a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who established several states outside the expanding frontier...

 was proclaimed on 27 October 1871.

Naming the place: from Vooruitzigt to New Rush to Kimberley

Colonial Commissioners arrived in New Rush on 17 November 1871 to exercise authority over the territory on behalf of the Cape Governor. Digger objections and minor riots led to Governor Barkly's
Henry Barkly
Sir Henry Barkly, GCMG, KCB, FRS, FRGS was a British politician, colonial governor and patron of the sciences.-Early life and education:...

 visit to New Rush in September the following year, when he revealed a plan instead to have Griqualand West proclaimed a Crown Colony
Crown colony
A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire....

. Richard Southey
Richard Southey (colonial administrator)
Sir Richard Southey KCMG was a South African colonial administrator, cabinet minister and landowner.Southey was the son of 1820 Settlers leader George Southey of Culmstock, Devon, and later of Bloemhof Farm, Albany. He voyaged to South Africa with his family aboard the Kennersley Castle in 1820...

 would arrive as Lieutenant-Governor of the intended Crown Colony in January 1873. Months passed however without any sign of the proclamation or of the promised new constitution and provision for representative government. The delay was in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 where Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies....

, Lord Kimberley, insisted that before electoral divisions could be defined, the places had to receive "decent and intelligible names." His Lordship declined to be in any way connected with such a vulgarism as New Rush and as for the Dutch name, Vooruitzigt … he could neither spell nor pronounce it." The matter was passed to Southey who gave it to his Colonial Secretary J.B. Currey. Roberts writes that "when it came to renaming New Rush, [Currey] proved himself a worthy diplomat. He made quite sure that Lord Kimberley would be able both to spell and pronounce the name of the main electoral division by, as he says, calling it 'after His Lordship'." New Rush became Kimberley, by Proclamation dated 5 July 1873. Digger sentiment was expressed in an editorial in the Diamond Field newspaper when it stated "we went to sleep in New Rush and waked up in Kimberley, and so our dream was gone."

Griqualand West was annexed to the Cape Colony by the Griqualand West Annexation Act on 27 July 1877.

The Big Hole and other mines

As miners arrived in their thousands, the hill disappeared, and became known as the Big Hole
Big Hole
The Big Hole, Open Mine or Kimberley Mine is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the largest hole excavated by hand.-History:...

. From mid-July 1871 to 1914, 50,000 miners dug the hole with picks and shovels, yielding 2,722 kg of diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

s. The Big Hole has a surface of 17 hectare
Hectare
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

s (42 acre
Acre
The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land.The acre is related...

s) and is 463 metres wide. It was excavated to a depth of 240 m, but then partially infilled with debris reducing its depth to about 215 m; since then it has accumulated water to a depth of 40 m leaving 175 m visible. Beneath the surface, the Kimberly Mine underneath the Big Hole was mined to a depth of 1097 metres. A popular local myth claims that it is the largest hand-dug hole on the world, however Jagersfontein Mine
Jagersfontein Mine
Jagersfontein Mine is an abandoned open-pit mine in South Africa located close to the town of Jagersfontein and approximately south-west of Bloemfontein. Since it was first established in 1888, two of the ten biggest diamonds ever discovered, the Excelsior and the Reitz , were mined from...

 appears to hold that record. There is currently an effort in progress to register the Big Hole as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

.

By 1873, Kimberley was the second largest town in South Africa; having an approximate population of 40,000.

Role and influence of De Beers

The various smaller mining companies were amalgamated by Barney Barnato
Barney Barnato
Barney Barnato , born Barnet Isaacs, was a British Randlord, one of the entrepreneurs who gained control of diamond mining, and later gold mining, in South Africa from the 1870s.-Background:...

 into De Beers
De Beers
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

, and The Kimberley under Cecil Rhodes and Charles Rudd
Charles Rudd
Charles Dunell Rudd was the main business associate of Cecil John Rhodes.Rudd studied at Harrow School and then entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1863, where he excelled in playing rackets...

. In 1888, the two companies merged to form De Beers Consolidated Mines
De Beers
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

, which to this day today still retains a monopoly over the world's diamond market.

Very quickly, Kimberley became the largest city in the area, partly due to a massive African migration to the area from all over the continent. The immigrants were accepted with open arms, because the De Beers company was in search of cheap labour to help run the mines. Another group drawn to the city for money was prostitutes, from a wide variety of ethnicities who could be found in bars and saloons. It was praised as a city of limitless opportunity.

Five big holes were dug into the earth, which followed the kimberlite
Kimberlite
Kimberlite is a type of potassic volcanic rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds. It is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa, where the discovery of an diamond in 1871 spawned a diamond rush, eventually creating the Big Hole....

 pipes, which are named after the town. Kimberlite is a diamond-bearing blue ground that sits below a yellow colored soil. The largest, The Kimberley mine or "Big Hole" covering 170 000 m², reached a depth of 240 m and yielded 3 ton
Ton
The ton is a unit of measure. It has a long history and has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years. It is used principally as a unit of weight, and as a unit of volume. It can also be used as a measure of energy, for truck classification, or as a colloquial term.It is derived from...

s of diamonds. The mine was closed in 1914, while three of the holes Du Toitspan, Wesselton and Bultfontein closed down in 2005.

The Second Boer War

On 14 October 1899, Kimberley was besieged at the beginning of the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

. The British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 forces trying to relieve the siege suffered heavy losses. The siege was only lifted on 15 February 1900, but the war continued until May 1902. By that time, the British had built a concentration camp at Kimberley to house Boer
Boer
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans word for farmer, which came to denote the descendants of the Dutch-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th century, as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Orange Free State,...

 women and children.

Becoming the City of Kimberley

The until now separately administered Boroughs of Kimberley and Beaconsfield amalgamated as the City of Kimberley in 1912.

Kimberley under Apartheid

Although a considerable degree of urban segregation already existed, one of the most significant impacts of Apartheid on the city of Kimberley was the implementation of the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
The Group Areas Act of 1950 was an act of parliament created under the apartheid government of South Africa on 27th April 1950. The act assigned racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban areas in a system of urban apartheid...

. Communities were divided according to legislated
Population Registration Act
The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid. Social rights, political rights, educational opportunities, and economic status were largely...

 racial categories, namely European (White), Native (Black), Coloured and Indian – now legally separated by the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act
The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949, was an apartheid law in South Africa that prohibited marriages between people of different races. It was among the first pieces of apartheid legislation to be passed following the National Party's rise to power in 1948...

. Individual families could be split up to three ways (based on such notorious measures as the 'pencil test') and mixed communities were either completely relocated (as in Malay Camp
Malay Camp, Kimberley
The Malay Camp in Kimberley, South Africa, with a history similar to Cape Town's District Six, Johannesburg's Sophiatown and Port Elizabeth's South End, was a cosmopolitan suburb originating in the early days of Kimberley's existence but subject to forced 'slums clearance' after the owner of the...

 – although those clearances began before Apartheid as such) or were selectively cleared (as in Greenpoint which became a ‘Coloured’ Group Area, its erstwhile African and other residents being removed to other parts of town). Residential segregation
Residential Segregation
Residential segregation is the physical separation of cultural groups based on residence and housing, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level."...

 was thus enforced in a process which saw the creation of new townships at the northern and north-eastern edges of the expanding city. Institutions that were hard hit by the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
The Group Areas Act of 1950 was an act of parliament created under the apartheid government of South Africa on 27th April 1950. The act assigned racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban areas in a system of urban apartheid...

, Bantu Education
Bantu Education Act
Bantu Education Act of 1953 was a South African law which codified several aspects of the apartheid system. Its major provision was enforced separation of races in all educational institutions. Even universities were made 'tribal', and all but three Missionary schools chose to close down when the...

 and other Acts included churches (such as the Bean Street Methodist Church) and schools (some, such as William Pescod and Perseverance School
Perseverance School
The Perseverance School, Kimberley, was founded as such in 1883 but might be seen as having arisen from the St Cyprian's Mission School dating back to the early 1870s...

, moved while the Gore Browne (Native) Training School was closed down). Other legislation restricted the movement of Africans and some public places became ‘Europeans Only’ preserves in terms of the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act
Reservation of Separate Amenities Act
The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953, formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.The Act legalized the racial segregation of public premises, vehicles and services. Only public roads and streets were excluded from the Act...

. The Native Laws Amendment Act sought to cleave church communities along racial lines – a law rejected on behalf of all Anglicans in South Africa by Archbishop Clayton
Geoffrey Hare Clayton
The Most Rev Geoffrey Hare Clayton, DD was an eminent Anglican Priest in the mid Twentieth century.He was born on 12 December 1884, educated at Rugby and Pembroke College, Cambridge and ordained, after a period of study at Ripon College Cuddesdon, in 1909. A Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, he was...

 in 1957 (in terms of which this aspect of apartheid was never completely implemented in churches such as Kimberley’s St Cyprian’s Cathedral).

Resistance to apartheid in Kimberley was mounted as early as mid-1952 as part of the Defiance Campaign
Defiance Campaign
The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was presented by the African National Congress at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951....

. Dr Arthur Letele organized a group of volunteers to defy the segregation laws by occupying 'Europeans Only’ benches at Kimberley Railway Station – which led to arrest and imprisonment. Later in the year, the Mayibuye Uprising in Kimberley, on 8 November 1952, revolved around the poor quality of beer served in the Beer Hall: the fracas resulted in shootings and a subsequent mass funeral on 12 November 1952 at Kimberley’s West End Cemetery. Detained following the massacre were alleged ‘ring-leaders’ Dr Letele, Sam Phakedi, Pepys Madibane, Olehile Sehume, Alexander Nkoane, Daniel Chabalala and David Mpiwa. Archdeacon Wade of St Matthew’s Church, as a witness at the subsequent inquiry, placed the blame squarely on the policy of apartheid – including poor housing, lighting and public transport, together with “unfulfilled promises” – which he said “brought about the conditions which led to the riots.”

A later generation of anti-apartheid activists based in Kimberley included Phakamile Mabija
Phakamile Mabija
Phakamile Mabija was an African anti-Apartheid activist, and member of the Anglican Nomads Educational Group, who was detained by the South African Police on 27 June 1977 for alleged involvement in an incident when African and Coloured commuters stoned public transport during a bus boycott in...

 and two post-apartheid provincial premiers, Manne Dipico
Manne Dipico
Manne Emsley Dipico, first Premier of the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, was born in Kimberley on 21 April 1959. He was appointed Chairman of the Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa in 2006...

 and Dipuo Peters
Dipuo Peters
Elizabeth Dipuo Peters, born on 13 May 1960, is the Minister of Energy of the Republic of South Africa , in the Zuma administration, having served as successor to Manne Dipico as the second Premier of the Northern Cape Province, 22 April 2004 to 10 May 2009...

.

Other prominent figures of the struggle against apartheid who had Kimberley connections include Robert Sobukwe
Robert Sobukwe
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the apartheid regime. In 2004 Sobukwe was voted 42nd in the SABC3's Great South Africans....

, founder of the Pan Africanist Congress, who was banished (placed under house arrest) in Kimberley after his release from Robben Island in 1969. He died in the city in 1978.

Benny Alexander (1955–2010), who later changed his name to Khoisan X
Khoisan X
Khoisan X, formerly Benny Alexander , was a South African political activist born in Kimberley, South Africa.-Early life:...

, and was General Secretary of the Pan Africanist Congress and of the Pan-Africanist Movement from 1989, was born and grew up in Kimberley. Another leading figure in Coloured politics in the apartheid era was Sonny Leon.

Post Apartheid

The Northern Cape Province became a political fact in 1994, with Kimberley as its capital. Some quasi provincial infrastructure was in place from the 1940s, but in the post-1994 period Kimberley underwent considerable development as administrative departments were set up and housed for the governance of the new province. A Northern Cape Legislature was designed and situated to bridge the formerly divided city. The Kimberley City Council of the renamed Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality is a local municipality in the Frances Baard District Municipality district of the Northern Cape province, South Africa. It includes the diamond mining city of Kimberley.- Reference :...

 (see below) was enlarged. A new Coat of Arms and Motto for the city were ushered in.

With the abolition of apartheid previously ‘whites only’ institutions such as schools became accessible to all, as did suburbs previously segregated by the Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act
The Group Areas Act of 1950 was an act of parliament created under the apartheid government of South Africa on 27th April 1950. The act assigned racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban areas in a system of urban apartheid...

. In practice this process has been one of upward mobility by those who could afford the more costly options, while by far the majority of Black people remain in the townships where poverty levels are high.

Major township residential developments, with 'RDP
RDP
RDP may refer to:* Radiodifusão Portuguesa, a subsidiary of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal* Rally for Democracy and Progress, a generic name for a multi-national political party* Rassemblement Démocratique et Populaire...

 housing', were implemented – not without criticism concerning quality. There has been an increase in Kimberley’s population, urbanization being spurred on in part by the abolition of the Influx Control Act.

Also added to the city is the settlement of Platfontein created when the !Xun and Khwe community formerly of Schmidtsdrift and originally from Angola/Namibia acquired the land in 1996. Most of the community had moved to the new township by the end of 2003.

In 1998 the Kimberley Comprehensive Urban Plan estimated that Kimberley had 210,800 people representing 46,207 households living in the city.

By 2008 estimates were in the region of 250,000 inhabitants.

Name changes

The shifts from frontier farm names to digger camp names to the established names of the towns of Kimberley and Beaconsfield – which duly amalgamated in 1912 – are outlined above. The only traces of any precolonial settlement within the city's boundaries are scatters of Stone Age artefacts and there is no record of what the place/s might have been called before the first nineteenth century frontier overlay of farm names. It lay beyond the areas occupied by Tswana people in the precolonial period. Sites such as the nearby Wildebeest Kuil
Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre is a rock engraving site with visitor centre on land owned by the !Xun and Khwe San situated about 16 km from Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. It is a declared Provincial Heritage Site managed by the Northern Cape Rock Art Trust in association with the...

 testify to a Khoe–San history dating up into the nineteenth century.

In the post-1994 era the Kimberley City Council was renamed the Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality is a local municipality in the Frances Baard District Municipality district of the Northern Cape province, South Africa. It includes the diamond mining city of Kimberley.- Reference :...

 while the erstwhile Diamantveld District Council became the Frances Baard District Municipality
Frances Baard District Municipality
Frances Baard is one of the 5 districts of Northern Cape province of South Africa. The seat of Frances Baard is Kimberley. The majority of its 324 814 people speak Afrikaans . The district code is DC9....

, with reference to a prominent writer (Plaatje
Sol Plaatje
Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje was a South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality, which includes the city of Kimberley, was named after him.-Early life:...

) and trade unionist (Baard
Frances Baard
Frances Goitsemang Baard was a South African trade unionist, organiser for the African National Congress Women's League and a Patron of the United Democratic Front, who was commemorated in the renaming of the Diamantveld District Municipality as the Frances Baard District Municipality.-Background...

) respectively who had links with the city.

Economy: Kimberley’s changing commercial fortunes

Kimberley was the initial hub of industrialisation in South Africa in the late nineteenth century, which transformed the country’s agrarian economy into one more dependant on its mineral wealth. A key feature of the new economic arrangement was migrant labour, with the demand for African labour in the mines of Kimberley (and later on the Gold Fields) drawing workers in growing numbers from throughout the subcontinent. The labour compound
Compound (migrant labour)
A migrant worker compound is a key institution in a system such as that which regulated labour on mines in South Africa from the later nineteenth century. The tightly controlled closed compound which came to typify the phenomenon in that country originated on the diamond mines of Kimberley from...

 system developed in Kimberley from the 1880s was later replicated on the gold mines and elsewhere.

The city housed South Africa's first stock exchange
Stock exchange
A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

, the Kimberley Royal Stock Exchange, which opened on 2 February 1881.

On 2 September 1882, Kimberley became the first town in the southern hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earth that lies south of the equator. The word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' or "half sphere"...

 to install electric
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 street lighting.

The rising importance of Kimberley led to one of the earliest South African and International Exhibitions to be staged in Kimberley in 1892. It was opened by Sir Henry Loch, the then Governor of the Cape of Good Hope on the 8th of September. It presented exhibits of art, an exhibition of paintings from the royal collection of Queen Victoria and mining machinery and implements amongst other items. The exhibition aroused considerable interest at international level, which resulted in a competition for display space.

South Africa's first school of mines was opened here in 1896 and later relocated to Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

, becoming the core of the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg is a South African university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more commonly known as Wits University...

. In fact the first two years were attended at colleges elsewhere in Cape Town, Grahamstown or Stellenbosch, the third year in Kimberley and the fourth year in Johannesburg. Buildings were constructed against a total cost of 9,000 pounds with De Beers
De Beers
De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

 contributing on a pound for pound basis.

Aviation, Kimberley Airport and air transport

South African aviation originated in Kimberley, which is commemorated in the Pioneers of Aviation Museum (and replica of the first Compton Patterson Biplane preserved there). In the 1930s Kimberley boasted the best night-landing facilities on the continent of Africa. A major air rally was hosted there in 1934. In the war years Kimberley Airport was commandeered by the Union Defence Force
Union Defence Force
The Union Defence Force may refer to a former or current military organization:* the South African Army from 1912 to 1957* the military of the United Arab Emirates...

 and run by the 21 Flying School for the training of fighter pilots.

Today Kimberley Airport
Kimberley Airport
Kimberley Airport is an airport serving Kimberley, the capital city of the province of Northern Cape in South Africa.-Facilities:The airport resides at an elevation of above mean sea level...

  services the area, with regular scheduled flights from Cape Town
Cape Town International Airport
Cape Town International Airport is the primary airport serving the city of Cape Town, and is the second busiest airport in South Africa and third busiest in Africa. Located approximately from the city centre, the airport was opened in 1954 to replace Cape Town's previous airport in the suburb of...

 and Johannesbusg.

Railways

The building of the railway from the Cape to Kimberley was completed in 1885, accelerating the transport of both passengers and goods. The railway connected Kimberley with cheaper sources of grain and other products, as well as supplies of coal, so that one of its local impacts was to undercut (mainly African) trade in fresh produce and firewood in Kimberley’s hinterland. Another footnote to railway history is its role in the initial rapid spread of the Spanish Influenza epidemic in 1918.

The railway reticulation eventually would link Kimberley with Port Elizabeth, Johannesburg, Durban and Bloemfontein. The major junction at De Aar in the Karoo linked early twentieth century lines to Upington (later to Namibia) and to Calvinia. From the 1990s there was a decline in the use of the railways.
  • Today passenger train services to and from Kimberley are provided by Spoornet
    Spoornet
    Transnet Freight Rail is a South African rail transport company, formerly known as Spoornet. It was part of 'South African Railways and Harbours', a state-controlled organisation that employed hundreds of thousands of people for decades from the first half of the 20th century and was widely...

    's Shosholoza Meyl
    Shosholoza Meyl
    Shosholoza Meyl is a division of the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa that operates long-distance passenger rail services. It operates various train routes across South Africa, carrying approximately 4 million passengers annually...

    , with connections south to Cape Town and Port Elizabeth and north to Johannesburg.Luxury railway experiences are provided on the main north-south line by the Blue Train and Rovos Rail.

Roads

Wagon and coach routes were developed rapidly as the rush for the Diamond Fields gathered momentum. Two of the major routes were from the Cape and from Port Elizabeth, the nearest maritime port at the time. Contemporary accounts of the 1870s describe the appalling condition of some of the roads and decry the absence of bridges. From the mid 1880s the route through Kimberley and Mafeking (now Mahikeng) became the main axis of British colonial penetration and it was from Kimberley, along that route, that the Pioneer Column for the settlement of Rhodesia set forth in 1890. Today, however, the central arterial route to the north, the N1 from the Cape to Johannesburg, goes via Bloemfontein, not Kimberley.
  • Kimberley is located at the intersection of the N12 and N8
    N8 road (South Africa)
    The N8 is a National Route in South Africa. It is maintained by the South African National Roads Agency.- Route :The road starts at Groblershoop in the Northern Cape, at a junction with the N10 from Upington. It runs east through Griquatown to Kimberley. From Kimberley it runs south-east into the...

     national roads.

Kimberley today

Today, Kimberley is the seat of the Provincial Legislature for the Northern Cape and the Provincial Administration. It services the mining and agricultural sectors of the region.

Tourism

The city projects itself as a significant tourist destination, the ‘City that Sparkles’, boasting a diversity of museums and visitor attractions. It is also a gateway to other Northern Cape destinations including the Mokala National Park, nature reserves and numerous game farms or hunting lodges, as well as historic sites of the region.

Climate

Water

Kimberley’s water is pumped from the Vaal River at Riverton, some 15 km north of the city.

Districts/Suburbs/Townships

  • Beaconsfield
  • Belgravia
  • Carter's Glen
  • Cassandra
  • Colville
  • Du Toit's Pan
    Du Toit's Pan
    Du Toit's Pan, now usually Dutoitspan, refers to one of the earliest diamond mining camps at what is now Kimberley, South Africa. It was renamed Beaconsfield, which existed as a separate borough from Kimberley itself until Kimberley and Beaconsfield were amalgamated as the City of Kimberley in...

  • Ernestville
  • Floors/Florianville
  • Galeshewe incl "Old No 2"
  • Gemdene
  • Greenpoint
  • Greenside
  • Heuwelsig
  • Homelight
  • Homestead
  • Homevale
  • Kenilworth
  • Klisserville
  • Labrum
  • Lindene
  • Malay Camp, Kimberley
    Malay Camp, Kimberley
    The Malay Camp in Kimberley, South Africa, with a history similar to Cape Town's District Six, Johannesburg's Sophiatown and Port Elizabeth's South End, was a cosmopolitan suburb originating in the early days of Kimberley's existence but subject to forced 'slums clearance' after the owner of the...

  • Monument Heights
  • Newton
  • New Park
  • Platfontein
  • Riviera
  • Roodepan/Pescodia
  • Royldene
  • South Ridge
  • Squarehill Park
  • Vergenoeg
  • Verwoerd Park
  • West End


Demography

The population of the greater Kimberley area was estimated in 2007 to be about 243 000, about 46% Black, 40% Coloured and 13% White (these categories are still used by the post-apartheid government), speaking Afrikaans (49%), Setswana
Tswana language
Tswana or Setswana is a language spoken in Southern Africa by about 4.5 million people. It is a Bantu language belonging to the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho languages branch of Zone S , and is closely related to the Northern- and Southern Sotho languages, as well as the Kgalagadi...

 (33%), English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 (7.5%), IsiXhosa
Xhosa language
Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. Xhosa is spoken by approximately 7.9 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. Like most Bantu languages, Xhosa is a tonal language, that is, the same sequence of consonants and vowels can have different meanings when said...

 (5.6%) and Sesotho
Sesotho language
The Sotho language, also known as Sesotho, Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language...

 (2.2%).

Landscapes, urban and rural

Kimberley is set in a relatively flat landscape with no prominent topographic features within the urban limits. The only “hills” are debris dumps generated by more than a century of diamond mining. From the 1990s these were being recycled and poured back into De Beers Mine (by 2010 it was filled to within a few tens of metres of the surface). Certain of the mine dumps, in the vicinity of the Big Hole, have been proclaimed as heritage features and are to be preserved as part of the historic industrial landscape of Kimberley.

The surrounding rural landscape, not more than a few minutes’ drive from any part of the city, consists of relatively flat plains dotted with hills, mainly outcropping basement rock (andesite) to the north and north west, or Karoo age dolerite to the south and east. Shallow pans formed in the plains.

One of Kimberley’s famous features is Kamfers Dam
Kamfers Dam
Kamfers Dam is a privately owned permanent water body of 400 ha, situated to the immediate north of Kimberley, South Africa. The wetland was originally an ephemeral pan, often dry and dependent on rain water...

, a large pan north of the city, which is an important wetland supporting a breeding colony of Lesser Flamingo
Lesser Flamingo
The Lesser Flamingo is a species in the flamingo family of birds that resides in Africa and in southern Asia...

s. Conservation initiatives in the area aim to bring people from the city in touch with its wildlife.

Government, local and provincial

The administration of the Crown Colony of Griqualand West
Griqualand West
Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km² that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people - a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who established several states outside the expanding frontier...

 (from 1873) was conducted from Government Buildings in Kimberley up until the annexation of the Colony to the Cape
Cape Colony
The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town. It was subsequently occupied by the British in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France, so that the French revolutionaries could not take...

 in 1880. At the level of local government, separate Borough Councils operated in Kimberley and Beaconsfield up to the time of their amalgamation as the City of Kimberley in 1912. Thereafter a single City Council regulated the affairs of the city, while a Divisional Council administered the surrounding rural district. In the 1980s, in the last days of apartheid, a separate political entity referred to as Galeshewe (with Mankurwane) was brought into existence with its own council.

Post-1994 the Kimberley City Council became the Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
Sol Plaatje Local Municipality
The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality is a local municipality in the Frances Baard District Municipality district of the Northern Cape province, South Africa. It includes the diamond mining city of Kimberley.- Reference :...

 while the successor to what had become the Diamandveld Regional Services Council was the Frances Baard District Municipality
Frances Baard District Municipality
Frances Baard is one of the 5 districts of Northern Cape province of South Africa. The seat of Frances Baard is Kimberley. The majority of its 324 814 people speak Afrikaans . The district code is DC9....

.

The idea of establishing the Northern Cape as a distinct geographic entity dates from the 1940s but it became a political and administrative fact only in 1994, with Kimberley formally becoming the new province’s legislative capital. The provincial legislature initially occupied the old Cape Provincial Administration building at the Civic Centre before moving into a purpose-built Legislature deliberately situated between one of the townships and erstwhile white suburbs.

Secondary education

  • Kimberley Boys' High School
    Kimberley Boys' High School
    Kimberley Boys' High School is a high school located on the corner of Dalham Road and Memorial Road, Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. It was founded in 1887 and has close affiliation with Kimberley Girls' High School and Kimberley Junior School....

  • Kimberley Girls' High School
    Kimberley Girls' High School
    Kimberley Girls' High School is a high school located on Elsmere Road in Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. It is over a hundred years old and has close affiliation with Kimberley Boys' High School and Kimberley Junior School.-History:...

  • St Patrick's College, Kimberley, formerly CBC Kimberley
  • St Boniface College, Galeshewe
  • Diamantveld
  • Adamantia
  • Northern Cape High School
  • Technical High School Kimberley (HTS Kimberley)
  • St Cyprian's Grammar School
    St Cyprian's Grammar School, Kimberley
    St. Cyprian's Grammar School in Kimberley, South Africa, is a co-educational English-medium independent school for Grades 1-12, attached to St Cyprian's Cathedral...

  • William Pescod High School


Religion

Kimberley, from its earliest days, attracted people of diverse faiths which are still reflected by practising faith communities in the city. Pre-eminently these are various denominations of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

, Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, as well as other faiths. Traditional African beliefs continue as an element in the Zionist Christian Church
Zionist Churches
Zionist Churches are a group of Christian denominations that sprang from the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, Illinois. Missionaries from the church came to South Africa in 1904 and among their first recruits were Pieter Louis le Roux of Wakkerstroom and Daniel Nkonyane of Charlestown,...

 (ZCC).
Kimberley is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman and also of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley – previously the Apostolic Vicariate of Kimberley in Orange. Other denominations having churches in the city are the Methodist Church
Methodist Church of Southern Africa
The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is a member church of the World Methodist Council.Methodism in Southern Africa began as a result of lay Christian work by an Irish soldier of the English Regiment, John Irwin, who was stationed at the Cape and began to hold prayer meetings as early as 1795...

, the Presbyterian Church, the Congregational Church
United Congregational Church of Southern Africa
The United Congregational Church in Southern Africa began with the work of the London Missionary Society, who sent missionaries to the Cape colony in 1799. Congregationalist missionaries from the American Board of Foreign Missions began work in KwaZulu-Natal in 1830, and several congregations of...

, the Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church was a Reformed Christian denomination in the Netherlands. It existed from the 1570s to 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the...

 (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk), the Baptist Church, the Afrikaans Baptist Church (Afrikaans: Afrikaanse Baptiste Kerk), the Apostolics, Pentecostalists
Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

. The Seventh-day Adventist Church in South Africa
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

 was first established in Kimberley.

Art, music, film and literature

Renowned artists from Kimberley include William Timlin. Writers from the city or with strong Kimberley links include Sol Plaatje
Sol Plaatje
Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje was a South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality, which includes the city of Kimberley, was named after him.-Early life:...

, Olive Schreiner
Olive Schreiner
Olive Schreiner was a South African author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual. She is best remembered today for her novel The Story of an African Farm which has been highly acclaimed ever since its first publication in 1883 for the bold manner in which it dealt with some of the burning issues...

, Sarah Gertrude Millin, Lawrence Green, Z.K. Matthews, Dan Jacobson
Dan Jacobson
Dan Jacobson is a novelist, short story writer, critic and essayist. He has lived in Great Britain for most of his adult life, and for many years held a professorship in the English Department at University College London...

, A.H.M. Scholtz, Benjamin Bennett
Benjamin Bennett (writer)
Benjamin Bennett was a well known South African crime writer. He worked as a journalist with the Cape Argus newspaper from 1925 to 1975, as a crime reporter, and subsequently as news editor and finally editor of Argus Action...

.

Museums, momuments and memorials

  • The Big Hole, previously known as the Kimberley Mine Museum, is a recreated townscape and museum, with Big Hole viewing platform and other features, situated next to the Kimberley Mine ("Big Hole"). It houses a rich collection of artefacts and information from the early days of the city. One of the exhibits is Cecil John Rhodes
    Cecil John Rhodes
    Cecil John Rhodes PC, DCL was an English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%...

    's grand railway carriage that carried him as governor of the Cape of Good Hope
    Cape Colony
    The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town. It was subsequently occupied by the British in 1795 when the Netherlands were occupied by revolutionary France, so that the French revolutionaries could not take...

     to the Rhodesia
    Rhodesia
    Rhodesia , officially the Republic of Rhodesia from 1970, was an unrecognised state located in southern Africa that existed between 1965 and 1979 following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965...

     that he created. Also at the mine museum is the first house built in the developing Kimberley, as well as the first church. Barney Barnato
    Barney Barnato
    Barney Barnato , born Barnet Isaacs, was a British Randlord, one of the entrepreneurs who gained control of diamond mining, and later gold mining, in South Africa from the 1870s.-Background:...

    , Cecil John Rhodes's partner in the developing De Beers
    De Beers
    De Beers is a family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea...

    , had a boxing academy. This academy sits alongside the Rhodes rail carriage. On its walls is the framed original cheque signed by Cecil John Rhodes and Barney Barnato for £4.5 million pounds to establish the De Beers Consolidated mines.

  • The McGregor Museum
    McGregor Museum
    The McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa, originally known as the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum, is a province-aided museum established in 1907.- Overview :...

    , which celebrated its centennial in 2007, curates and studies major research collections and information about the history and ecology of the Northern Cape, which are reflected in displays at the museum's headquarters at the Sanatorium in Belgravia and nine branch museums.

  • The William Humphreys Art Gallery
    William Humphreys Art Gallery
    The William Humphreys Art Gallery, in Kimberley, South Africa, was opened in 1952 and named after its principal benefactor, William Benbow Humphreys...

    .

  • The Kimberley Africana Library.

  • Dunluce and Rudd House Museums.

  • Pioneers of Aviation Museum: In 1913, South Africa's first flying school opened at Kimberley and started training the pilots of the South African Aviation Corps, later to become the South African Air Force
    South African Air Force
    The South African Air Force is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria. It is the world's second oldest independent air force, and its motto is Per Aspera Ad Astra...

    . The museum is located on the site of that flying school and houses a replica of a Compton Paterson biplane, one of the first aircraft to be used for flight training. The first female on the African continent to receive her pilot's license, Ann Maria Bocciarelli, was trained at this facility.

  • Robert Sobukwe
    Robert Sobukwe
    Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the apartheid regime. In 2004 Sobukwe was voted 42nd in the SABC3's Great South Africans....

    's Law Office

  • The Sol Plaatje Museum
    Sol Plaatje Museum
    The Sol Plaatje Museum and Library is in Kimberley, Northern Cape, in a house where Solomon T. Plaatje lived during his last years, in Malay Camp, No 32 Angel Street. It was here that Plaatje wrote Mhudi....

     is located in the house where Sol Plaatje
    Sol Plaatje
    Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje was a South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality, which includes the city of Kimberley, was named after him.-Early life:...

     lived and wrote Mhudi.

Transport Spoornet Museum
  • Clyde N. Terry Hall of Militaria

  • Freddie Tate Museum

  • On the outskirts of Kimberley, on the Barkly West Road, the Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
    Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
    Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre is a rock engraving site with visitor centre on land owned by the !Xun and Khwe San situated about 16 km from Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. It is a declared Provincial Heritage Site managed by the Northern Cape Rock Art Trust in association with the...

    , as well as Nooitgedacht Glacial Pavements
    Nooitgedacht Glacial Pavements
    The Nooitgedacht Glacial Pavements comprise a geological feature between Kimberley and Barkly West, South Africa, pertaining to the Palaeozoic-age Dwyka Ice Age, or Karoo Ice Age, where the glacially scoured ancient bedrock was used, substantially more recently, during the Later Stone Age period...

    . To the south of the city, the Magersfontein Battlefield Museum, while blockhouses can be seen at Modder River.


Memorials include:
  • The Miners' Memorial, also known as the Diggers' Fountain, located in the Oppenheimer Gardens and designed by Herman Wald. It was built in honour of all the miners of Kimberley. The memorial consists of five life-sized diggers lifting a diamond sieve.

  • The Honoured Dead Memorial
    Honoured Dead Memorial
    The Honoured Dead Memorial is a provincial heritage site in Kimberley in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated at the meeting point of five roads, and commemorates those who died defending the city during the Siege of Kimberley in the Anglo-Boer War.In 1986, it was described in...

     commemorates those who died defending the city during the Siege of Kimberley
    Siege of Kimberley
    The Siege of Kimberley took place during the Second Boer War at Kimberley, Cape Colony , when Boer forces from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal besieged the diamond mining town. The Boers moved quickly to try to capture the British enclave when war broke out between the British and the two...

     in the Anglo-Boer War.


  • The Cenotaph
    Cenotaph
    A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been interred elsewhere. The word derives from the Greek κενοτάφιον = kenotaphion...

     erected originally to commemorate the fallen of World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

    , with plaques added in memory of fallen Kimberley volunteers in World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    . There is a memorial dedicated to the Kimberley Cape Coloured Corps
    Cape Corps
    The Cape Corps and its predecessor units were the main military organizations in which the Coloured members of South Africa's population served.- 1781 - 1878 :...

     who died in the Battle of Square Hill during World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

    . Consisting of a gun captured at the battle, it origially stood in Victoria Crescent, Malay Camp, but, post-1994, was moved to the Cenotaph.

  • The Concentration Camp Memorial remembers those who were interned in the Kimberley concentration camp during the Second Boer War
    Second Boer War
    The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

    , and is located in front of the Dutch Reformed Mother Church.

  • The Henrietta Stockdale
    Henrietta Stockdale
    Henrietta Stockdale was a nursing pioneer. Through her influence and pressure the first state registration of nurses and midwives in the world was brought about when the Cape of Good Hope Medical and Pharmacy Act of 1891 passed into law...

     statue, by Jack Penn
    Jack Penn
    Jack Penn , M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.., Mil. Dec. M.B.E., S.M., was a plastic and reconstructive surgeon, sculptor and author, who was also for a time a Member of the President's Council in South Africa.-Early years:...

    , commemorates the Anglican nun, Sister Henrietta CSM&AA (her reinterred remains are buried alongside), who petitioned the Cape Parliament to pass a law recognizing nursing as a profession and requiring compulsory state registration of nurses - a first in the world.

  • The statue of Frances Baard
    Frances Baard
    Frances Goitsemang Baard was a South African trade unionist, organiser for the African National Congress Women's League and a Patron of the United Democratic Front, who was commemorated in the renaming of the Diamantveld District Municipality as the Frances Baard District Municipality.-Background...

     was unveiled by Premier Hazel Jenkins
    Hazel Jenkins
    Hazel Gertrude Jenkins is a South African politician and Premier of the Northern Cape Province.-Background and political career:Aged 49 at the time that she assumed office as Premier, Jenkins had been the Mayor of the Pixley ka Seme District Municipality, at De Aar in the Karoo...

     on Women's Day, 9 August 2009.

  • The Sol Plaatje
    Sol Plaatje
    Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje was a South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. The Sol Plaatje Local Municipality, which includes the city of Kimberley, was named after him.-Early life:...

     Statue was unveiled by South African President Jacob Zuma
    Jacob Zuma
    Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma is the President of South Africa, elected by parliament following his party's victory in the 2009 general election....

     on 9 January 2010, the 98th anniversary of the founding of the African National Congress
    African National Congress
    The African National Congress is South Africa's governing Africanist political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party , since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a...

    . Sculpted by Johan Moolman, it is at the Civic Centre, formerly the Malay Camp, and situated approximately where Plaatje had his printing press in 1910-13.

  • Burger Monument near Magersfontein Battlefield

  • Mayibuye Memorial

  • Rhodes equestrian statue

  • Malay Camp Memorial

Architecture

  • Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum
    McGregor Museum
    The McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa, originally known as the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum, is a province-aided museum established in 1907.- Overview :...

     (1907)
  • De Beers Head Office
  • Dunluce - Late Victorian
  • Harry Oppenheimer House - Modern
  • Honoured Dead Memorial
    Honoured Dead Memorial
    The Honoured Dead Memorial is a provincial heritage site in Kimberley in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated at the meeting point of five roads, and commemorates those who died defending the city during the Siege of Kimberley in the Anglo-Boer War.In 1986, it was described in...

  • Kimberley Africana Library
  • Kimberley Club
  • Kimberley City Hall - Neo-classical
  • Kimberley Regiment Drill Hall (1892)
  • Kimberley Sanatorium (McGregor Museum
    McGregor Museum
    The McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa, originally known as the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum, is a province-aided museum established in 1907.- Overview :...

    ) (1897)
  • Kimberley Undenominational Schools
  • Masonic Temple
  • Northern Cape Provincial Legislature
  • Rudd House (The Bungalow)
  • The Lodge (Duggan Cronin Gallery)


Notable religious buildings

  • Kimberley Seventh-day Adventist Church
    Kimberley Seventh-day Adventist Church
    The Kimberley Seventh-day Adventist Church is a provincial heritage site in Kimberley in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. It is part of the worldwide Seventh-day Adventist Church.In 1967 it was described in the Government Gazette as-References:...

     is a small L shaped corrugated-iron building and is considered the mother church of Seventh-day Adventists in South Africa. It was declared a National Monument
    National heritage sites (South Africa)
    National heritage sites in South Africa are structures or defined areas of land declared to be of historic or cultural importance and granted certain legal protections...

     in 1967, now a Provincial Heritage Site.
  • Dutch Reformed Mother Church Newton is a good example of Stucco
    Stucco
    Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

     architecture in Kimberley. It was declared a National Monument
    National heritage sites (South Africa)
    National heritage sites in South Africa are structures or defined areas of land declared to be of historic or cultural importance and granted certain legal protections...

     in 1976, now a Provincial Heritage Site.
  • St Cyprian's Anglican Cathedral
    St Cyprian's Cathedral, Kimberley
    The Cathedral Church of St Cyprian the Martyr, Kimberley, is the seat of the Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman, Anglican Church of Southern Africa. It became a Cathedral when the Synod of Bishops gave a mandate for the formation of the new Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman in...

     was designed by Arthur Lindley of the firm of Greatbatch, the building of the nave being completed in 1908. The remainder of the cathedral was completed in stages, partly under guidance of William M. Timlin
    William M. Timlin
    William Mitcheson Timlin was an architect and illustrator. He was born in Ashington, Northumberland, the son of a colliery foreman. He showed talent for drawing at Morpeth Grammar School, and received a scholarship to the Armstrong College of Art in Newcastle...

     (also of the firm of Greatbatch). In 1926 the Chancel was dedicated (and as a World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     memorial); in 1936 the Lady Chapel
    Lady chapel
    A Lady chapel, also called Mary chapel or Marian chapel, is a traditional English term for a chapel inside a cathedral, basilica, or large church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary...

    , Vestry & new organ were added; and in 1961, the tower (a World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     memorial). The cathedral contains notable stained glass windows including works by the Pretoria artist Leo Theron
    Leo Theron
    Leo Théron is a South African stained-glass window artist who specialises in the dalles de verre technique .-Education and career:...

    .
  • St Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral.
  • Synagogue in the Byzantine style designed by D.W. Greatbatch.
  • Kimberley's older Mosques were replaced by newer ones as a result of the Group Areas Act and the forced resettlement of the city's Muslim communities.

Newspapers

The earliest newspaper here was the Diamond Field, published initially at Pniel on 15 October 1870. Other early papers with the Diamond News and the Independent. The Diamond Fields Advertiser
Diamond Fields Advertiser
The Diamond Fields Advertiser is a daily newspaper published in Kimberley, South Africa, founded on 23 March 1878.-The early days:The earliest paper on the Diamond Fields was a weekly called the Diamond Field , published from 15 October 1870 at Pniel. It moved the following year first to Du Toit's...

 is Kimberley's current daily newspaper, published since 23 March 1878.
The Volksblad
Volksblad
The Volksblad is an Afrikaans language daily newspaper published in Bloemfontein, South Africa, and distributed in the Free State and Northern Cape provinces, where it is the largest Afrikaans daily. It is South Africa's oldest Afrikaans newspaper...

, with a free local supplement called Noordkaap, is read by Afrikaans-speaking readers.

Radio

Two community radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 stations were founded in the 1990s:
  • Radio Teemaneng
  • XKfm which is based in the !Xun and Khwe settlement of Platfontein outside Kimberley and broadcasts in the two KhoeSan languages spoken at Platfontein (!Xun
    !Kung language
    !Kung or !Xun, also called Ju, is a dialect continuum spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the !Kung people. Together with the ǂHoan language, it forms the Kx'a language family...

     and Khwedam)

Cricket

Kimberley has contributed to much of cricket's history having supplied several international players. There was Nipper Nickelson, Xenophon Balascas born in Kimberley to Greek parents and Ken Viljoen, Ronnie Draper and in more recent times Pat Symcox and the Proteas coach Micky Arthur.

Kimberley hosted a match from the 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup.
Elsie McDonald was a Springbok bowler.

Rugby

Frank Dobbin known as Uncle Dobbin
Uncle Dobbin
Frederick James Dobbin universally known as Uncle Dobbin was a South African rugby union player who represented South Africa on nine occasions...

 was a member of Paul Roos'
Paul Roos (rugby player)
Paul Johannes Roos was one of the first South African Springbok rugby union captains and led the first South African rugby team to tour overseas – to Britain in 1906...

 original Springboks
South Africa national rugby union team
The South African national rugby union team are 2009 British and Irish Lions Series winners. They are currently ranked as the fourth best team in the IRB World Rankings and were named 2008 World Team of the Year at the prestigious Laureus World Sports Awards.Although South Africa was instrumental...

 in the tour to the British Isles in 1906/1907. His memory lives in his old colonial-style home in Roper street, bearing a simple brass plaque with the name 'Dobbin'. Later Springboks to wear green and gold included Ian Kirkpatrick, Tommy Bedford and Gawie Visagie, brother of Ammosal-based Springbok flyhalf Piet Visagie. Kimberley is home to the Wildeklawer Griquas
Wildeklawer Griquas
The GWK Griquas are a South African rugby union team that participates in the annual Currie Cup tournament. Their home ground is Hoffe Park Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as GWK Park in Kimberley, and they draw their players from Northern Cape Province. They were previously known as...

 rugby team.

Swimming

In 1965, Karen Muir
Karen Muir
Karen Muir is a former competitive swimmer from South Africa. On August 10, 1965, aged 12 years, 10 months, and 25 days, she became the youngest person to break a sporting world record in any discipline when she swam the 110 yards backstroke in 1m 08.7s at the ASA National Junior...

, born in Kimberley, became the youngest person to break a world record in any sport. This age group record stands to this day. She set it in August 1965 at the junior world champions in Blackpool
Blackpool
Blackpool is a borough, seaside town, and unitary authority area of Lancashire, in North West England. It is situated along England's west coast by the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, northwest of Preston, north of Liverpool, and northwest of Manchester...

, England in the 110 metres (360.9 ft) backstroke
Backstroke
The backstroke, also sometimes called the back crawl, is one of the four swimming styles regulated by FINA, and the only regulated style swum on the back. This has the advantage of easy breathing, but the disadvantage of swimmers not being able to see where they are going. It is also the only...

 at the age of 12. She went on to break many more world records but was denied a role in world swimming when she lost the opportunity to represent her country at the 1968 Olympic games
1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico in October 1968. The 1968 Games were the first Olympic Games hosted by a developing country, and the first Games hosted by a Spanish-speaking country...

 in Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 as a result of South Africa being excluded due to its racial apartheid policies. Kimberley also saw a world record broken in the municipal pool which now bears Karen Muir's name. It was Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

's Anne Fairlie who beat Karen Muir and Frances Kikki Caron in world record breaking time.

Athletics

Bevil Rudd
Bevil Rudd
Bevil Gordon D'Urban Rudd was a South African athlete, the 1920 Olympic Champion in the 400 m.Rudd was born in Kimberley, into a family closely involved with the De Beers diamond mining company...

, Olympic medallist.

Brian Davis
Brian Davis
Brian Lester Davis is an English professional golfer.Davis was born in London. He turned professional in 1994 and became a member of the European Tour in 1997. He performed steadily for his first six seasons on the Tour, and won the 2000 Peugeot Open de Espana...

, son of civic leader Edgar Davis, was part of the 4x400 metres relay which won a gold medal at the Rome Olympics.

Harold Clarke
Harold Clarke
Harold Clarke was a British diver who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics, in the 1920 Summer Olympics, and in the 1924 Summer Olympics....

 ran the mile at the Empire Games
Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

 at Helsinki
Helsinki
Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

.

Ester Nell and Joan Carter won gold medals at the Olympics and Empire Games in the high jump.

Skateboarding

The first Maloof Money Cup
Maloof Money Cup
The Maloof Money Cup is an annual skateboarding event and contest for amateur and professional skateboarders founded by Joe and Gavin Maloof of the Maloof family. The Maloof Money Cup's main goal is to raise the awareness of skateboarding not only in the United States but all around the world by...

 World Skateboarding Championships were held in Kimberley in September 2011. The Maloof Money Cup is an annual skateboarding event and contest for amateur and professional skateboarders founded in the United States of America by Joe and Gavin Maloof of the Maloof family
Maloof family
The Maloof family owns numerous business properties in the Western United States. The origin of the family name is Maalouf and is of Levantine descent; the family is Lebanese via their paternal grandfather. The Maloofs are the owners of the Sacramento Kings of the NBA . The family consists of...

.

Quotations

Anthony Trollope
Anthony Trollope
Anthony Trollope was one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. Some of his best-loved works, collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, revolve around the imaginary county of Barsetshire...

 visited Kimberley in 1877 and was famously put off by the heat, enervating and hideous, while the dust and the flies almost drove him mad:
"I sometimes thought that the people of Kimberley were proud of their flies and their dust."
Of the townscape, largely built of sun-dried brick, and of plank and canvas and corrugated iron sheets brought up by ox-wagon from the coast, he remarked:
"In Kimberley there are two buildings with a storey above the ground, and one of these is in the square: this is its only magnificence. There is no pavement. The roadway is all dust and holes. There is a market place in the midst which certainly is not magnificent. Around are the corrugated iron shops of the ordinary dealers in provisions. An uglier place I do not know how to imagine."

In the early 1990s writer Dan Jacobson
Dan Jacobson
Dan Jacobson is a novelist, short story writer, critic and essayist. He has lived in Great Britain for most of his adult life, and for many years held a professorship in the English Department at University College London...

 returned to Kimberley, where he had grown up in the 1930s, giving a sense of how things had changed:
“The people I had known had vanished; so had their language. That contributed to my ghostlike state. In my earliest years the whites of Kimberley spoke English only; Afrikaans was the tongue of the Cape Coloured people ... Now I was addressed in Afrikaans everywhere I went, by white, black, and Coloured alike’.

See also

  • Vicariate of Kimberley in Orange for the region's Catholic missionary history
  • Kimberley Process
  • Mokala National Park
    Mokala National Park
    Mokala National Park is a reserve established in the Plooysburg area south-west of Kimberley in the Northern Cape, South Africa on 19 June 2007. The size of the Park is 26 485 hectares. Mokala is the Setswana name for the magnificent camel thorn, a tree species typical of the arid western interior...

  • People of Kimberley
    People of Kimberley
    This is a list of the famous and notable people from Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa.-List of famous people from Kimberley, Northern Cape:-B:* Frances Baard, trade-unionist who grew up in Kimberley - and after whom the District Municipality is named....



External links

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