Kemenche
Overview
 
The term kemenche or kamāncha ' onMouseout='HidePop("18998")' href="/topics/Armenian_language">Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Encyclopedia
The term kemenche or kamāncha ' onMouseout='HidePop("18998")' href="/topics/Armenian_language">Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

: քամանչա k’amanča, Laz
Laz language
The Laz language is a South Caucasian language spoken by the Laz people on the Southeast shore of the Black Sea...

: Ç'ilili - ჭილილი, Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

: kamança, , Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

: کمانچه, Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

: kemençe), is used to describe two types of three-stringed bowed
Bow (music)
In music, a bow is moved across some part of a musical instrument, causing vibration which the instrument emits as sound. The vast majority of bows are used with string instruments, although some bows are used with musical saws and other bowed idiophones....

 musical instrument
Musical instrument
A musical instrument is a device created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can serve as a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates back to the...

s:
  1. a bottle-shaped lute
    Lute
    Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes....

    , closely related to the Cappadocian Kemane, found in the Black Sea region
    Black Sea Region
    The Black Sea Region is one of Turkey's seven census-defined geographical regions . It is bordered by the Marmara Region to the west, the Central Anatolia Region to the south, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the southeast, the Republic of Georgia to the northeast, and the Black Sea to the north.-...

     of Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    , it is also known as the "kementche of Laz
    Laz people
    The Laz are an ethnic group native to the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia...

    ",Pontic kemenche or Iklık and
  2. a pear-shaped bowl lyre known as Classical kemenche (Turkish
    Turkish language
    Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

    : Armudî kemençe), found mainly in Istanbul
    Istanbul
    Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

     and the Eastern regions of Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

     that is closely related to the Greek
    Greek language
    Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

    : Byzantine lyra
    Byzantine lyra
    The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

    , (Turkish
    Turkish language
    Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

    : Rum Kemençesi).


Both types of kemenche are played in the downright position, either by resting it on the knee when sitting, or held in front of the player when standing. It is always played "braccio", that is, with the tuning head uppermost. The kemenche bow is called the yay and the doksar , the Greek term for bow.

Etymology

Its name derives from the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 Kamancheh
Kamancheh
The kamānche or kamāncha is a Persian bowed string instrument related to the bowed rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed lira of the Byzantine Empire, ancestor of the European violin family. The strings are played with a variable-tension bow: the word "kamancheh"...

, the name is Persian and means merely "small bow". The classical kamancheh developed from its folk equivalent–and there’s still a lively tradition of folk kamancheh in Iran today. The Turkish
Turkish folk music
Turkish folk music combines the distinct cultural values of all civilisations that have lived in Anatolia and the Ottoman territories in Europe and Asia...

 Karadeniz kemençe is played in the Black Sea Region
Black Sea Region
The Black Sea Region is one of Turkey's seven census-defined geographical regions . It is bordered by the Marmara Region to the west, the Central Anatolia Region to the south, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the southeast, the Republic of Georgia to the northeast, and the Black Sea to the north.-...

 of Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. Al-Kādirī, in his classification of musical instruments, mentioned the kemandje similar to the Arabic rabab and the Byzantine lyra
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

 (Margaret J. Kartomi, 1990). In Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and the Pontic Greek diaspora, it is known as the lyra
Lyre
The lyre is a stringed musical instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later. The word comes from the Greek "λύρα" and the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists", written in Linear B syllabic script...

 or the "kementzes", it is the main instrument used in Pontic
Pontic Greeks
The Pontians are an ethnic group traditionally living in the Pontus region, the shores of Turkey's Black Sea...

 music. The kemence or Greek Pontian lyra, is very windspread musical instrument in Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

.

Classical Kemenche

The kemençe of Turkish classical music (Armudî kemençe) is a small instrument closely related to the Byzantine lyra
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

(Turkish: Rum kemençe), 40-41 cm in length and 14-15 cm wide. Its pear-shaped body, elliptical pegbox and neck are fashioned from a single piece of wood. Its sound-board has two D-shaped soundholes of some 4x3 cm, approximately 25 mm apart, the rounded side facing outwards. The bridge is placed between, one side resting on the face of the instrument and the other on the sound post. A small hole 3-4 mm in diameter is bored in the back, directly below the bridge, and a ‘back channel’ (‘sırt oluğu’) begins from a triangular raised area (‘mihrap’) which is an extension of the neck, widens in the middle, and ends in a point near the tailpiece (“kuyruk takozu”) to which the gut or metal strings are attached. There is no nut to equalize the vibrating lengths of the strings.

The pegs, which are 14-15 cm long, form a triangle on the head, the middle string being 37-40 mm longer than the strings to either side of it. The vibrating lengths of the short strings are 25.5-26 cm. All the strings are of gut but the yegâh string is silver-wound. Today players may use synthetic racquet strings, aluminium-wound gut, synthetic silk or chromed steel violin strings.

Formerly the head, neck and back channel might be inlaid with ivory, mother-of-pearl or tortoise shell. Some kemençes made for the palace or mansions by great makers such as Büyük İzmitli or Baron had their backs and even the edges of the sound holes completely covered with such inlays with engraved and inlaid motifs.

Kemenche of the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey

The kemenche ( ke'mentʃe), lately often called Iklık by Cuman-Kipchak Turks, Ç'ilili by Laz
Laz
Laz may refer to the Laz people, who live by the Black Sea, or to their language. As a given name, Laz may be a diminutive for Lazar, Lazarus, Lazaro, or Lazaros...

es and the Pontic lyre, used by the Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 of the Black Sea, is related to the Cappadocian Kemane, the European rebec and even the later dancing master’s kit
Kit
-Animals:* kit, a young ferret* a short form of kitten, a young cat* Kit fox, a relatively common North American fox* Kit, a group of domestic pigeons trained to perform together in competitions-Companies and organisations:...

 or pochette fiddle. While many folk fiddles from Southeastern Europe to the Indian sub-continent, including the Indian sarangi and the Bulgarian gadulka, are fingered by pressure of the finger nails of the left hand against the strings, there are others whose strings are depressed onto the neck of the instrument by the player’s finger pads in the way violin
Violin
The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

 strings are pressed, such as the large Cappadocia
Cappadocia
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province.In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine...

n kemane (see below and the kemenche. The kemenche may be a development of an instrument which had an elongated water gourd for its body.
The center of Kemenche playing activity seems to have been the district of Trabzon
Trabzon
Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast...

 and the contiguous areas of the districts to the west and east of it as well as to the south, Giresun
Giresun
Giresun is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about west of the city of Trabzon.-Etymology:...

, Rize
Rize
Rize is the capital of Rize Province, in northeast Turkey, on the Black Sea coast.-Etymology:The name comes from Greek or Ριζαίον , meaning "mountain slopes". In modern times, its name in Greek was usually Ριζούντα . Its Latin forms are Rhizus and Rhizaeum...

, and Gümüşhane
Gümüshane
-Features:Gümüşhane has a rich historical background so there are many historical places, mosques, churches, castles. Ancient city of Satala in the modern village of Sadak was the most important military camp of the ancient Roman Empire in the east. This place was ruled by the Hittites, Assyrians,...

, whose main town had been called Arghyrόpolis. Also, Görele
Görele
Görele is a town and a district of Giresun Province on the Black Sea coast of eastern Turkey. The population is 16,033 as of 2010.-Etymology:The name derives from the Italian for coral as the Genoese named the area La Coralla.-Geography:...

 is a very important centre of kemençe. Every year, kemençe festivals held in Görele
Görele
Görele is a town and a district of Giresun Province on the Black Sea coast of eastern Turkey. The population is 16,033 as of 2010.-Etymology:The name derives from the Italian for coral as the Genoese named the area La Coralla.-Geography:...

. West past Tirebolu
Tirebolu
-Geography:Tirebolu itself is a small town of 14,303 people located on the hill named Ayana which rises from the Black Sea shore just to the west of the Harşit River estuary...

 towards Giresun
Giresun
Giresun is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about west of the city of Trabzon.-Etymology:...

 (Ancient name: Kerasounta), the number of kemençe players begins to decrease and the lute as well as the violin (keman) and tambourine
Tambourine
The tambourine or marine is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all....

 (tef) begin playing a more important role. Further west into the districts of the Ordu
Ordu
Ordu 'army') is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, and the capital of Ordu Province. Estimated population c. 2010: 141,341.-Etymology:...

 and before reaching the town of Samsun
Samsun
Samsun is a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port.-Name:...

  the kemençe has virtually disappeared. East of Trabzon, after Rize, the kemence faces competition from the bagpipes
Bagpipes
Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes of many different types come from...

 (Karadeniz tulum
Tulum (bagpipe)
The tulum is a musical instrument, a form of bagpipe from Turkey. It is droneless with two parallel chanters, usually played by the Laz, Hamsheni people, and Pontic Greeks...

).

Tuning

In classical use the three strings are usually tuned to the tonic, fourth and octave (yegâh (low re), rast (sol) and neva (high re)). Other common tunings include: tonic-octave-high fourth, low fifth-tonic-fourth and many others based on perfect fourths. Since the instrument was often played alone, the tuning was often done according to the preference of the musician and his voice's range.

The musicians usually play two or all three strings at the same time, utilizing the open string(s) as a drone. Sometimes they play the melody on two strings, giving a harmony in parallel fourths. They tend to play with many trills and embellishments and with unusual harmonies.

Related Instruments

Instruments known as Kabak, Cepane, Kemane, Igil
Igil
An igil is a two-stringed Tuvan musical instrument, played by bowing the strings. The neck and lute-shaped sound box are usually made of a solid piece of pine or larch. The top of the sound box may be covered with skin or a thin wooden plate...

, Rabab, the Hegit of Hatay province, the Rubab of Southeastern Turkey, the Kamancha of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 and the Ghaychak
Ghaychak
The Ghaychak or Ghijak is a round-bodied musical instrument with 3 or 4 metal strings and a short fretless neck. It is used by Iranians, Afghans, Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Tajiks, Turkmens and Qaraqalpaks....

, (Gicak, Giccek, Gijek, Gıçek, or Cicak), as well as the Aylı Kopuz and the Igil
Igil
An igil is a two-stringed Tuvan musical instrument, played by bowing the strings. The neck and lute-shaped sound box are usually made of a solid piece of pine or larch. The top of the sound box may be covered with skin or a thin wooden plate...

, Iklig, Kiyak, Yık, Iyık or Ik among the central Asian Turks all come from the same origins. The Kobyz
Kobyz
The Kobyz or kyl-kobyz is an ancient Kazakh string instrument. It has two strings made of horsehair. The resonating cavity is usually covered with goat leather....

 is of special interest as it, like the Kemenche, has a body entirely of wood.

The Kemane is a musical instrument from the area of Ata-Pazar-Poulantzaki-Ortou-Kerasounta in the Black Sea, played by Kapadokes (the people whose origins are located in Kappadokia (a wide area in Asia Minor). Its tuning is in fifths and it is without sympathetic strings. Kabak kemane is an instrument without frets and produces chromatic sounds easily, a bowed Turkish folk instrument that shows variation according to region.

The body, or tekne, is generally made from a vegetable gourd but wooden ones are also common. The neck is made from hardwood, and the fingerboard is not fretted. A thin wooden or metal rod extends from the lower end of the body, and this rests on the player's knee. This enables the player to move the instrument while playing.

The wooden bow has horse hair attached, which is drawn across the strings to produce sound. Traditionally, gut strings called kiriş were used, but modern day instruments use steel strings. The instrument may also be played by plucking the strings.

The Chuniri is the Georgian spiked bowed lute with horsehair strings. It consists of body cut out of a whole piece of fir or pine wood with neck attached, of birch or oak, on which the head has two or three holes for tuning pegs. Its open side is covered with leather. A Rachian Chianuri has a boat-like body and two strings a major third apart , while Khevsuretian and Tushetian Chianuris have round bodies and three strings tuned to the first, second and third. The musician touches the strings with finger-pads without touching the neck, giving the Chianuri a flageolet sound. The bow touches all strings simultaneously.

The lyra
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

(Latin: lira) of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 was pear-shaped bowed string instrument similar instrument to the Arab rebab
Rebab
The rebab , also rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababah, or al-rababa) is a type of string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East...

, considered as the ancestor of many European bowed instruments such as the rebec
Rebec
The rebecha is a bowed string musical instrument. In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings and is played on the arm or under the chin, like a violin.- Origins :The rebec dates back to the Middle Ages and was particularly popular in the 15th and 16th centuries...

 and the fiddle
Fiddle
The term fiddle may refer to any bowed string musical instrument, most often the violin. It is also a colloquial term for the instrument used by players in all genres, including classical music...

 (Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009). The Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih
Ibn Khordadbeh
Abu'l Qasim Ubaid'Allah ibn Khordadbeh , author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography, was a Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century...

 (d. 911) was the first to describe the Byzantine lyra
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

 as a typical Byzantine instrument (Margaret J. Kartomi, 1990). Lyra is common until today, in variations, through a vast area of the Mediterranean and the Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

. Examples are the Bulgarian Gadulka
Gadulka
The gadulka is a traditional Bulgarian bowed string instrument. Alternate spellings are "gudulka" and "g'dulka". Its name comes from a root meaning "to make noise, hum or buzz"...

, the Calabrian Lira
Calabrian lira
The Calabrian Lira is a traditional musical instrument characteristic of some areas of Calabria, region in southern Italy.- Characteristics :The Lira of Calabria is a bowed string instrument with three strings...

 in Italy and the lyra of Crete
Crete
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

, which is closely related to the bowed Byzantine lyra
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

 (9th. century-Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih
Ibn Khordadbeh
Abu'l Qasim Ubaid'Allah ibn Khordadbeh , author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography, was a Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century...

,d. 911,Margaret J. Kartomi, 1990), and the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
The Dodecanese are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the Southern Sporades island group...

, constitute of a terminological survival relating to the performing method of the ancient Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 instrument, lyre
Lyre
The lyre is a stringed musical instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later. The word comes from the Greek "λύρα" and the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists", written in Linear B syllabic script...

. The Calabrian Lira
Calabrian lira
The Calabrian Lira is a traditional musical instrument characteristic of some areas of Calabria, region in southern Italy.- Characteristics :The Lira of Calabria is a bowed string instrument with three strings...

 is an Italian folk fiddle with a short neck, built from one piece of solid wood, with a pear-shaped back and three bowel chords. A common instrument in southern Italy: in Calabria there are several different sizes and forms.

Vielle
Vielle
The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs. The instrument was also known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French...

, vihuela
Vihuela
Vihuela is a name given to two different guitar-like string instruments: one from 15th and 16th century Spain, usually with 12 paired strings, and the other, the Mexican vihuela, from 19th century Mexico with five strings and typically played in Mariachi bands.-History:The vihuela, as it was known...

, viol and fiddle
. The vielle was, like the rebec
Rebec
The rebecha is a bowed string musical instrument. In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings and is played on the arm or under the chin, like a violin.- Origins :The rebec dates back to the Middle Ages and was particularly popular in the 15th and 16th centuries...

, one of the most common bowed instruments in Europe during the later Middle Ages. While the instrument's origins are hard to pinpoint, the bow appears to have been used in Spain and Italy in the tenth century, based on the practice in Arab (rebab
Rebab
The rebab , also rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababah, or al-rababa) is a type of string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East...

) and Byzantine countries (lira
Byzantine lyra
The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

).

The kamaicha is of special interest as it connects the Indian subcontinent to western Asia. The kamaicha is a bowed lyre of the Monghniar people of west Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 which borders on the Sind province, now in Pakistan. The whole instrument is one piece of wood, the spherical bowl extended into a neck and fingerboard; the resonator is covered with leather and the upper portion with wood. There are four strings which are the main ones and there are a number of subsidiary ones passing over a thin bridge.
The Lijerica
Lijerica
The lijerica is a musical instrument from Hercegovina and the Croatian region of Dalmatia. It is a pear-shaped, three-stringed instrument which is played with a bow. It is played to accompany the traditional linđo dance from the region...

- A Traditional Musical Instrument of the Croatian Adriatic. Among traditional Croatian musical instruments, an exceptional place is held by a string instrument know in the Adriatic area as the lira, lirica or, in the southern, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

, area as the lijerica. It is a solo instrument whichmost often accompanies a dance, less frequently singing. This instrument was user by traditional performers in north-eastern Istria, on the northAdriatic islands (in particular on Losinj, Rab, Silba, and Olib), on all of the Dalmatian islands, around Makarska, in the Neretva valley, aroundDubrovnik, on the Peljesac peninsula, in the Zupa and the Konavli.

Notable kemençe virtuosi

  • Tuzcuoğlu Mehmet Ali
    Tuzcuoğlu Mehmet Ali
    Tuzcuoğlu Mehmet Ali in Turkish was a Turkish kemençe player and horon music composer from Görele in Giresun province. He is considered to be "the best kemenche player ever" by most of the people in the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey.- Early life :There are a few sources and records...

     (considered the best kemençe player ever.)
  • Kodalak Halil Agha
  • Picoğlu Osman
    Picoğlu Osman
    Picoğlu Osman was a Turkish kemençe player from the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey. He was also a famous composer and he is thought to be one of the best kemençe players.- Early life :He was born to a Chepni Turkish family in Görele...

  • Katip Şadi
    Katip Şadi
    Katip Şadi is a kemençe player from the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey. He is a "Görele-style" player and he is thought to be one of the best living kemençe players in the Black Sea Region. He began playing kemençe at the age of 10. His kemençe tutor was Kemal İpşir. His first LP was released...

  • Bahattin Çamurali
  • Hüseyin Dilaver

See also

  • Byzantine lyra
    Byzantine lyra
    The Byzantine lyra or lira , was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire and is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping...

  • Cretan lyra
  • Gadulka
    Gadulka
    The gadulka is a traditional Bulgarian bowed string instrument. Alternate spellings are "gudulka" and "g'dulka". Its name comes from a root meaning "to make noise, hum or buzz"...

  • Gudok
    Gudok
    The gudok or hudok is an ancient Eastern Slavic string musical instrument, played with a bow.A gudok usually had three strings, two of them tuned in unison and played as a drone, the third tuned a fifth higher. All three strings were in the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them...

  • Ghaychak
    Ghaychak
    The Ghaychak or Ghijak is a round-bodied musical instrument with 3 or 4 metal strings and a short fretless neck. It is used by Iranians, Afghans, Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Tajiks, Turkmens and Qaraqalpaks....

  • Gusle
    Gusle
    The Gusle is a single-stringed musical instrument traditionally used in the Dinarides region of the Balkans ....

  • Rebab
    Rebab
    The rebab , also rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababah, or al-rababa) is a type of string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East...

  • Kamancheh
    Kamancheh
    The kamānche or kamāncha is a Persian bowed string instrument related to the bowed rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed lira of the Byzantine Empire, ancestor of the European violin family. The strings are played with a variable-tension bow: the word "kamancheh"...

  • Kobyz
    Kobyz
    The Kobyz or kyl-kobyz is an ancient Kazakh string instrument. It has two strings made of horsehair. The resonating cavity is usually covered with goat leather....

  • Rebec
    Rebec
    The rebecha is a bowed string musical instrument. In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings and is played on the arm or under the chin, like a violin.- Origins :The rebec dates back to the Middle Ages and was particularly popular in the 15th and 16th centuries...

  • igil
    Igil
    An igil is a two-stringed Tuvan musical instrument, played by bowing the strings. The neck and lute-shaped sound box are usually made of a solid piece of pine or larch. The top of the sound box may be covered with skin or a thin wooden plate...

  • Byzaanchy
    Byzaanchy
    The byzaanchy is a four-stringed vertical spike fiddle used in the traditional music of Tuva. It is similar to the Chinese sihu. However, the byzaanchys soundbox is generally made of wood whereas the sihu usually has a metal soundbox...

  • Huqin
    Huqin
    Huqin is a family of bowed string instruments, more specifically, a spike fiddle popularly used in Chinese music. The instruments consist of a round, hexagonal, or octagonal sound box at the bottom with a neck attached that protrudes upwards...

  • Violin family
    Violin family
    The violin family of musical instruments was developed in Italy in the sixteenth century. The standard modern violin family consists of the violin, viola, cello, and double bass....


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