Kandy
Overview
 
Kandy is a city in the center of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

. It was the last capital of the ancient kings' era of Sri Lanka. The city lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, which crosses an area of tropical plantations, mainly tea. Kandy is one of the most scenic cities in Sri Lanka; it is both an administrative and religious city. It is the capital of the Central Province (which encompasses the districts of Kandy, Matale
Matale District
Matale District is a district in Central Province, Sri Lanka. Its area is 1,987 km².- Demographics :The population according to 2001 census is 441,328. 80.1 % of the population are Sinhalese, 8.7 % Sri Lankan Moors, 5.5 % native Sri Lankan tamils and 5.3 % tamils of...

 and Nuwara Eliya
Nuwara Eliya District
Nuwara Eliya District is a district in Central Province, Sri Lanka. Its area is 1,228 km². Nuwara Eliya town is a tourist attraction.-Demographics:...

) and also of Kandy District
Kandy District
Kandy District is a district of the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Its area is 1906.3 km². The capital of the district is Kandy.- Demographics :...

.
Encyclopedia
Kandy is a city in the center of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

. It was the last capital of the ancient kings' era of Sri Lanka. The city lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, which crosses an area of tropical plantations, mainly tea. Kandy is one of the most scenic cities in Sri Lanka; it is both an administrative and religious city. It is the capital of the Central Province (which encompasses the districts of Kandy, Matale
Matale District
Matale District is a district in Central Province, Sri Lanka. Its area is 1,987 km².- Demographics :The population according to 2001 census is 441,328. 80.1 % of the population are Sinhalese, 8.7 % Sri Lankan Moors, 5.5 % native Sri Lankan tamils and 5.3 % tamils of...

 and Nuwara Eliya
Nuwara Eliya District
Nuwara Eliya District is a district in Central Province, Sri Lanka. Its area is 1,228 km². Nuwara Eliya town is a tourist attraction.-Demographics:...

) and also of Kandy District
Kandy District
Kandy District is a district of the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Its area is 1906.3 km². The capital of the district is Kandy.- Demographics :...

. Kandy is the home of The Temple of the Tooth Relic (Sri Dalada Maligawa), one of the most venerable places for the Buddhist community of Sri Lanka and all around the world. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 in 1988.

Toponymy

The city and the region has been known by many different names and versions of those names. Some scholars suggest that the original name of Kandy was Katubulu Nuwara located near present Watapuluwa
Watapuluwa
Watapuluwa is a village in Sri Lanka. It is located within Central Province.-External links:*...

. However the more popular historical name is Senkadagala or Senkadagalapura. According to folklore this name originated from one of the several possible sources. One being the city was named after a brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

 with the name Senkanda who lived in a cave near by, and another being a queen of Vikramabahu III was named Senkanda, and after a coloured stone named Senkadagala. The Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy was an important independent monarchy of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island. It was founded in late 15th century and endured until the early 19th century...

 has also been known by varius names. The present name Kandy is derived from an anglicized version of the Sinhalese Kanda Uda Rata (meaning the land on the mountain) originated during the colonial era. The Portuguese shortened this to "Candea", using the name for both the kingdom and its capital Senkadagalapura. In Sinhalese, Kandy is called Maha Nuvara, meaning "Great City" or "Capital", although this is most often shortened to Nuvara, pronounced Nuwara.

Founding

Historical records suggest that Kandy was first established by the Vikramabahu III (1357–1374 CE), who was the monarch of the Kingdom of Gampola, near the Watapuluwa
Watapuluwa
Watapuluwa is a village in Sri Lanka. It is located within Central Province.-External links:*...

 area, north of the present city, and named Senkadagalapura at the time.

Early years and as a capital

Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu
Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu of Kandy
Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu was King of Kandy from 1473 to 1511. He ruled the Kingdom of Kandy as a semi-independent kingdom under the Kingdom of Kotte. He was from the Kotte Royal Blood line and his son Jayaweera Astana was his successor.-External links:* *...

 (1473–1511) was the first king of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy was an important independent monarchy of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island. It was founded in late 15th century and endured until the early 19th century...

, he was a royal from the Kotte Royal Blood line and ruled Kandy as a semi-independent kingdom under the Kingdom of Kotte
Kingdom of Kotte
The Kingdom of Kotte , centred on Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century. Its king was the last native sovereign to unify all of Sri Lanka under one rule. -Etymology:The term Kotte means fortress in Sinhalese...

, making it the new capital of the Kandyan Kingdom. Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu was followed by his son Jayaweera Astana
Jayaweera Astana of Kandy
Jayaweera Astana was King of Kandy in the sixteenth century, who ruled from 1511 to 1551. He succeeded his father Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu as king of Kandy and was succeeded by his son Karaliyadde Bandara.-External links:* * *...

 (1511–1551) and then by Karaliyadde Bandara
Karaliyadde Bandara of Kandy
Karaliyadde Bandara was King of Kandy in the sixteenth century, who ruled from 1551 to 1581. He succeeded his father Jayaweera Astana as king of Kandy and was succeeded by his daughter Dona Catherina, also known as Kusumasana Devi.-External links:* * *...

 (1551–1581) who was succeeded by he daughter Dona Catherina of Kandy
Dona Catherina of Kandy
Dona Catherina was King of Kandy in the sixteenth century, who ruled in 1581. She succeeded her father Karaliyadde Bandara as king of Kandy. She was deposed by Rajasinha I of the Kingdom of Sitawaka in the same year she took the throne.-External links:* * *...

 (1581-1581). Dona Catherina was succeeded by Rajasinha I. Rajasinha I however, preferred to rule the hill country from the Kingdom of Sitawaka
Kingdom of Sitawaka
The Kingdom of Sitawaka was a kingdom located in south-central Sri Lanka. It emerged from the division of the kingdom of Kotte following the Spoiling of Vijayabahu in 1521, and over the course of the next seventy years came to dominate much of the island. Sitawaka also offered fierce resistance to...

 on the west of the island. A period of turmoil for power ended with the ascent to the throne by Konappu Bandara who came to be known as Vimaladharmasuriya I. Vimaladharmasuriya I having embraced Buddhism consolidated his authority further by bringing the tooth relic of the Lord Buddha
Relic of the tooth of the Buddha
The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha is venerated in Sri Lanka as a relic of the founder of Buddhism.-The relic in India:...

 to Kandy from a place called Delgamuwa.

In 1592 Kandy became the capital city of the last remaining independent kingdom
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy was an important independent monarchy of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island. It was founded in late 15th century and endured until the early 19th century...

 in the island after the coastal regions had been conquered by the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

. Several invasions by the Portuguese and the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 (16th, 17th and 18th century) and later by the British
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 (most notably in 1803) were repelled.

The kingdom tolerated a Dutch presence on the coast of Sri Lanka, although attacks were occasionally launched. The most ambitious offensive was undertaken in 1761, when King Kirti Sri Rajasinha attacked and overran most of the coast, leaving only the heavily fortified Negombo
Negombo
Negombo is a town of about 121,933, approximately 37 km north of Colombo, in Sri Lanka. It is located at the mouth of the Negombo Lagoon, about 7 km from the Bandaranaike International Airport...

 intact. When a Dutch retaliatory force returned to the island in 1763, Kirti Sri Rajasinha abandoned the coastline and withdrew into the interior. When the Dutch continued to the jungles the next year, they were constantly harassed by disease, heat, lack of provisions, and Kandyan sharpshooters, who hid in the jungle and inflicted heavy losses on the Dutch.

The Dutch launched a better adapted force in January of 1765, replacing their troops' bayonets with machetes and using more practical uniforms and tactics suited to jungle warfare. The Dutch were initially successful in capturing the capital, which was deserted, and the Kandyans withdrew to the jungles once more, refusing to engage in open battle. However, the Dutch were again worn down by constant attrition. A peace treaty was signed in 1766. The Dutch remained in control of the coastal areas until 1796, when Great Britain took them over (while the Netherlands under French control) as part of the Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

. British possession of these areas was formalized with the treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 , by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace"...

 in 1802. The next year the British also invaded Kandy in what became known as the First Kandyan War, but were repulsed.

As the capital, Kandy had become home to the relic of the tooth of the Buddha
Relic of the tooth of the Buddha
The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha is venerated in Sri Lanka as a relic of the founder of Buddhism.-The relic in India:...

 which symbolizes a 4th-century tradition that used to be linked to the Sinhalese
Sinhala Kingdom
Sinhala was a kingdom in the island Lanka, modern day Sri Lanka, mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. From 'Sinhala Diva' are derived the Tamil 'Eelam', Persian/Arabic Serendipor Sarandib, and the European 'Ceilao', 'Zeylan' and 'Ceylon'....

 monarchy, since the protector of the relic was the ruler of the land. Thus the Royal Palace and the Temple of the Tooth were placed in close proximity to each other.

The last ruling dynasty of Kandy were the Nayaks
Nayaks of Kandy
The Nayaks of Kandy were the rulers of Sri Lanka with Kandy as their capital from 1739 to 1815. They were also the last dynasty to rule Sri Lanka. They were related to the Madurai Nayak dynasty and to the Tanjore Nayak dynasty...

. Kandy stayed independent until the early 19th century. In the Second Kandyan War, the British launched an invasion that met no resistance and reached the city on February 10, 1815. On March 2, 1815, a treaty known as the Kandyan Convention
Kandyan Convention
The Kandyan Convention was an agreement in 1815 between the British and the Chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom, in Sri Lanka for the deposition of rule King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha. The king who was of Telugu ancestry faced powerful opposition from the Sinhalese chieftains who sought to reduce his power...

 was signed between the British and the Radala
Radala
The Radala refer to an extremely small minority caste in the Kandyan Kingdom of Sri Lanka. They were the aristocracy of the Kandyan Kingdom. After capturing the Kandyan provinces in 1815 with the aid of locals from both maritime and Kandyan provinces, the British created an extensive class of loyal...

s (Kandyan aristocrats). With this treaty, Kandy recognized the King of England as its King and became a British protectorate. The last king of the kingdom Sri Vikrama Rajasinha
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was the last king of Ceylon and the last of four kings from the Telugu origin of Nayakar dynasty...

 was captured and taken as a royal prisoner by the British to Vellore Fort
Vellore Fort
Vellore Fort is a large 16th-century fort situated in Vellore city near Chennai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The Fort was at one point of time the headquarters of the Vijayanagara Empire...

 in southern India along with all claimants to the throne.

Colonial

During the British period
British Ceylon
British Ceylon refers to British rule prior to 1948 of the island territory now known as Sri Lanka.-From the Dutch to the British:Before the beginning of the Dutch governance, the island of Ceylon was divided between the Portuguese Empire and the Kingdom of Kandy, who were in the midst of a war for...

 in Sri Lanka the history of Kandy and it's townscape witnessed rapid and drastic change and particularly after the Uva Rebellion
Uva Rebellion
The Great Rebellion of 1817-1818, also known as the 1818 Uva-Wellassa Uprising, , or simply the Uva Rebellion was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka...

. Sir Lowry is noted for recording in his Gazetteer "The story of English rule in the Kandyan country during the rebellion of 1818 cannot be related without shame...Hardly a member of the leading families remained alive...Those whom the sword and the gun had spared, cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

 and small pox and privations had slain by the hundreds...Others became ignorant and apathetic. Any subsequent development efforts of the government for many years were only attempts begun and abandoned".

The first time Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 fully fell into the hands of a foreign power was in Kandy with the signing of the Kandyan Convention
Kandyan Convention
The Kandyan Convention was an agreement in 1815 between the British and the Chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom, in Sri Lanka for the deposition of rule King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha. The king who was of Telugu ancestry faced powerful opposition from the Sinhalese chieftains who sought to reduce his power...

 in 1815 at the Sri Dalada Maligawa. The king, Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy who was of South Indian ancestry faced powerful opposition from the Sinhalese chieftains and sought to reduce his power. A successful coup was organized by the Sinhalese chieftains in which they accepted the British crown as their new king. This ended over 2500 years of Sri Lankan monarchs and the line of Kandyan monarchs and Rajasinha was taken as prisoner. By 2 March 1815 the islands sovereignty was under that of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

. The treaty was not signed by the deposed King but by members of his court and other dignitaries of the Kandyan Kingdom.

In 1848 led by Gongalegoda Banda
Gongalegoda Banda
Wansapurna Dewage David alias Gongale Goda Banda was the leader of the 1848 Rebellion, pretender to the throne of Kandy and a National Hero of Sri Lanka.-Early life:...

 and Puran Appu
Puran Appu
Weerahennadige Francisco Fernando alias Puran Appu is one of the notable personalities in Sri Lanka's history. He was born on November 1812 in the coastal town of Moratuwa. He left Moratuwa at the age of 13 and stayed in Ratnapura with his uncle, who was the first Sinhalese proctor, and moved to...

 saw the rebellion known as the Matale Rebellion
Matale Rebellion
The Matale Rebellion, also known as the Rebellion of 1848 took place in Ceylon against the British colonial government under Governor Lord Torrington, 7th Viscount Torrington. It marked a transition from the classic feudal form of anti-colonial revolt to modern independence struggles...

. Prior to that the city and the country had been under British rule for 32 years, in which the British had expropriated the common land of the peasantry and reduced them to extreme poverty. The Kandyan villagers were forced to abandon their traditional way of life and become wage-workers in the abominable conditions that prevailed on these new estates and plantations that had been introduced, despite all the pressure exerted by the colonials the kandyans refused. This forced the British to bring in hundreds of thousands of Tamil
Tamil people
Tamil people , also called Tamils or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 15th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada,...

 coolie
Coolie
Historically, a coolie was a manual labourer or slave from Asia, particularly China, India, and the Phillipines during the 19th century and early 20th century...

s from southern India.
The Rebellion began on the 26 July 1848 with Gongalegoda Banda, crowned as king, and Puran Appu, as prime minister, and their main objective to capture Kandy back from the British. The Matale Rebellion was a peasant revolt in the hands of the Common people
Common People
"Common People" is a song by English alternative rock band Pulp. It was released as a single in 1995, reaching number two on the UK singles chart. It also appears on the band's 1995 album Different Class. The song is about those who were perceived by the songwriter as wanting to be "like common...

, the Kandyan leadership being totally wiped out after the Uva Rebellion
Uva Rebellion
The Great Rebellion of 1817-1818, also known as the 1818 Uva-Wellassa Uprising, , or simply the Uva Rebellion was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka...

, marked the first step in a transition from the classic feudal form of anti-colonial revolt to modern independence struggles. The leadership was for the first time passed from the Kandyan provinces into the hands of ordinary people or non-aristocrats.

In 1944, during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the South East Asia Command
South East Asia Command
South East Asia Command was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II.-Background:...

 of the allies was moved to Kandy, where it remained till the end of the war.

Modern and contemporary

It is the second-largest city of the island and the capital of Central Province of modern Sri Lanka. Its geographic location has made it a major transportation hub in the island: while Kandy being the gateway to the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka, the city can be reached by major motorways in every direction of the island. The railway line from Colombo, the sea port on the western coast runs via Kandy to the farthest point of Badulla in the Central Highlands. The main roads Colombo-Kandy and Kandy-Nuwara Eliya are two of the most scenic roads of Sri Lanka; Colombo-Kandy road passes through rubber plantations and rice paddies, Kandy-Nuwara Eliya road cuts through paddy fields and seamless tea plantations. Both roads claw their way up winding, rounding over the rings of hills. Currently feasibility studies are afoot for another highway between Colombo and Kandy via Kadawata and the scenic city of Katugastota.

Government

The Kandy Municipal Council
Kandy Municipal Council
The Kandy Municipal Council is the local council for Kandy, the second largest city and hill capital of Sri Lanka. The council was formed under the Municipalities Ordinance of 1865 and first met in 1866. The municipal council is the second oldest and largest local government authority in Sri Lanka...

 governs the City of Kandy, it was established under the Municipalities Ordinance of 1865. The inaugural meeting had been held on 20 March 1866. The Kandy Town Hall
Kandy Town Hall
The Town Hall of Kandy is the headquarters of the Kandy Municipal Council and the office of the Mayor of Kandy. The mansion known as the Dunuwille Walawwe was taken up by the Municipal Council in 1870 as the city's Town Hall. Today it houses the administrative staff of the municipal...

 was established in the present premises known as the Dunuwille Walawwe in 1870.

The Government Agent
Government Agent
A function called Government Agent exist or existed in the past in several countries, such as* Sri Lanka - see Government Agent * Canada - see Government Agent...

 of the Central Province had presided over the council until 1939 when the Mayor was elected. The first elected mayor was Sir Cuda Ratwatte
Cuda Ratwatte
Adigar Sir Cuda Ratwatte was a Ceylonese, the first elected mayor of Kandy and first person from Kandy to be awarded a knighthood from the British....

. With further amendments to the ordinance in 1978 the Mayor became the Executive Head whilst the Commissioner was the Administrative head.

Presently the Council consists of 24 members. The Governing Party, United National Party
United National Party
The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP ), , is a political party in Sri Lanka. It currently is the main opposition party in Sri Lanka and is headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe...

 has 14 and the opposition 10. The Council meets once a month to review the progress and decide on the implementation of its projects. Five standing committees of the Council, namely Finance, Law, Works, Sports and Welfare Services (Pre-Schools, Library), also meet monthly to evaluate and recommend to Council relative matters for approval.

Geography

Scope

The city of Kandy lies at an elevation of 465 metres (1,525.6 ft) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

. Its plan developed around two open spaces: an elongated square, at the end of which are the administration buildings of the old capital, and an artificial lake that is quadrangular in form. A public garden adds to the openness of the city's spatial organization.

On the north shore of the lake, which is enclosed by a parapet of white stone dating to the beginning of the 19th century, are the city's official religious monuments, including the Royal Palace and the Temple of the Tooth, known as the Dalada Maligawa (daḷadā māligāva). Reconstructed in the 18th century, the Dalanda Maligawa is built on a base of granite
Granite
Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite usually has a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic...

 that was inspired by the temple
Temple
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

s of Sri Lanka's former capital city, Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura, , is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization.The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies 205 km north of the current capital Colombo in Sri Lanka's North Central Province, on the banks of the historic...

. An array of materials (limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

, marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

, sculpted wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

, ivory
Ivory
Ivory is a term for dentine, which constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals, when used as a material for art or manufacturing. Ivory has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes, joint tubes, piano keys and...

, etc.) contribute to the richness of this temple. Throughout this small holy city, a number of recent Buddhist monasteries
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 can be found.

Kandy has now grown out to encompass Peradeniya
Peradeniya
Peradeniya is a town of about 50,000 inhabitants on the outskirts of Kandy in Sri Lanka. It is situated on the A1 main road connecting Kandy and Colombo, just a few kilometres west of Kandy....

, home to the University of Peradeniya and the Botanical Gardens, Katugastota to the north, and east to Kundasale, Tennekumbura and Gurudeniya.

Topography

Kandy is located in the mountainous and thickly forested interior of the island. The city is located in between multiple mountain ranges including the Knuckles mountain range
Knuckles Mountain Range
The Knuckles Mountain Range lies in central Sri Lanka, north-east of the city of Kandy. The range takes its name from a series of recumbent folds and peaks in the west of the massif which resemble the knuckles of clenched fist when viewed from certain locations in the Kandy District...

 and the Hanthana Mountain Range, giving the city an elevation of 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

. It lies adjacent to the artificial Kandy Lake
Kandy Lake
Kandy Lake is a lake in the heart of the hill city of Kandy, Sri Lanka. Built in 1807 by King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Sri Lanka next to the Temple of the Tooth. Over the years it was reduced in size. Its is a protected lake, with fishing banned. There are many legends and folklore regarding the lake...

 and south of Udawatta Kele Sanctuary
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary, often spelled as Udawattakele, is a historic forest reserve on a hill-ridge in the city of Kandy. During the days of the Kandyan kingdom, Udawatta Kele was known as "Uda Wasala Watta" in Sinhalese meaning, "the garden situated above the royal palace". The sanctuary is...

.

Climate

With Kandy located in the centre of the island and in a high elevation, the city has a relatively wetter and cooler temperatures than that of the tropical climate of the rest of the country, especially the coastal regions. The city has its dry season from December through to April. From May through to July and December to January the region experiences its monsoon season, during this time the weather is rough and unstable. The island being in the northern hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

 gives Kandy it coldest month in January and its hottest in July. From March through the middle of May is the intermonsonsoonal period, during this time there is light rain and strong humidity. The humidity is generally between 70% to 79%.

Architecture

Palace of the Tooth relic
The monumental ensemble of Kandy is an example of construction that associates the Royal Palace and the The Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
Sri Dalada Maligawa or The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is located in the royal palace complex which houses the Relic of the tooth of Buddha. Since ancient times, the relic has played an important role in local politics because it is...

 (Palace of the tooth relic) is the place that houses the Relic of the tooth of the Buddha
Relic of the tooth of the Buddha
The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha is venerated in Sri Lanka as a relic of the founder of Buddhism.-The relic in India:...

. Originally part of the Royal Palace complex of the Kandyan Kingdom, it is one of the holiest places of worship and pilgrimage for Buddhist around the world. It was last of a series of temples built in the places where the relic, the actual palladium of the Sinhalese monarchy, was brought following the various relocations of the capital city.

The Palace of the Tooth relic, the palace complex and the holy city of Kandy are associated with the history of the dissemination of Buddhism. The temple is the product of the last peregrination of the relic of the tooth of Buddha and the testimony of a religion which continues to be practiced today.

Royal Palace
The Royal Palace of Kandy
Royal Palace of Kandy
The Royal Palace of Kandy in Kandy, is a the last royal residence of the Kingdom of Kandy and in Sri Lanka. The last King to reside in it was King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha until he was overthrown by the British in 1815 with the aid of Kandian chieftains...

 is the last Royal Palace built in the island. Although only part of the original palace complex remain. The Temple of the Tooth was part of this complex, due to the ancient tradition that stated that the monarch is the protector of the relic though which the ruler of the land. It today houses the National Museum Kandy which holds an extensive collection of artifacts from both the Kandy Kingdom and the British colonial rule.

Lankatilaka Temple
The Lankatilaka Temple is considered to be one of the best preserved examples of traditional Sinhalese temple architecture. Built on a rock, the temple is reached by a long series of rock cut steps. An arched passage of the image house leads through a Mandapa (hall) into the inner sanctum which is richly decorated with beautiful floral designs. The two side walls and the ceiling are decorated with paintings. In the inner sanctum is a colossal seated image of the Buddha.

Gadaladeniya Temple
The Gadaladeniya Temple's design is of South Indian origin with a Devale
Devale
Devale is a small village located in Poladpur Tehsil, in Raigad district, Maharashtra, India.It is closely surrounded by hills from Sahyadri Mountain Ranges and the river Savitri. You can have a beautiful view of Mahabaleshwar and Pratapgadh from this place.The village is formed by four small...

 attached to it, similar in character to the Natha Devale and the Gedige of Adahana Maluwa. The main shrine room has a seated Buddha statue and the remains of some paintings of the Gampola period.

Among other important temples around Kandy are Dodanwela Devale (shrine), Embakke Devale (shrine), Galmaduwa Vihara temple, Handagala Vihara temple, Lankatilaka Vihara, Medawala Vihara and Nalanda Gedige.

Parks and gardens

The Royal Botanical Garden, Peradeniya
Botanical Garden of Peradeniya
Royal Botanical Garden, Peradeniya is located close to the city of Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. It is renowned for its collection of a variety of orchids. It includes more than 300 varieties of orchids, spices, medicinal plants and palm trees. Attached to it is the National...

 is situated about 5 km to the west of the city centre at Peradeniya
Peradeniya
Peradeniya is a town of about 50,000 inhabitants on the outskirts of Kandy in Sri Lanka. It is situated on the A1 main road connecting Kandy and Colombo, just a few kilometres west of Kandy....

 and is visited by 1.2 million people per year. It is the largest botanical garden on the island.

The Udawatta Kele
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary, often spelled as Udawattakele, is a historic forest reserve on a hill-ridge in the city of Kandy. During the days of the Kandyan kingdom, Udawatta Kele was known as "Uda Wasala Watta" in Sinhalese meaning, "the garden situated above the royal palace". The sanctuary is...

 (Udawatta Forest) is a protected sanctuary situated in the heart of the city, just north of Temple of the Tooth. Known as "Uda Wasala Watta" in Sinhalese meaning, "the garden situated above the royal palace" it was designated as a forest reserve in 1856, and it became a sanctuary in 1938.

The Royal Palace Park
Wace Park
The Royal Palace Park, commonly known as Wace Park is a small park on top a small hill in the heart of the city of Kandy, that overlooks Kandy Lake and most of the city...

, known as Wace Park is a small park that overlooks Kandy Lake
Kandy Lake
Kandy Lake is a lake in the heart of the hill city of Kandy, Sri Lanka. Built in 1807 by King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Sri Lanka next to the Temple of the Tooth. Over the years it was reduced in size. Its is a protected lake, with fishing banned. There are many legends and folklore regarding the lake...

 and most of the city. In the park is a Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese field gun
Field gun
A field gun is an artillery piece. Originally the term referred to smaller guns that could accompany a field army on the march and when in combat could be moved about the battlefield in response to changing circumstances, as to opposed guns installed in a fort, or to siege cannon or mortars which...

 which was captured by the British 14th Army in Burma during World War II and presented to the city of Kandy by Lord Mountbatten
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS , was a British statesman and naval officer, and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

, Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre
South-East Asian theatre of World War II
The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in Burma , Ceylon, India, Thailand, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore. Conflict in the theatre began when the Empire of Japan invaded Thailand and Malaya from bases located in Indochina on December 8,...

.

Demographics

Kandy is a Sinhala
Sinhalese people
The Sinhalese are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group,forming the majority of Sri Lanka,constituting 74% of the Sri Lankan population.They number approximately 15 million worldwide.The Sinhalese identity is based on language, heritage and religion. The Sinhalese speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and the...

 majority city; there are sizable communities belonging to other ethnic groups, such as Moors
Sri Lankan Moors
The Sri Lankan Moors are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka comprising 8% of the country's total population . They are predominantly followers of Islam. The Moors trace their ancestry to Arab traders who settled in Sri Lanka some time between the 8th and 15th centuries...

 and Tamils.
EthnicityPopulation% Of Total
Sinhala
Sinhalese people
The Sinhalese are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group,forming the majority of Sri Lanka,constituting 74% of the Sri Lankan population.They number approximately 15 million worldwide.The Sinhalese identity is based on language, heritage and religion. The Sinhalese speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and the...

77,560 70.48
Sri Lankan Moors
Sri Lankan Moors
The Sri Lankan Moors are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka comprising 8% of the country's total population . They are predominantly followers of Islam. The Moors trace their ancestry to Arab traders who settled in Sri Lanka some time between the 8th and 15th centuries...

15,326 13.93
Sri Lankan Tamils 9,427 8.57
Indian Tamils
Indian Tamils
Indian Tamils may refer to:* Tamil people from or living in India* Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka...

5,245 4.77
Other (including Burgher
Burgher people
The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group, historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries and local women, with some minorities of Swedish, Norwegian, French and Irish.Today the mother tongue of the Burghers...

, Malay
Sri Lankan Malays
The Malays of Sri Lanka originated in Southeast Asia and today consist of about 50,000 people...

)
2,489 2.26
Total 110,049 100

Source:statistics.gov.lk

Religion

Kandy remains an important religious centre of the Sinhalese and a place of pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of great moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith...

 for Buddhists
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, namely those belonging to the Theravada
Theravada
Theravada ; literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching", is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in India...

 school.

Economy

Kandy is second only to Colombo
Colombo
Colombo is the largest city of Sri Lanka. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, the capital of Sri Lanka. Colombo is often referred to as the capital of the country, since Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is a satellite city of Colombo...

 as the center of the Sri Lankan economy. It is the second-largest city of the island and the capital of Central Province of Sri Lanka. Many major corporations have large branch offices in Kandy and many industries include textiles, furniture, information technology and jewellery are found there. Many agriculture research centers are located throughout the city.

Transport

Kandy has a public transport system based primarily on bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

es. The bus service is operated both by private companies and the government's own Sri Lanka Transport Board (SLTB).

Roads

A-Grade highways:
  • A1 highway (Kandy road) connects Colombo with Kandy.
  • A9 highway connects Jaffna with Kandy.
  • A26 highway connects Padiyathalawa with Kandy via Mahiyangana.
  • A10 highway connects Kurunegala
    Kurunegala
    Kurunegala , is the capital of the North Western Province, Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka and the Kurunegala District. Kurunegala was also an ancient royal capital for 50 years, from the end of the 13th century to the start of the 13th century. The town itself is a busy commercial and a transport hub...

     with Kandy via Katugastota.


High-speed expressways:
  • Colombo – Kandy high-speed elevated expressway running 115 km is currently under construction, providing a high-speed link between the two largest economic centers.

Rail

  • Matale Line of the Sri Lanka Railways
    Sri Lanka Railways
    Sri Lanka Railway Department, branded "Sri Lanka Railways", is a key department of the Sri Lankan Government under the Ministry of Transport with a history that begins in 1858...

     connects Kandy by way of Pradeniya and Matale
    Matale
    Matale is a town in the hill country of Sri Lanka, from Colombo and from Kandy. It is an area steeped in history and village living. The mayor of Matale is Hilmy Careem, as of May, 2006....

    . It connects to the Main Line that links Colombo and Badulla
    Badulla
    Badulla , is the capital of Uva Province, Sri Lanka. Badulla is located 60 km southeast of Kandy, almost encircled by the Badulu Oya River, about 680 metres above sea level and is surrounded by picturesque hills and mountains, most of which have tea plantations.-Geography:It is located on the...


Tertiary education

The county's second oldest university, University of Peradeniya
University of Peradeniya
The University of Peradeniya is a world renowned state university in Sri Lanka, funded by the University Grants Commission...

 is at Peradeniya
Peradeniya
Peradeniya is a town of about 50,000 inhabitants on the outskirts of Kandy in Sri Lanka. It is situated on the A1 main road connecting Kandy and Colombo, just a few kilometres west of Kandy....

,and The Open University of Sri Lanka Kandy Premises also a suburb of Kandy. The Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology
Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology
Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology , is a public technological university in Sri Lanka mainly focused on information technology established by the Government of Sri Lanka.The main campus is located in Malabe, 16 km from Colombo. It also has a metropolitan campus in Colombo, the...

 has a center in the city, which is rather insignificant. Most of the private sector higher educational institutions also have their branches in Kandy.

The Geology Department at the University of Peradeniya in Kandy is the only Earth Science Department in Sri Lanka, having grown out of the Faculty of Science, with a long and distinguished history.

Kandy is also home to the Institute of Fundamental Studies (IFS). IFS is the premier institute of basic and applied research in Sri Lanka. IFS also trains around 32 graduate students at any given time.

Primary and secondary education

Kandy is home to some of the island's oldest boy schools and several girl schools as well.

Leisure and entertainment

Kandyans do many things for leisure and entertainment in in the city. Kandy is very popular due to the annual procession
Procession
A procession is an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner.-Procession elements:...

 known as the Esala Perahera
Esala Perahera
Esala Perahera is the grand festival of Esala held in Sri Lanka. It is very grand with elegant costumes. Happening in July or August in Kandy, it has become a unique symbol of Sri Lanka. It is a Buddhist festival consisting of dances and nicely decorated elephants. There are fire-dances,...

, in which one of the inner caskets used for covering the tooth relic of Buddha is taken in a grand procession through the streets of the city. This casket is taken on a royal tusker
Tusker
Tusker can mean:* an elephant bearing tusks* an adult male wild boar, particularly the American razorback population* Tusker , a Kenyan beer bottled by East African Breweries...

. The procession includes traditional dancers and drummers, flag bearers of the provinces of the old Kandyan kingdom, the Nilames (lay
Laity
In religious organizations, the laity comprises all people who are not in the clergy. A person who is a member of a religious order who is not ordained legitimate clergy is considered as a member of the laity, even though they are members of a religious order .In the past in Christian cultures, the...

 custodians of temples ) wearing their traditional dresses, torch bearers and also the grandly attired elephant. This ceremony which is annually held in the months of July or August, attracts large crowds from all parts of the country and also many foreign tourists.

Kandy City Centre
Kandy City Centre
Kandy City Centre is commercial and shopping complex that is located in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Its construction started in 1993 and it opened in 2005 and it cost Rs4.7 billion. The complex is designed with ultramodern features also incorporating traditional architecture of Kandy during the medieval...

 is a new commercial and shopping complex at Dalada Veediya. Is the most modern commercial complex in Sri Lanka. The complex is studded with ultra modern features, also incorporating traditional architecture of Kandy during the medieval period of Sri Lanka. The city centre is host to several leading banks, a fully equipped supermarket, modern restaurants, an entertainment zone, a well designed state of the art food court, Sri Lanka's leading book shops, flora and an ayurweda site. There is a five-level car park outside that is the largest car park in Kandy.

Culinary

Kandy has a modest range of restaurants, as well as an abundance of confectioneries. A range of cuisines is available, including Sri Lankan, Indian, Chinese, European and some multinational fast food outlets such as Pizza Hut, KFC and the Sri Lankan Fast Food chain Dinemore.

Sport

Kandy has established a proud record of producing some of the top most sports people in Sri Lanka for a wide range of sports such as rugby union, cricket, football, swimming, hockey, athletics, table tennis, boxing, swimming, basketball, golf and even baseball, which has only been introduced into Kandy recently. Kandy has produced national captains of cricket and rugby, and athletes that play at the highest level of all sports.

Unlike the rest of the country rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is the most popular sport in the region. This is because of the local rugby union club, Kandy Sports Club
Kandy Sports Club (Rugby)
Kandy Sports Club is a rugby union team based in Kandy, Sri Lanka that plays in the Caltex League, of which they are the current champions...

 being the reigning Club Rugby Champions in the national league for almost a decade, as well as the fondness and support the local schools treat the sport with. The Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7's
Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7's
The Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7's is an annual international rugby sevens event held in Kandy, Sri Lanka of the Kandy Sports Club and staged at the Bogambara Stadium. It Is usually held in September and runs for three days...

 tournament is an annual international rugby union event held at the local Bogambara Stadium
Bogambara Stadium
Bogambara Stadium is one of the oldest grounds in the country. It is a multi-use stadium in Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is currently used mostly for Rugby matches and hosts the games of the Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7's.-Early history:...

, attracting nations from all over the world.

Cricket is widely played in Kandy with the city having three first class teams in the Premier Trophy
Premier Trophy
The Premier Trophy is the main domestic first-class cricket competition in Sri Lanka. It was established in 1938 and has existed under a number of different names. Matches before the 1988-89 season are not considered first-class.-List of winners:...

, Saracens
Saracens Sports Club
-Current squad :* G.N. Abeyratne* W.G.R.K. Alwis* D.H. Dahanayake* S. Dushantha * K.N.C. Fernando* Y.S. Fernando* W.M.M.W.E.V. Gangoda* S.S. Kahingala* K.R.M.D. Kaluarachchi* S.P. Palihakkara* M.P. Ranasinghe* M.D. Randika* R. Rathika...

, Kandy CC and Kandy Youth Cricket Club
Kandy Youth Cricket Club
-External links:* at Cricinfo...

, as well as being the main city for the Sri Lankan Premier League side Kandurata Kites. Kandy is host to the Sri Lanka national cricket team with two Test status
Test cricket
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council , with four innings played between two teams of 11 players over a period of up to a maximum five days...

 grounds, Asgiriya International Stadium
Asgiriya Stadium
Asgiriya International Stadium, is a Cricket stadium situated in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Asgiriya Stadium is the private property of Trinity College, Kandy. It is around a 10 minute walk from the centre of the city. The venue would usually be used when an international team toured Sri Lanka for a Test...

 and the newly built state of the art Pallekele International Cricket Stadium
Pallekele International Cricket Stadium
-ICC World Twenty20:Sri Lanka will host the 2012 ICC World Twenty20. Nine matches are due to play in Pallekele International Cricket Stadium. Other matches will be played in R...

. Both stadiums have held World Cup
Cricket World Cup
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of men's One Day International cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council , with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament which is held every four years...

 matches.

Sports like Hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

, volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

, the national sport of Sri Lanka, and Association football however has not taken off in Kandy as much as other sports, due to the lack of proper playing fields, funding and support and Cue games like billiards and snooker have hardly anyone playing. However Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

, Table tennis
Table tennis
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

, badminton
Badminton
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs , who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their...

 and even swimming
Swimming (sport)
Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

 are popular due to the high participation of students and schools.

In popular culture

Much of the 1984 film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 American adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. It is the second film in the Indiana Jones franchise and prequel to Raiders of the Lost Ark . After arriving in India, Indiana Jones is asked by a desperate village to find a mystical stone...

was shot in Kandy.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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