Kamehameha II
Overview
 
Kamehameha II was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lānai, Kauai and Niihau by the chiefdom of Hawaii into one unified government...

. His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu Iolani. It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealii Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao Iolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne.
He was born circa 1797 in Hilo, on the island of Hawaii
Hawaii (island)
The Island of Hawaii, also called the Big Island or Hawaii Island , is a volcanic island in the North Pacific Ocean...

, the eldest son of Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

 and his highest-ranking consort Queen Keōpuolani
Keopuolani
Kalanikauikaalaneo Kai Keōpūolani-Ahu-i-Kekai-Makuahine-a-Kama-Kalani-Kau-i-Kealaneo was a queen consort of Hawaii and the highest ranking wife of King Kamehameha I.-Early life:...

.
Encyclopedia
Kamehameha II was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lānai, Kauai and Niihau by the chiefdom of Hawaii into one unified government...

. His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu Iolani. It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealii Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao Iolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne.

Early life

He was born circa 1797 in Hilo, on the island of Hawaii
Hawaii (island)
The Island of Hawaii, also called the Big Island or Hawaii Island , is a volcanic island in the North Pacific Ocean...

, the eldest son of Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

 and his highest-ranking consort Queen Keōpuolani
Keopuolani
Kalanikauikaalaneo Kai Keōpūolani-Ahu-i-Kekai-Makuahine-a-Kama-Kalani-Kau-i-Kealaneo was a queen consort of Hawaii and the highest ranking wife of King Kamehameha I.-Early life:...

. He was groomed to be heir to the throne from age five. It was originally planned that he would be born at the Kūkaniloko birth site
Kukaniloko Birth Site
Kūkaniloko Birth Site, also known as the Kūkaniloko Birthstones State Monument, near the intersection of Kamehameha Highway and Whitmore Avenue just north of Wahiawā, Hawaii, is one of the most important ancient cultural sites on the island of Oahu...

 on the island of Oahu
Oahu
Oahu or Oahu , known as "The Gathering Place", is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous of the islands in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The state capital Honolulu is located on the southeast coast...

 but the Queen's sickness prevented travel.

Given in care to his father's trusted servant Hanapi, who took the child to rear him in the lands of Kalaoa in Hilo Paliku, he was taken back, after five or six months, by his maternal grandmother Kekuʻiapoiwa Liliha because she felt he was not getting the right diet. Kamehameha I, then, put in the care of Queen Kaahumanu (another wife of Kamehameha I), who was appointed as Liholiho's official guardian.

Jean Baptiste Rives
Jean Baptiste Rives
Jean Baptiste Rives was a French adventurer who served in the court of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His first name was sometimes spelled John and last name Reeves by English speakers. Some sources give other middle names.-Life:...

, a Frenchman about his age, arrived on the islands in the early 19th century. Rives taught the royal princes some English and French, becoming a close friend (aikane).

Ascension

Liholiho officially inherited the throne upon Kamehameha I's death in May 1819. However, Queen Kaahumanu had no intention to give him actual leadership. When Liholiho sailed toward the shores of Kailua Kona (the capital at the time), she greeted him wearing Kamehameha's royal red cape, and she announced to the people on shore and to the surprised Liholiho, "We two shall rule the land." Liholiho, young and inexperienced, had no other choice. Kaahumanu became the first Kuhina Nui
Kuhina Nui
Kuhina Nui was a powerful office in the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1819 to 1864. It was usually held by a relative of the king and was the rough equivalent of the 19th century European office of Prime Minister or sometimes Regent.- Origin of the office :...

 (co-regent) of Hawaii. He was forced to take on merely a ceremonial role; administrative power was to be vested in Kaahumanu.
He took the title "King Kamehameha II", but preferred to be called Iolani, which means "heavenly (or royal) hawk".

Reign

Kamehameha II is best remembered for the 'Ai Noa
'Ai Noa
The Ai Noa , was a period of taboo-breaking which convulsed the Hawaiian Islands in 1819. Women were allowed to eat forbidden food and to eat with men; the priests were no longer to offer human sacrifices; the many prohibitions surrounding the high chiefs were relaxed.Kamehameha I, the conqueror of...

, the breaking of the ancient kapu
Kapu
Kapu refers to the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics, religion, etc. An offense that was kapu was often a corporal offense, but also often denoted a threat to spiritual power, or theft of mana. Kapus were...

(taboo) system of religious laws six months into his reign when he sat down with Kaahumanu and his mother Keopuolani and ate a meal together. What followed was the disbanding of the social class of priest
Priest
A priest is a person authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities...

 and the destruction of temples and images.

Kamehameha I had bequeathed his war god Kū-kaili-moku
In Hawaiian mythology Kū or Kū-ka-ili-moku is one of the four great gods along with Kanaloa, Kāne, and Lono.He is known as the god of war and the husband of the goddess Hina. Some have taken this to suggest a complementary dualism, as the word kū in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while...

 and his temples to his cousin Kekuaokalani. Kekuaokalani demanded that Liholiho withdraw his edicts against the Hawaiian priesthood, permit rebuilding of the temples, and dismiss both Kalanimōkū
Kalanimoku
William Pitt Kalanimoku was a High Chief who functioned similar to a prime minister of the Hawaiian Kingdom during the reigns of Kamehameha I, Kamehameha II and the beginning of the reign of Kamehameha III. He was called The Iron Cable of Hawaii because of his abilities.-Life:Kalanimoku was born ...

 and Kaahumanu. Kamehameha II refused. At the battle of Kuamoo on the island of Hawaii, the king's better-armed forces, led by Kalanimōkū, defeated the last defenders of the Hawaiian gods, temples, and priesthoods of the ancient organized religion.
The first Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 missionaries
Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 arrived only a few months later in the Hawaiian Islands.

He never officially converted to Christianity because he refused to give up four of his five wives and his love of alcohol.
He (like his father) married several relatives of high rank, but he was the last Hawaiian king to practice polygamy
Polygamy
Polygamy is a marriage which includes more than two partners...

. His favorite wife was his half-sister Kamāmalu
Kamamalu
Kamāmalu Kalani-Kuaana-o-Kamehamalu-Kekuaiwa-o-kalani-Kealii-Hoopili-a-Walu was Queen consort of the Kingdom of Hawaii as the wife of King Kamehameha II. She is not to be confused with Princess Victoria Kamāmalu who was her niece...

. Kīnaʻu (Kamāmalu's full-blood sister) was his second wife who would later remarry and become Kuhina Nui
Kuhina Nui
Kuhina Nui was a powerful office in the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1819 to 1864. It was usually held by a relative of the king and was the rough equivalent of the 19th century European office of Prime Minister or sometimes Regent.- Origin of the office :...

. Princess Kalani Pauahi
Kalanipauahi
Kalani Pauahi was a member of the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii in the House of Kamehameha.-Life:Pauahi was born circa 1804....

 was his niece by his half-brother Pauli Kaōleiokū. She later remarried and gave birth to Princess Ruth Keelikōlani
Keelikolani
Princess Ruth Luka Keanolani Kauanahoahoa Keelikōlani , was a member of the Kamehameha family, the founding dynasty of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She served as Royal Governor of the Island of Hawaii. As primary heir to the Kamehameha family, Ruth became a landholder of what would become the Bernice...

. Kekāuluohi was half-sister of Kamāmalu and Kīnau through their mother Kaheiheimālie who was another of his father's wives. Princess Kekauōnohi
Kekauonohi
Anna Keahikuni-i-Kekauōnohi , sometimes called Miriam Kekauōnohi, was a Hawaiian princess and queen consort, member of the House of Kamehameha and granddaughter King Kamehameha I....

 was Liholiho's niece and granddaughter of Kamehameha I, and would later become royal governor of the islands of Maui
Maui
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the state of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, bigger than Lānai, Kahoolawe, and Molokai. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444,...

 and Kauai
Kauai
Kauai or Kauai, known as Tauai in the ancient Kaua'i dialect, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of , it is the fourth largest of the main islands in the Hawaiian archipelago, and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known also as the "Garden Isle",...

.
He was known to be impulsive. For example, on November 16, 1820 he bought a Royal Yacht
Royal Yacht
A royal yacht is a ship used by a monarch or a royal family. If the monarch is an emperor the proper term is imperial yacht. Most of them are financed by the government of the country of which the monarch is head...

 known as Cleopatra's Barge
Cleopatra's Barge
Cleopatra's Barge was an opulent yacht built in Massachusetts in 1816. It became the Royal Yacht of King Kamehameha II who named it Haaheo o Hawaii , but was wrecked in the Hawaiian Islands in 1824.-Building:...

 for 8000 piculs of sandalwood
Sandalwood
Sandalwood is the name of a class of fragrant woods from trees in the genus Santalum. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and unlike many other aromatic woods they retain their fragrance for decades. As well as using the harvested and cut wood in-situ, essential oils are also extracted...

 (over a million pounds), estimated to be worth about US$80,000 at the time. It had been sold a few years before for $15,400 by the Crowninshield family
Crowninshield family
The Crowninshield family is an American family that has been prominent in seafaring, political and military leadership, and the literary world. The founder of the American family immigrated in the late 17th century from what is now Germany...

 of Salem, Massachusetts
Salem, Massachusetts
Salem is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 40,407 at the 2000 census. It and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County...

. Kamehameha II was quite proud of his ship; in the words of Charles Bullard, the agent for the shipowner:
"If you want to know how Religion stands at the Islands I can tell you — All sects are tolerated but the King worships the Barge."

He tried to gain favor with missionaries by offering free passage on the opulent ship, and regularly entertained foreign visitors with their choice of alcoholic beverages. On April 18, 1822 it required a major overhaul because most of the wood had rotted. He paid to have wood shipped in from the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
The Pacific Northwest is a region in northwestern North America, bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Definitions of the region vary and there is no commonly agreed upon boundary, even among Pacific Northwesterners. A common concept of the...

 for repairs, and then renamed his ship Haaheo o Hawaii ("Pride of Hawaii"). After re-launching May 10, 1823 it was wrecked less than a year later.

In the summer of 1821, he was in a small boat intended for the Ewa beach
'Ewa Beach, Hawaii
Ewa Beach or simply Ewa is a census-designated place located in Ewa District and the City & County of Honolulu along the leeward coast of Oahu in Hawaii. As of the 2010 Census, the CDP had a total population of 14,955....

, just west of Honolulu. A few nobles such as Chiefess Kapiolani
Chiefess Kapiolani
High Chiefess Kapiolani was an important member of the Hawaiian nobility at the time of the founding of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the arrival of Christian missionaries...

 and Governor Boki were aboard, with about 30 men. He ordered the ship to instead cross a dangerous channel all the way to the island of Kauai
Kauai
Kauai or Kauai, known as Tauai in the ancient Kaua'i dialect, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of , it is the fourth largest of the main islands in the Hawaiian archipelago, and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known also as the "Garden Isle",...

, despite having no compass, charts, nor provisions on board. They somehow made it to Kauai. When they arrived, the local Chief Kaumualii
Kaumualii
Kaumualii was the last independent Alii Aimoku of Kauai and Niihau before becoming a vassal of Kamehameha I of the unified Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810...

 did not fire his cannons on the unarmed ship but welcomed the young king. The Royal Yacht was sent for, and the royal party entertained themselves for over a month. Then one night after he invited Kaumualii on board, Kamehameha II abruptly ordered the yacht to sail in the night. Upon returning to Honolulu, he had Kaumualii "marry" Kaahumanu and kept him under house arrest in exile until his death.

Fatal visit to Great Britain

Another of his voyages would prove fatal. On April 16, 1822 English missionary William Ellis arrived with a schooner
Schooner
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts....

 Prince Regent of six guns to add to his growing collection of ships. It was a gift from the King of Great Britain, and Kamehameha II wrote to thank him, requesting closer diplomatic ties. He wanted to travel to London, but all his advisors including Keōpūolani and Kaahumanu were opposed to the idea. After his mother Keōpūolani's death on September 16, 1823, he made up his mind to go.

In November 1823 Kamehameha II and Queen Kamāmalu commissioned the British whaling ship L'Aigle (French for "the Eagle") under Captain Valentine Starbuck and to carry them to London. Going along were High Chief Boki and wife High Chiefess Kuini Liliha
Kuini Liliha
Kuini Liliha was a High Chiefess in the ancient Hawaiian tradition and served the Kingdom of Hawaii as royal governor of Oahu island. She administered the island from 1829 to 1831 following the death of her first husband.-Early life:...

, and other chiefs and retainers including Manuia, Naihekukui
Naihekukui
Naihe-Kukui Kapihe , known as "Captain Jack" or "Jack the Pilot" to visitors, served as Honolulu harbor master and admiral of the royal fleet in the early Kingdom of Hawaii. His daughter would become a Queen consort.-Life:...

, James Young Kānehoa
James Kanehoa
James Young Kānehoa was a member of the court of King Kamehameha II and Kamehameha III during the Kingdom of Hawaii. Sometimes he is confused with his half-brother John Kaleipaihala Young II known as Keoni Ana.-Life:...

, Kekūanāoa, Kauluhaimalama, Naaiweuweu, and Naukane
Naukane
Naukane , also known as John Coxe, Edward Cox, and Coxe was a Native Hawaiian chief who traveled widely through North America in the early 19th century...

 who had already been to America (where he picked up the name John Coxe) and then England.

Since Ellis wanted to travel back to England anyway, he offered to be translator and guide, but Starbuck refused. Somehow Rives talked his way on board instead as translator.

In February 1824 they arrived at Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

 in newly-independent Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 where they met Emperor Pedro I. The Emperor gave Kamehameha II a ceremonial sword, and in return was presented with a native Hawaiian feather cloak
Feather cloak
Featherwork cloaks have been used by several cultures.-Hawaii:Elaborate feather cloaks called [[ʻahuʻula]] were created by early Hawaiians for the alii .Feathers were also used in women's skirts called pāū....

 made from rare tropical bird feathers which is now in the National Museum of Brazil
National Museum of Brazil
The National Museum of Brazil is a centenarian museum and research institution, located in the Quinta da Boa Vista park in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.-History:...

.
They arrived on May 17, 1824 in Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Portsmouth is the second largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England. Portsmouth is notable for being the United Kingdom's only island city; it is located mainly on Portsea Island...

, and the next day moved into the Caledonian Hotel in London. Foreign Office Secretary George Canning
George Canning
George Canning PC, FRS was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and briefly Prime Minister.-Early life: 1770–1793:...

 appointed Frederick Gerald Byng (1784–1871) to supervise their visit. Byng was a Gentleman Usher
Gentleman Usher
Gentleman Usher is a title for some officers of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom. See List of Gentlemen Ushers for a list of office-holders.-Historical:...

, fifth son of John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington
John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington
John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington , styled Hon. John Byng until 1812, was one of the most notable of English eighteenth-century diarists...

 and friend of Beau Brummell
Beau Brummell
Beau Brummell, born as George Bryan Brummell , was the arbiter of men's fashion in Regency England and a friend of the Prince Regent, the future King George IV...

, known more for his gaudy fashions than diplomacy. Their arrival was met by the local press with a mixture of curiosity and derision.
They were not sure what to call the king, spelling his "Liholiho" name various ways such as "Rheo Rhio".
Some made puns on the fact that Byng's nickname was "Poodle" and in Hawaiian īlio īlio would mean "dog of dogs" and that the British name of the kingdom was "Sandwich Islands". Byng made sure they would have appropriate attire for all their public appearances.

On May 28 a reception with 200 guests including several Dukes was held in their honor.
They toured London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, visiting Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

, but he refused to enter because he did not want to desecrate their burial place: "Liholiho, King Kamehameha II, refused to step in there, because he wasn’t blood-connected. These were the kings, and he felt he had no right, to walk around their caskets. He didn’t even step foot in there, he didn’t want to desecrate their burial places with his presence or his feet stepping in that area." They attended opera and ballet at Royal Opera House
Royal Opera House
The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The...

 in Covent Garden on May 31, and the Theatre Royal
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. The building faces Catherine Street and backs onto Drury Lane. The building standing today is the most recent in a line of four theatres at the same location dating back to 1663,...

 in Drury Lane on June 4 in the Royal Box.
He and Kamāmalu were an unusual sight to the British people who had seen few Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians refers to the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants. Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaii.According to the U.S...

, moreover, Kamāmalu was over six-feet tall. Several members of the court had portraits painted by the Hayter family
Charles Hayter
Charles Hayter was the son of Charles Hayter an Architect from Twickenham and his wife Elizabeth Holmes. He first trained with his father, but showed an inclination for drawing by producing some small pencil portraits, principally of family members and so he was entered in the Royal Academy...

.
King George IV
George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and also of Hanover from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later...

 finally scheduled a meeting for June 21, but it had to be delayed as Kamāmalu became ill. The Hawaiian court had caught measles
Measles
Measles, also known as rubeola or morbilli, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses...

, to which they had no immunity. They probably contracted the disease on their June 5 visit to the Royal Military Asylum (now the Duke of York's Royal Military School). Kamāmalu died on July 8, 1824. The grief-stricken Kamehameha II died six days later on July 14, 1824.

Vast crowds lined up when he was laid in state at the Caledonian Hotel on July 17.
On July 18 the bodies were stored in the crypt of St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields is an Anglican church at the north-east corner of Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London. Its patron is Saint Martin of Tours.-Roman era:Excavations at the site in 2006 led to the discovery of a grave dated about 410...

 church where they awaited transportation back home. Boki took over lead of the delegation and finally did have an audience with King George IV. Kānehoa (James Young), with superior English language skills conferred by his English father John Young
John Young (Hawaii)
John Young was a British subject who became an important military advisor to Kamehameha I during the formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was left behind by Simon Metcalfe, captain of the American ship Eleanora, and along with a Welshmen Isaac Davis became a friend and advisor to Kamehameha...

, was entrusted with the official letters of introduction and served as new translator.
Rives and Starbuck were accused of misspending the royal treasury and departed.

In September 1824 the bodies returned to Hawaii on the enormous Royal Navy frigate under the command of Captain George Anson Byron
George Byron, 7th Baron Byron
Admiral George Anson Byron, 7th Baron Byron was a British naval officer, and the seventh Baron Byron, in 1824 succeeding his cousin the poet George Gordon Byron in that peerage...

.

The Blonde arrived back in Honolulu on May 6, 1825. Kalanimōkū had been notified of the deaths in a letter from Rives, so Hawaiian royalty gathered at his house where the bodies were moved for the funeral. The marines and crew from the ship made a formal procession, the ship's chaplain read an Anglican prayer, and an American missionary was allowed to make a prayer in the Hawaiian language.
They were buried on the grounds of the Iolani Palace in a coral house meant to be the Hawaiian version of the tombs Liholiho had seen in London. They were eventually moved to the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii
Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii
The Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii, known as Mauna Ala in the Hawaiian language, is the final resting place of Hawaii's two prominent royal families: the Kamehameha Dynasty and the Kalākaua Dynasty.-Description:...

 known as Mauna Ala. Kamehameha II was succeeded by his younger brother Kauikeaouli, who became King Kamehameha III
Kamehameha III
Kamehameha III was the King of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854. His full Hawaiian name was Keaweaweula Kiwalao Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa and then lengthened to Keaweaweula Kiwalao Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kalani Waiakua Kalanikau Iokikilo Kiwalao i ke kapu Kamehameha when he ascended the throne.Under his...

.

External links

  • Kamehameha II (Liholiho) 1797-1824 on HawaiiHistory.com web sitei Royal Family web site |publisher= Kealii Pubs |url= http://www.keouanui.org/Kamehameha2.html |accessdate= 2010-01-30 }}
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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