Kaifeng
Overview
 
Kaifeng known previously by several names (see below), is a prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in east-central Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 province, Central China. Nearly 5 million people live in the metropolitan area. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

 to the west, Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Xinxiang is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to its southwest, Kaifeng to its southeast, Hebi and Anyang to its north, Jiaozuo to its west, and the provinces of Shanxi and Shandong to its northwest and...

 to the northwest, Shangqiu
Shangqiu
Shangqiu is a city in eastern Henan province, Central China. It borders Kaifeng to the northwest, Zhoukou to the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Anhui to the northeast and southeast respectively. An ancient city with a rich history, Shangqiu was also the first capital of the Shang...

 to the east, Zhoukou
Zhoukou
Zhoukou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders Zhumadian to the southeast, Xuchang and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, and the province of Anhui on all other sides....

 to the southeast, Xuchang
Xuchang
Xuchang is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province in Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the northwest, Kaifeng to the northeast, Zhoukou to the east, Luohe to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest....

 to the southwest, and the province of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 to the northeast.
The Chinese Postal Map Romanisation for the city is Kaifeng whilst its abbreviation is biàn (汴).
Encyclopedia
Kaifeng known previously by several names (see below), is a prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in east-central Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 province, Central China. Nearly 5 million people live in the metropolitan area. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

 to the west, Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Xinxiang is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to its southwest, Kaifeng to its southeast, Hebi and Anyang to its north, Jiaozuo to its west, and the provinces of Shanxi and Shandong to its northwest and...

 to the northwest, Shangqiu
Shangqiu
Shangqiu is a city in eastern Henan province, Central China. It borders Kaifeng to the northwest, Zhoukou to the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Anhui to the northeast and southeast respectively. An ancient city with a rich history, Shangqiu was also the first capital of the Shang...

 to the east, Zhoukou
Zhoukou
Zhoukou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders Zhumadian to the southeast, Xuchang and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, and the province of Anhui on all other sides....

 to the southeast, Xuchang
Xuchang
Xuchang is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province in Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the northwest, Kaifeng to the northeast, Zhoukou to the east, Luohe to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest....

 to the southwest, and the province of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 to the northeast.

Names

The Chinese Postal Map Romanisation for the city is Kaifeng whilst its abbreviation is biàn (汴). Historically it has also been known as:
  • Dàliáng
  • Biànzhōu
  • Dōngjīng
  • Biànjīng


The name "Kaifeng" first appeared as the area's name after the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

's conquering of China in the 2nd century BC, and literally means "expand the borders".

Administration

The prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 of Kaifeng administers five districts and five counties.
  • Gulou District
    Gulou District, Kaifeng
    Gulou District, Kaifeng is a district of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (鼓楼区)
  • Longting District
    Longting District
    Longting District is a district of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (龙亭区)
  • Yuwangtai District
    Yuwangtai District
    Yuwangtai District is a district of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (禹王台区)
  • Jinming District
    Jinming District
    Jinming District is a district of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (金明区)
  • Shunhe Hui District
    Shunhe Hui District
    Shunhe Hui District is a district of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (顺河回族区)
  • Weishi County
    Weishi County
    Weishi County is a county of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (尉氏县)
  • Qi County
    Qi County, Kaifeng
    Qi County is a county of Kaifeng, Henan, People's Republic of China, with an area of 1243 square km and a population of 1.05 million.-History:...

     (杞县)
  • Tongxu County
    Tongxu County
    Tongxu County is a county of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (通许县)
  • Lankao County
    Lankao County
    Lankao County is a county of Kaifeng, Henan, China. It has an area of 1,116 square kilometers and a population of 760,000.It was the site of the Battle of Lanfeng during the Second Sino-Japanese War.-External links:*...

     (兰考县)
  • Kaifeng County
    Kaifeng County
    Kaifeng County is a county of Henan, China. It is under the administration of Kaifeng city....

     (开封县)

History

Kaifeng is one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China
Historical capitals of China
The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China traditionally refers to Beijing , Nanjing, Luoyang, and Chang'an ....

. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history.

In 364 BC during the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

, the State of Wei
Wei (state)
The State of Wei was a Zhou Dynasty vassal state during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shandong...

 founded a city called Daliang (大梁)as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

. When the State of Wei was conquered by the State of Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place.

Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal
Grand Canal of China
The Grand Canal in China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou...

 as well as through the construction of a canal running to western Shandong Province.

In 781 during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (汴). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin
Later Jin Dynasty (Five Dynasties)
Note that there are four periods of Chinese history using the name "Jin" The Later Jìn was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Gaozu of Later Jin...

 (936–946), Later Han
Later Han Dynasty (Five Dynasties)
The Later Han Dynasty was founded in 947. It was the fourth of the Five Dynasties and the third consecutive Shatuo Turk dynasty...

 (947–950), and Later Zhou
Later Zhou Dynasty
The Later Zhou Dynasty was the last a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.-Founding of the Dynasty:Guo Wei, a Han...

 (951–960) of the Five Dynasties Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms was between 907–960/979 AD and an era of political upheaval in China, between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty. During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were...

. The Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards the city underwent further expansion.

During the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 when it was known as Dongjing
Dongjing
Dongjing may refer to:* Dongjing , Chinese ritual music* Dongjing Station, on Shanghai Metro Line 9* Dongjin Bridge in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province* Dongjing, historical name for modern day Kaifeng, Capital of Chinese Northern Song Dynasty-See also:...

 or Bianjing, Kaifeng was the Chinese capital with a population of over 400,000, living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus
Typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...

 was an acute problem in the city.

In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda (佑国寺塔), or Iron Pagoda
Iron Pagoda
The Iron Pagoda of Youguo Temple , Kaifeng City, Henan province, is a Buddhist Chinese pagoda built in 1049 C.E. during the Song Dynasty of China. The pagoda is so-named not because it is made of iron, but because its colour resembles that of iron...

 (铁塔) as it is called today was constructed measuring 54.7 metres (179.5 ft) in height. It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 pagoda, Bo Ta (繁塔), dating from 974 has been partially destroyed.

Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower
Clock tower
A clock tower is a tower specifically built with one or more clock faces. Clock towers can be either freestanding or part of a church or municipal building such as a town hall. Some clock towers are not true clock towers having had their clock faces added to an already existing building...

 of the engineer, scientist, and statesman Su Song
Su Song
Su Song was a renowned Chinese polymath who specialized himself as a statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty .Su Song was the engineer of a...

 (1020–1101 AD). It was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere
Armillary sphere
An armillary sphere is a model of objects in the sky , consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features such as the ecliptic...

 that was hydraulically powered (i.e. by waterwheel and a clepsydra
Clepsydra
Clepsydra may refer to:*Clepsydra , the Greek word for water clock. Also, in ancient Greece, a device for drawing liquids from vats too large to pour, which utilized the principles of air pressure to transport the liquid from one container to another.* Clepsydra Geyser in the Lower Geyser Basin of...

 clock
Clock
A clock is an instrument used to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time. The word clock is derived ultimately from the Celtic words clagan and clocca meaning "bell". A silent instrument missing such a mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece...

), yet it incorporated an escapement
Escapement
In mechanical watches and clocks, an escapement is a device that transfers energy to the timekeeping element and enables counting the number of oscillations of the timekeeping element...

 mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive
Chain drive
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles...

.

Kaifeng reached its peak importance in the 11th century when it was a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000.

It is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127.

This period ended in 1127 when the city fell to Jurchen invaders (see Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
The Jingkang Incident , the Humiliation of Jingkang , or The Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 when invading Jurchen soldiers from the Jin Dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing , the capital of the Song Dynasty of China...

) and subsequently came under the rule of the Jin Dynasty. While it remained an important administrative center, only the city area inside the inner city wall of the early Song Dynasty remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned.

One major problem associated with Kaifeng as the imperial capital of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 was its location. While it was conveniently situated along the Grand Canal
Grand Canal
Grand Canal can refer to multiple waterways:* Grand Canal in eastern China* Grand Canal in Venice, Italy* Grand Canal , between the river Shannon and Dublin in Ireland* Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France...

 for logistic supply, Kaifeng was militarily vulnerable due to its position on the flood plains of the Yellow River.

Kaifeng served as the Jurchen "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. The Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee from the Mongol onslaught. In 1234 they succumbed to the combined Mongol and Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 forces. Mongols took control, and in 1279 they conquered all of China.

At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan province.

In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster the city was abandoned again.

Under the celebrated Qing
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 emperor Kangxi
Kangxi Emperor
The Kangxi Emperor ; Manchu: elhe taifin hūwangdi ; Mongolian: Энх-Амгалан хаан, 4 May 1654 –20 December 1722) was the fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Pass and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.Kangxi's...

 (1662), Kaifeng was rebuilt. However, further flooding occurred in 1841 followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng as it stands today.

Kaifeng is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews
Kaifeng Jews
The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community that has existed in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China, for hundreds of years. Jews in modern China have traditionally called themselves Youtai in Mandarin Chinese which is also the predominant contemporary Chinese language term for...

.

It was here too that in 1969, the former Chairman of the People's Republic of China Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi was a Chinese revolutionary, statesman, and theorist. He was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China...

, died in prison from medical neglect.

Climate

Kaifeng has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cwa), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and mostly dry while summers are hot and humid; spring is warm and sees some, but not much rainfall, while autumn weather is crisp and drier. Precipitation mainly occurs from June to September.
The best time of the year to visit Kaifeng is Spring (March to May) and Autumn (September to November), when the weather is warm and the chance of precipitation is low.

Air

Kaifeng city centre is about 55km away from Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport
Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport
Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport is the principal airport serving Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, China.Xinzheng airport is located 37 km southeast of Zhengzhou. It was opened on August 28, 1997, the 21st international airport in China...

 – which has domestic connections to more then 20 Chinese cities, including Beijing Capital
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport, is the main international airport serving Beijing, China. It is located northeast of Beijing's city center in an enclave of Chaoyang District that is surrounded by rural Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital...

, Chengdu
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is a major airport serving Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province, China. It is located in the north of Shuangliu County, about southwest of downtown Chengdu....

, Shanghai Hongqiao, Shanghai Pudong
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, China, and a major aviation hub in Asia. The other major airport in Shanghai, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights...

, Shenyang
Shenyang Taoxian International Airport
Shenyang Taoxian International Airport is an airport in Shenyang, Liaoning, China. It is located about 20 km south of the city center.As for 2010, Shenyang Taoxian International Airport was the 21th busiest airport in the People's Republic of China with 8,619,897 passengers.-Airlines and...

, Guangzhou
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport is the main airport of Guangzhou, the capital of the province of Guangdong, People's Republic of China. Both airport codes were inherited from the previous Guangzhou airport, and the IATA code reflects Guangzhou's former romanization Canton...

, Shenzhen, Xiamen
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
-Cargo airlines:-See also:*List of airports in the People's Republic of China*China's busiest airports by passenger traffic-External links:*...

, Hangzhou
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport is the principal airport serving Hangzhou, a major city in the Yangtze River Delta region and the capital of Zhejiang Province, China....

, Fuzhou
Fuzhou Changle International Airport
Fuzhou Changle International Airport is an airport in Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province, China. The airport was inaugurated on June 23, 1997, after being approved to start constructing in 1992. The current handling capacity is approximately 6.5 million people annually. It is one of the...

, Harbin
Harbin Taiping International Airport
Harbin Taiping International Airport is an international airport in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.-History:Harbin Taiping Airport, formerly known as Yanjiagang Airport, is located about southwest of the city of Harbin and was constructed in 1979 with further expansion between 1994 and 1997 at a...

 etc. China Eastern
China Eastern Airlines
China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited is an airline headquartered on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai, China. It is a major Chinese airline operating international, domestic and regional routes. Its main hubs are at Shanghai Pudong...

 and China Southern Airlines
China Southern Airlines
China Southern Airlines is an airline headquartered in Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the world's sixth-largest airline measured by passengers carried, and Asia's largest airline in terms of both fleet size and passengers carried...

 also provide some international connections directly from Zhengzhou.

Access and journey time

  • Journey time by car is about 1 hour.
  • Taxi one way fare is about RMB 200 – by negotiation usually.
  • An Airport shuttle service is available between Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport
    Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport
    Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport is the principal airport serving Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, China.Xinzheng airport is located 37 km southeast of Zhengzhou. It was opened on August 28, 1997, the 21st international airport in China...

     and Kaifeng Grand Yuxiang Hotel (玉祥大酒店) in downtown Kaifeng.
    • Single fare RMB 40 and it takes about 1 hour and 15mins. The pick up point at the airport is outside the Arrival Hall, bus bay 6, and the set down point is right in front of the Grand Yuxiang Hotel in downtown Kaifeng.
    • Single fare can be bought from airport shuttle kiosk outside the Arrival hall at the airport and ticket office on the ground floor of Grand Yuxiang Hotel in Kaifeng.
    • Current daily departures from the airport are: 10:30, 11:30, 12:30, 13:30, 14:30, 16:00, 17:30, 19:00, 20:30 and 22:00 and from Kaifeng city: 5:30, 7:00, 8:30, 10:00, 11:30, 13:00, 14:30, 16:00, 17:00 and 18:00.

Rail

Kaifeng Railway Station is on the East-West Longhai Railway mainline and provides convenient access to many cities around China. Some important mid-distance services calling Kaifeng have been added below as of November 2011 and are subject to change when the China National Railway (CNR) changes the timetable. This list is by no mean exhaustive considering there are more than 90 passenger trains arrive and depart the station throughout the day every single day. General criteria for including these are for their comfort, speed and sociable arrival/departure times.

Arriving Kaifeng

From Train Number Departure Time Arrival Time
Beijing West
Beijing west railway station
Beijing West Railway Station, also known as Beijing West or West Passenger Station is located in western Beijing's Fengtai District. Opened in early 1996 after three years of construction, it was the largest railway station in Asia with 510,000m². The station serves in average 150,000–180,000...

1303 20:35 06:44 (2nd day)
Beijing West
Beijing west railway station
Beijing West Railway Station, also known as Beijing West or West Passenger Station is located in western Beijing's Fengtai District. Opened in early 1996 after three years of construction, it was the largest railway station in Asia with 510,000m². The station serves in average 150,000–180,000...

1487 10:17 19:51
Shanghai Hongqiao
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Shanghai West Railway Station...

D286/D287 07:45 14:12
Shanghai Hongqiao
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Shanghai West Railway Station...

D292/D293 16:10 22:43
Shanghai
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai South Railway Station, Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station and Shanghai West Railway Station....

K152/K153 16:43 06:28 (2nd day)
Shanghai
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai South Railway Station, Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station and Shanghai West Railway Station....

K282/K283 20:46 08:10 (2nd day)
Tianjin
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

K332/K329 19:46 05:53 (2nd day)
Tianjin
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

K1062/K1063 08:33 18:43
Xi’an K60/K61 21:21 06:11 (2nd day)
Xi’an K292/K289 09:45 18:10
Jinan D257/D260 18:09 22:55
Jinan K15 07:08 14:58
Hangzhou
Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station is located in Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province of China. It is affiliated to Shanghai Railway Bureau, and is also the terminal of Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway. The station is ranked first-class....

T112/T113 09:53 22:06
Hangzhou
Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station is located in Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province of China. It is affiliated to Shanghai Railway Bureau, and is also the terminal of Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway. The station is ranked first-class....

K656/K657 17:34 06:21 (2nd day)


Departing Kaifeng

To Train Number Departure Time Arrival Time
Beijing West
Beijing west railway station
Beijing West Railway Station, also known as Beijing West or West Passenger Station is located in western Beijing's Fengtai District. Opened in early 1996 after three years of construction, it was the largest railway station in Asia with 510,000m². The station serves in average 150,000–180,000...

1304 08:07 19:33
Beijing West
Beijing west railway station
Beijing West Railway Station, also known as Beijing West or West Passenger Station is located in western Beijing's Fengtai District. Opened in early 1996 after three years of construction, it was the largest railway station in Asia with 510,000m². The station serves in average 150,000–180,000...

1488 20:55 09:11 (2nd day)
Shanghai Hongqiao
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Shanghai West Railway Station...

D294/D291 08:59 15:48
Shanghai Hongqiao
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Shanghai West Railway Station...

D288/D285 15:43 22:41
Shanghai
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai South Railway Station, Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station and Shanghai West Railway Station....

K154/K151 19:28 06:30 (2nd day)
Shanghai
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai South Railway Station, Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station and Shanghai West Railway Station....

K284/K281 20:30 07:13 (2nd day)
Tianjin
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

K330/K331 20:12 06:48 (2nd day)
Tianjin
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

K1064/K1061 19:45 05:08 (2nd day)
Xi’an K1130/K1131 07:47 15:35
Xi’an K245/K248 22:17 05:44 (2nd day)
Jinan D258/D259 13:02 17:49
Jinan K16 07:38 15:13
Hangzhou
Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station is located in Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province of China. It is affiliated to Shanghai Railway Bureau, and is also the terminal of Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway. The station is ranked first-class....

2596/2593 21:35 13:24 (2nd day)
Hangzhou
Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station is located in Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province of China. It is affiliated to Shanghai Railway Bureau, and is also the terminal of Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway. The station is ranked first-class....

K658/K655 19:36 09:12 (2nd day)

Services to Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

, Luoyang
Luoyang
Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast.Situated on the central plain of...

 and Qingdao
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

 are also frequent and convenient. Direct long distance services to Shenzhen
Shenzhen railway station
Shenzhen Railway Station or Shenzhen Luohu Railway Station is located across from Luo Hu Commercial City in the Luohu district of Shenzhen, Guangdong and is the southern terminus of the Guangshen Railway....

, Guangzhou
Guangzhou railway station
Guangzhou Railway Station serves the city of Guangzhou, China. It sits on the high speed Guangshen railway just west of Guangzhou East station. As one of the busiest railway stations in southern China, Guangzhou station is known for its notorious safety record...

, Chengdu, Chongqing North
Chongqing North Railway Station
Chongqing North Railway Station is a railway station located in Yubei District of Chongqing City, People's Republic of China. It will be served by the Yuhuai Railway, Suiyu Railway and Yuli Railway, by Ministry of Railways of the PRC.-References:...

, Harbin
Harbin Railway Station
Harbin station is a railway station of Jingha railway, Hada Railway, Binsui Railway and Binzhou Railway. The station located in the town of Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.-History:Song​hua​jiang station opened in October,1899...

, Ürümqi
Ürümqi Railway Station
Ürümqi Railway Station is a railway station of the Lanzhou-Xinjiang, Northern Xinjiang, and the Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railways. The station located in Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.-History:The station was constructed in 1962...

, Fuzhou
Fuzhou Railway Station
Fuzhou Railway Station is a railway station located in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China, on the Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway, Nanping–Fuzhou Railway, and Fuxia Railway which operated by Nanchang Railway Bureau, Ministry of Railways of the PRC....

, Dalian
Dalian Railway Station
Dalian Railway Station is a railway station of Hada Railway, Changda Railway and Hada Passenger Railway. The station located in the town of Dalian, Liaoning, China.-See also:*Russian Dalian*Chinese Eastern Railway*South Manchuria Railway...

 and Wuhan are also available.

Access and journey time

  • Kaifeng Railway Station (开封火车站) is situated at the southern tip of the city.
  • Taxi is the best and most efficient transportation to and from the railway station.
  • Many local buses terminate or call at the railway station. These include route 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 29, 31 and 35 etc. Uniform fare of RMB 1 is payable onboard.

Coach

  • There are 4 main coach stations in Kaifeng.
    • Kaifeng West Coach Station (开封客运西站)
    • Kaifeng Long Distance Coach Station (开封长途汽车站)
    • Kaifeng Jinming Coach Station (开封金明汽车站)
    • Kaifeng Xiangguosi Coach Station (开封相国寺汽车站)


There are frequent services to many neighbouring counties, other provincial cities and longer distance services to other provinces.

Regular commuter bus services to provincial capital Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

 run daily from about 6am to 22pm, departing from all above coach stations, at a peak frequency of about every 7-10mins and off peak frequency of about every 15mins. The journey time is about 1 hour and a half to 2 hours. Most of these services will pick up passengers en route at designated bus stops. Buy ticket onboard, single trip fare is RMB 7 for the 72km between the 2 cities. As such, passenger demand is fierce.

Local Public Transport

  • Buses

There are currently 40 bus routes serving the city of Kaifeng. Uniform fare of RMB 1 per trip applies to all local buses in the city. Use the front door to board and back door to get off. Pay when you board by inserting your RMB 1 coin or note in the onboard farebox.
  • Taxis

With fare starts at only RMB 5 for 2km and RMB 1 for each additional kilometre thereafter, taxis are the most economical and efficient mode of transport in Kaifeng. Make sure the meter is on and do insist if it is not.
  • China National Highway 220
    China National Highway 220
    China National Highway 220 runs from Binzhou, Shandong to Zhengzhou, Henan. It is 585 kilometres in length and runs southwest from Binzhou towards Zhengzhou.-Route and distance:-External links:*...


Military

Kaifeng is headquarters of the 20th Group Army
20th Army (People's Republic of China)
The 20th Army was a military formation of the People's Volunteer Army during the Korean War.-Organization:...

 of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

, one of the three group armies that comprise the Jinan Military Region responsible for defence of the Yellow River Plain.

Culture

Kaifeng offers a wide range of food specialities such as steaming pie and Chinese dumplings. In the evening, Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous night market
Night market
Night markets or night bazaars are street markets which operate at night and are generally dedicated to more leisurely strolling, shopping, and eating than more businesslike day markets.-Geographical spread:...

. Often people from the nearby Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

 come to Kaifeng to spend an evening with their family as the atmosphere is very appealing. Less adventurous Western tourists may prefer to eat inside the restaurants and just have their drinks outside because they might not want to try chicken feet, pork feet or bucks. Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (wǔxiāng shāobǐng), which, like pita
Pita
Pita or pitta is a round pocket bread widely consumed in many Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and Balkan cuisines. It is prevalent in Greece, the Balkans the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey. The "pocket" in pita bread is created by steam, which puffs up the dough...

, can be opened and filled.

Gallery

Twin towns — Sister cities

Kaifeng is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
City Region Country
Wichita
Wichita, Kansas
Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas.As of the 2010 census, the city population was 382,368. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita is the county seat of Sedgwick County and the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area...

 Kansas  United States
Kiryat Motzkin   Haifa
Haifa
Haifa is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 268,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher...

 Israel
Toda
Toda, Saitama
is a city located in Saitama, Japan. The city is located beside the Arakawa river which separates it from Tokyo. The Sasame river also flows through the city before joining the Arakawa.-History:...

 Saitama Prefecture  Japan
Omsk
Omsk
-History:The wooden fort of Omsk was erected in 1716 to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh rivers against the Kyrgyz nomads of the Steppes...

 Omsk Oblast  Russia


Public

  • Henan University
    Henan University
    Henan University is a public university in Kaifeng, Henan, China.-History:Founded in 1912, Henan University is one of the oldest universities in China. It was originally named the Preparatory School for Further Study in Europe and America...

     (河南大学) (founded 1912)
  • Kaifeng University (开封大学) (founded 1980)
  • Kaifeng Institute of Education (开封教育学院)
  • Yellow River Conservancy Technical Institute (黄河水利职业技术学院) (founded 1929)

Further reading

  • The Origin of the Kaifeng Jews, in S. Shaked, ed., Irano-Judaica, Jerusalem, 1982, pp. 101–11

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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