Kabardino-Balkaria
Overview
 
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic ' onMouseout='HidePop("79711")' href="/topics/Kabardian_language">Kabardian
Kabardian language
The Kabardian language, also known as East Circassian , is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language. It is spoken mainly in the Russian republics of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia and in Turkey and the Middle East...

: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar
Karachay-Balkar language
The Karachay-Balkar language is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem which pronounces two phonemes as and , and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as and .- Alphabet :Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic...

: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria , is a federal subject
Federal subjects of Russia
Russia is a federation which, since March 1, 2008, consists of 83 federal subjects . In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed...

 of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (a republic
Republics of Russia
The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects , 21 of which are republics. The republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality"...

) located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
The North Caucasus is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Black and Caspian Seas and within European Russia. The term is also used as a synonym for the North Caucasus economic region of Russia....

.
Encyclopedia
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic ' onMouseout='HidePop("79711")' href="/topics/Kabardian_language">Kabardian
Kabardian language
The Kabardian language, also known as East Circassian , is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language. It is spoken mainly in the Russian republics of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia and in Turkey and the Middle East...

: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar
Karachay-Balkar language
The Karachay-Balkar language is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem which pronounces two phonemes as and , and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as and .- Alphabet :Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic...

: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria , is a federal subject
Federal subjects of Russia
Russia is a federation which, since March 1, 2008, consists of 83 federal subjects . In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed...

 of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (a republic
Republics of Russia
The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects , 21 of which are republics. The republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality"...

) located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
The North Caucasus is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Black and Caspian Seas and within European Russia. The term is also used as a synonym for the North Caucasus economic region of Russia....

. Population:

Geography

The republic is situated in the North Caucasus mountains, with plains in the northern part.
  • Area: 12500 square kilometres (4,826.3 sq mi)
  • Borders:
    • internal: Stavropol Krai
      Stavropol Krai
      Stavropol Krai is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Stavropol. Population: -Geography:Stavropol Krai encompasses the central part of the Fore-Caucasus and most of the northern slopes of Caucasus Major...

       (N/NE), Republic of North Ossetia-Alania
      North Ossetia-Alania
      The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania is a federal subject of Russia . Its population according to the 2010 Census was 712,877.-Name:...

       (E/SE/S), Karachay-Cherkess Republic
      Karachay-Cherkessia
      The Karachay-Cherkess Republic , or Karachay-Cherkessia is a federal subject of Russia . Population: -Geography:*Area: *Borders:**internal: Krasnodar Krai , Kabardino-Balkar Republic , Stavropol Krai ....

       (W/NW)
    • international: Georgia
      Georgia (country)
      Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

       (S/SW)
  • Highest point: Mount Elbrus
    Mount Elbrus
    Mount Elbrus is an inactive volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Mt. Elbrus's peak is the highest in the Caucasus, in Russia...

     (5,642 m)
  • Maximum N->S distance: 167 kilometres (103.8 mi)
  • Maximum E->W distance: 123 kilometres (76.4 mi)

Kabardino-Balkaria is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.

Rivers

Major rivers include:
  • Terek River (623 km)
  • Malka River
    Malka River
    Malka River , also known as Balyksu River , is a river in Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia, Terek's left tributary. The length of the river is 210 km. The area of its basin is 10,000 km². The Malka originates in the glaciers on the northern slopes of Mount Elbrus. Its main tributary is the...

     (216 km)
  • Baksan River
    Baksan River
    Baksan River, also known as Azau is a river in Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia, a right tributary of the Malka River . The length of the Baksan is 173 km, the area of its drainage basin is 6,800 km². The Baksan originates in the glaciers of the Elbrus. The towns of Tyrnyauz and Baksan are located on...

     (173 km)
  • Urukh River
    Urukh River
    Urukh River, known as Kharves in its upper reaches |Digor]]: Ирæф, Iræf), is a river in North Ossetia-Alania and Kabardino-Balkaria , a left tributary of the Terek River. The length of the Urukh is 104 km, the area of its drainage basin is 1280 km². The Urukh originates in the glaciers of the...

     (104 km)
  • Chegem River (102 km)
  • Cherek River
    Cherek River
    Cherek River is a river in Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia, a right tributary of the Baksan River . The length of the Cherek is 76 km, the area of its drainage basin is 3070 km². The Cherek is formed by the confluence of the Cherek-Balkarsky and Cherek-Khulamsky Rivers, both of which originate in the...

     (76 km)
  • Argudan River
  • Kurkuzhin River
  • Lesken River

Lakes

There are around 100 lakes in the republic, none of which are large. Just over half (fifty-five) are located between the Baksan and Malka Rivers, the largest each of an area of no more than 0.01 square kilometre (0.00386102158592535 sq mi). Some of the lakes are:
  • Tserikkel Lake (area 26,000 m²; depth 368 m)
  • Lower Goluboye Lake
  • Kel-Ketchen Lake (depth 177 m)
  • Upper Goluboye Lake (depth 18 m)
  • Sekretnoye Lake
  • Tambukan Lake
    Tambukan Lake
    Tambukan Lake is a lake with bitter-salt water on Northern Caucasus in Stavropol Krai and the Karachay-Cherkess Republic of Russia, located eight kilometers from Pyatigorsk...

     (area 1.77 km²; depth 1.5 to 2 m), partially within Stavropol Krai.

Mountains

  • Mount Elbrus
    Mount Elbrus
    Mount Elbrus is an inactive volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Mt. Elbrus's peak is the highest in the Caucasus, in Russia...

     (5,642 m),
    a volcanic mountain and the highest peak in Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

    , Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    , and the Caucasus
    Caucasus
    The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...


Other major mountains include:
  • Mount Dykhtau
    Dykh-Tau
    Dykh-Tau or Dykhtau , is a mountain located in Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia; its peak stands about north of the border with Georgia.The mountain is the second highest of the Caucasus Mountains, after Mount Elbrus.-Access:...

     (5,402 m)
  • Mount Koshkhatau
    Koshtan-Tau
    Koshtan-Tau , is the highest peak of the Koshtan massif of the central Caucasus Mountains in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Russia, near the border with Georgia.-References:...

     (5,151 m)
  • Mount Shkhara
    Shkhara
    Shkhara , is the highest point in the nation of Georgia. Located in the Svaneti region along the Russian frontier, Shkhara lies north of the city of Kutaisi, Georgia's second largest city. The summit lies in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, to the south-east of Mount...

     (5,068 m)
  • Pushkin Peak (5,033 m)
  • Mount Mizhergi (5,025 m)

Natural resources

Kabardino-Balkaria's natural resources include molybdenum
Molybdenum
Molybdenum , is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, itself proposed as a loanword from Anatolian Luvian and Lydian languages, since its ores were confused with lead ores...

, tungsten
Tungsten
Tungsten , also known as wolfram , is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74.A hard, rare metal under standard conditions when uncombined, tungsten is found naturally on Earth only in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781, and first isolated as...

, and coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

.

Climate

The republic has a continental type climate.
  • Average January temperature: -12 °C (mountains) to -4 °C (plains)
  • Average July temperature: 4 °C (39.2 °F) (mountains) to 23 °C (73.4 °F) (plains)
  • Average annual precipitation
    Precipitation (meteorology)
    In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

    : 500-2,000 mm.

Demographics

  • Populatin:

  • Population: 901,494 (2002)
    • Urban: 510,346 (56.6%)
    • Rural: 391,148 (43.4%)
    • Male: 422,720 (46.9%)
    • Female: 478,774 (53.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,133
  • Average age: 30.9 years
    • Urban: 32.4 years
    • Rural: 29.0 years
    • Male: 29.1 years
    • Female: 32.8 years
  • Number of households: 227,922 (with 891,783 people)
    • Urban: 144,872 (with 504,085 people)
    • Rural: 83,050 (with 387,698 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 11,683 3,913 19.7 6.6
1975 12,315 4,717 19.4 7.4
1980 14,098 5,457 20.7 8.0
1985 15,941 5,854 22.0 8.1
1990 15,412 6,573 20.0 8.5
1991 14,952 6,995 19.0 8.9
1992 13,728 7,093 17.2 8.9
1993 11,781 7,864 14.6 9.7
1994 11,407 8,052 14.0 9.9
1995 10,844 8,236 13.1 9.9
1996 10,293 8,199 12.2 9.8
1997 10,016 7,985 11.7 9.4
1998 9,997 8,201 11.5 9.5
1999 9,221 8,292 10.5 9.5
2000 9,207 8,792 10.4 10.0
2001 8,892 8,778 10.0 9.9
2002 9,119 8,954 10.2 10.0
2003 9,294 9,202 10.3 10.2
2004 9,414 8,695 10.5 9.7
2005 8,991 9,034 10.0 10.1
2006 9,308 8,764 10.4 9.8
2007 11,397 8,441 12.8 9.5
2008 12,052 8,095 13.5 9.1

Ethnic groups

Kabardino-Balkaria consists of two ethnic territories, one predominantly of Kabard
Kabard
Kabarda or Kabard ; are terms referring to a people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin . Originally they Kabarda or Kabard ; are terms referring to a people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term...

in (speakers of a North-West Caucasian language
Northwest Caucasian languages
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Abkhazo-Adyghean, or sometimes Pontic as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages, are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasus region, chiefly in Russia , the disputed territory of Abkhazia, and Turkey, with smaller communities...

) and the other predominantly Balkars
Balkars
The Balkars are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria. They are possibly Bulgars or are descended from them...

 (Bulgar or descended from Bulgars) (speakers of a Turkic language). According to the 2002 Census
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics .-Resident population:...

, Kabardin make up 55.3% of the republic's population, followed by Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

 (25.1%) and Balkars (11.6%). Other groups include Ossetians
Ossetians
The Ossetians are an Iranic ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, eponymous of the region known as Ossetia.They speak Ossetic, an Iranian language of the Eastern branch, with most also fluent in Russian as a second language....

 (9,845, or 1.1%), Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

 (8,770, or 1.0%), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

 (7,592, or 0.8%), Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

 (5,342, or 0.6%), Koreans
Korean people
The Korean people are an ethnic group originating in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria. Koreans are one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous groups in the world.-Names:...

 (4,722, or 0.5%), Chechens (4,241, or 0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

The majority of the population is Muslim.
census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Kabardins 122,402 (60.0%) 152,237 (42.4%) 190,284 (45.3%) 264,675 (45.0%) 303,604 (45.5%) 364,494 (48.2%) 498,702 (55.3%)
Balkars
Balkars
The Balkars are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria. They are possibly Bulgars or are descended from them...

33,197 (16.3%) 40,747 (11.3%) 34,088 (8.1%) 51,356 (8.7%) 59,710 (9.0%) 70,793 (9.4%) 104,951 (11.6%)
Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

15,344 (7.5%) 129,067 (35.9%) 162,586 (38.7%) 218,595 (37.2%) 234,137 (35.1%) 240,750 (31.9%) 226,620 (25.1%)
Ossetians
Ossetians
The Ossetians are an Iranic ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, eponymous of the region known as Ossetia.They speak Ossetic, an Iranian language of the Eastern branch, with most also fluent in Russian as a second language....

4,078 (2.0%) 4,608 (1.3%) 6,442 (1.5%) 9,167 (1.6%) 9,710 (1.5%) 9,996 (1.3%) 9,845 (1.1%)
Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

17,213 (8.4%) 11,142 (3.1%) 8,400 (2.0%) 10,620 (1.8%) 12,139 (1.8%) 12,826 (1.7%) 7,592 (0.8%)
Others 11,772 (5.8%) 21,328 (5.9%) 18,315 (4.4%) 33,790 (5.7%) 47,246 (7.1%) 55,672 (7.4%) 53,784 (6.0%)

Politics

The head of government in Kabardino-Balkaria is the President
President of Kabardino-Balkaria
The President of the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, known commonly as the President of Kabardino-Balkaria, is the highest office within the Government of Kabardino-Balkaria.- References :*...

. The current President is Arsen Kanokov
Arsen Kanokov
Arsen Bashirovich Kanokov is the president of the Kabardino-Balkaria republic in Russia.- Biography :...

, who has held the position since September 2005.

The legislative body of the Republic is the Parliament comprising 72 deputies elected for a five year term.

The Constitution of Kabardino-Balkaria was adopted on September 1, 1997.

Economy

The economy of Kabardino-Balkaria is primarily agricultural
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, with lumber production and mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

. Most of the industry centers on agricultural processing. The fall of the Soviet Union and the outbreak of the various conflicts in the Caucasus have hit the republic hard, causing a collapse in tourism in the region and producing an unemployment level estimated to be as high as 90%. Poverty is reported to be an endemic problem in the republic. Russian investors have invested in local ski resorts in order to attract more tourists.

See also

  • Caucasian Avars
    Caucasian Avars
    Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. The Caucasian Avar language belongs to the Northeast Caucasian language family ....

  • Bulgars
    Bulgars
    The Bulgars were a semi-nomadic who flourished in the Pontic Steppe and the Volga basin in the 7th century.The Bulgars emerge after the collapse of the Hunnic Empire in the 5th century....

  • List of the Chairmen of the Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic
  • Mount Imeon
    Mount Imeon
    Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast...


External links

Official website of the President of the Republic KavkazWeb.net - Daily news from Kabardino-Balkaria Adyga.org - Most popular website of Kabardian people Kabardino-Balkaria information and photo gallery Images of Kabardino-Balkaria http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/4338292.stm Kabardino-Balkaria News Portal
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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