Junkers Jumo 210
Overview
 
The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines...

, produced just before the start of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel
Rolls-Royce Kestrel
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Erfurth, Helmut. Junkers Ju 87 . Bonn, Germany: Bernard & Graefe Verlag, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-186-5....

 in many ways. Although originally intended to be used in almost all pre-war designs, rapid progress in aircraft design quickly relegated it to the small end of the power scale by the late 1930s'.
Encyclopedia
The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines...

, produced just before the start of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel
Rolls-Royce Kestrel
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Erfurth, Helmut. Junkers Ju 87 . Bonn, Germany: Bernard & Graefe Verlag, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-186-5....

 in many ways. Although originally intended to be used in almost all pre-war designs, rapid progress in aircraft design quickly relegated it to the small end of the power scale by the late 1930s'. Almost all aircraft designs switched to the much larger Daimler-Benz DB 600
Daimler-Benz DB 600
|-See also:-References:* Green, William. The Augsburg Eagle: A Documentary History - Messerschmitt Bf 109. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishing Group Ltd. 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0005-4...

, so the 210 was produced only for a short time before Junkers responded with a larger engine of their own, the Junkers Jumo 211
Junkers Jumo 211
|-See also:-References:* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

.

Design and development

The first gasoline-burning aviation powerplants that the Junkers Motorenwerke ever built, the L1 and L2 single overhead camshaft (SOHC) liquid-cooled inline-6 aviation engines of the early and mid-1920s, leading up through the L8, were basically all developments of the BMW IIIa inline-6 SOHC German World War I aviation engine, which were approved of by BMW as the parent Bavarian firm was no longer interested in development of their WW I aviation engine line. The Junkers L55 engine, however, was the very first V12 layout aviation powerplant of any type created by the Junkers firm, using a pair of the earlier straight-six L5 engines as a basis for an "upright" liquid-cooled V12 aviation engine, as the contemporary BMW VI
BMW VI
|-See also:- External links :...

 engine already was.

Development of the Jumo 210 itself started in 1931 under the designation L10. The L10 was Germany's first truly modern engine design, featuring three valves per cylinder, an inverted-V layout, a supercharger
Supercharger
A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine.The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be burned and more work to be done per cycle,...

 as standard equipment, and a cast cylinder block. The 210 was odd in that the cylinders were machined into a block along with one side of the crankcase, two such parts being bolted together side-by-side to form the engine. Normal construction techniques used three parts, two cylinder blocks and a separate crankcase.

The L10 was first ran in static tests on October, 22nd 1932. With the official formation of the RLM
Reich Air Ministry
thumb|300px|The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938The Ministry of Aviation was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany...

 in 1933, engine naming was rationalized with Junkers receiving the "200 block", the L10 becoming the 210. Type approval was achieved in March 1934, and it first flew on July 5th 1934 installed in a Junkers W33. The design had initially aimed for 700 PS, but the prototypes delivered only about 600 PS, so there was some disappointment in the industry. Nevertheless almost all German aircraft designs of the era were based on the 210, which is why they were so small compared to other country's efforts.

Initial production of the 610 PS (602 hp, 449 kW) Jumo 210A started in late 1934. Further development led in 1935 to the 640 PS (631 hp, 471 kW) 210B and 210C. Both added a new supercharger
Supercharger
A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine.The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be burned and more work to be done per cycle,...

 for improved performance, along with a dump valve to avoid overboost. The B model had its propeller geared at 1:1.55 (prop:engine rpm) for high-speed use, while the C model was geared at 1:1.63 for slower flying speeds. In 1936 the new 670 PS (661 hp, 493 kW) 210 D and 210E were introduced, which had the same gearing as the B/C but used a new two-speed supercharger to increase takeoff power and altitude performance.

The Jumo 210G had a direct injection system
Gasoline direct injection
In internal combustion engines, gasoline direct injection , also known as petrol direct injection or direct petrol injection, is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines...

 developed by Dr. Lichte. The Jumo system used a small pump piston positioned beside each of the main cylinders, driven off the crank shaft. The injector used a simple check valve to prevent internal pressure from blowing back into the fuel line, and the pump was timed to inject at the proper point in the intake cycle. Inclusion of the injection system increased takeoff performance by about 20 PS without increasing boost rates and it also reduced fuel consumption. For those reasons most newer German engine types were set up with fuel injection systems. The Jumo 210G was rated at 700 PS (690 hp, 515 kW) and was only available for fast aircraft like the Bf 109
Messerschmitt Bf 109
The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109, was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during the early to mid 1930s...

 or Bf 110
Messerschmitt Bf 110
The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often called Me 110, was a twin-engine heavy fighter in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Hermann Göring was a proponent of the Bf 110, and nicknamed it his Eisenseiten...

 but not for slow aircraft like the Ju 87
Junkers Ju 87
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was a two-man German ground-attack aircraft...

.

Further developments were planned as Jumo 210F and 210H, but never built. In 1935 the Jumo 210H was used for development of the Jumo 211. A Jumo 210S was a special development by the DVL with special regulation mechanisms. Production of the Jumo 210 came to an end in about 1938.

Applications

  • Arado Ar 68 - only in Ar 98E
  • Focke-Wulf Fw 159
    Focke-Wulf Fw 159
    -References:...

  • Focke-Wulf Fw 187
    Focke-Wulf Fw 187
    The Focke-Wulf Fw 187 Falke was a German aircraft developed in the late 1930s. It was created by Kurt Tank as a twin-engine, high-performance fighter, but the Luftwaffe never saw a need for the design, which fitted "between" the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Bf 110...

  • Heinkel He 112
    Heinkel He 112
    The Heinkel He 112 was a fighter aircraft designed by Walter and Siegfried Günter. It was one of four aircraft designed to compete for the Luftwaffes 1933 fighter contract, which was eventually won by the Messerschmitt Bf 109...

  • Junkers Ju 87
    Junkers Ju 87
    The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was a two-man German ground-attack aircraft...

     - only in Ju 87A
  • Messerschmitt Bf 109
    Messerschmitt Bf 109
    The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109, was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during the early to mid 1930s...

     - only in Bf 109 A-D
  • Messerschmitt Bf 110
    Messerschmitt Bf 110
    The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often called Me 110, was a twin-engine heavy fighter in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Hermann Göring was a proponent of the Bf 110, and nicknamed it his Eisenseiten...

     - only in Bf 110 A/B
  • Messerschmitt Me 262
    Messerschmitt Me 262
    The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but engine problems prevented the aircraft from attaining operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid-1944...

     V1 - Only in first test flight, prototype's BMW 003 axial-flow jet engines failed shortly after takeoff, aircraft brought around and back on the nose-mounted Jumo 210's power alone.

Specifications (Jumo 210)

See also

External links

  • http://www.junkers.de.vu
  • http://web.archive.org/web/20091027094642/http://geocities.com/hjunkers/ju_jumo210_a1.htm
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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