Junkers
Overview
 
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM), more commonly Junkers, was a major German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 aircraft manufacturer. It produced some of the world's most innovative and best-known airplanes over the course of its fifty-plus year history in Dessau
Dessau
Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it is part of the merged town Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973 .-Geography:...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It was founded there in 1895 by Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas show...

, initially manufacturing boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s and radiator
Radiator (heating)
Radiators and convectors are heat exchangers designed to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of space heating. The heating radiator was invented by Franz San Galli, a Prussian-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, between 1855–1857.- Radiation vs...

s. During World War I, and following the war, the company became famous for its pioneering all-metal aircraft.
Encyclopedia
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM), more commonly Junkers, was a major German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 aircraft manufacturer. It produced some of the world's most innovative and best-known airplanes over the course of its fifty-plus year history in Dessau
Dessau
Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it is part of the merged town Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973 .-Geography:...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It was founded there in 1895 by Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas show...

, initially manufacturing boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s and radiator
Radiator (heating)
Radiators and convectors are heat exchangers designed to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of space heating. The heating radiator was invented by Franz San Galli, a Prussian-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, between 1855–1857.- Radiation vs...

s. During World War I, and following the war, the company became famous for its pioneering all-metal aircraft. During World War II the company produced some of the most successful Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 planes, as well as piston and jet
Jet engine
A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet to generate thrust by jet propulsion and in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets...

 aircraft engines, albeit in the absence of its founder, who by then had been removed by the Nazis.

World War I

The history of Junkers aircraft production begins with the Junkers J 1
Junkers J 1
The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel , was the world's first practical all-metal aircraft. Built early in World War I, when aircraft designers relied largely on fabric-covered wooden structures, the Junkers J 1 was a revolutionary development in aircraft design, being built and flown only 12...

mid-wing monoplane
Monoplane
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

 (not to be confused with the later, all-metal sesquiplane ground attack aircraft J.I
Junkers J.I
-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Flight 18 March 1920* Grey, C. G. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1919. London: Putnam, 1919.* Grosz, P.M. Junkers J.I, Windsock Datafile 39. Hertfordshire, UK: Albatros Productions Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-948414-49-9.* Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia...

 which had a factory designation J4). Research for this aircraft began in 1914 and was interrupted by the start of the First World War. The prototype aircraft, named the Blechesel (Tin Donkey), was completed in very late 1915 after the outbreak of the war. This aircraft is significant in that it was the first flyable aircraft to utilize an all-metal "total structural" design. Contemporary aircraft were built around wooden frames constructed in a rib-and-stringer fashion, reinforced with wires, and covered with a stretched fabric. The J 1 was a semi-monocoque design, using steel ribs and sheeting that formed both the stringers and the skin. At the time aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 was still fairly expensive and the desirable, newest light duralumin
Duralumin
Duralumin is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese, and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5%...

 alloy could not be worked in sheet form without damaging flaking occurring, so the J 1 was made of sheet electrical steel
Electrical steel
Electrical steel, also called lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel or transformer steel, is specialty steel tailored to produce certain magnetic properties, such as a small hysteresis area and high permeability.The material is usually manufactured in the form of...

. It was quite heavy as a result, which translated into poor climb and maneuverability, yet its clean monoplane
Monoplane
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

 layout, which even featured a ventral "belly" radiator
Radiator (engine cooling)
Radiators are used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine....

 installation for its Mercedes D.II inline-six cylinder engine, had very low drag, and the J1 was one of the fastest planes of its day, reaching speeds of 170 km/h, with only a 120 hp engine for power.

Following the J 1, a series of "J-designated" aircraft followed, each advancing the state of the art in terms of strength and weight, but no single design progressed much beyond the prototype stage in terms of production potential. The Junkers J 2
Junkers J 2
The Junkers J 2 was the first all-metal aircraft intended as a dedicated military aircraft design, the first all-metal aircraft meant to be a fighter aircraft, and was the direct descendant of the pioneering J 1 all-metal aircraft technology demonstrator design of 1915.-Development:Only some two...

 was an extensively "cleaned up" and armed single-seat fighter descendent of the J 1, while the J 3, a never-completed single rotary engine
Rotary engine
The rotary engine was an early type of internal-combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary and the entire cylinder block rotated around it...

d mid-wing monoplane design, replaced the steel sheeting with corrugated
Corrugated
The term corrugated, describing a series of parallel ridges and furrows, may refer to the following:*Corrugated fiberboard also called corrugated cardboard*Corrugated galvanised iron*Corrugated plastic*Corrugated Frog...

 duralumin
Duralumin
Duralumin is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese, and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5%...

. IdFlieg
Idflieg
The Idflieg was the bureau of the German War Office that oversaw German military aviation prior to and during World War I....

, in charge of aircraft evaluation, was unconvinced of the monoplane layout of these designs, and ordered a sesquiplane design as the J 4. Junkers took this opportunity to produce all the flying surfaces (wings and horizontal stabilizer) of the J 4 aircraft of corrugated duralumin (except for some fabric on the rear fuselage, and the armored steel fuselage "bathtub") in order to lower weight. The J 4 became Junkers' first design to enter production, with orders totalling 283, of which about 184 were delivered to operational units. Since it was the first design from Junkers to serve in the Luftstreitkräfte's "J-class" of armored, infantry co-operation aircraft, which also had aircraft designed by Albatros
Albatros J.I
|-See also:-References:* Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam, 1962. ISBN 0-933852-71-1....

 and AEG
AEG J.I
The AEG J.I was a German biplane ground attack aircraft of 1917, an armored and more powerful version of the AEG C.IV reconnaissance aircraft.-Design and development:...

 serving with it in the same capacity, the curious and confusing instance of the Junkers J 4 armored all-metal sesquiplane getting the German military designation "J.I" was one caused solely by the Luftstreitkräfte's choice of letter for all of their armored, ground forces co-operation aircraft class in World War I, with other J-class aircraqft coming from Albatros Flugzeugwerke
Albatros Flugzeugwerke
Albatros-Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer best known for supplying the German airforces during World War I.The company was based in Johannisthal, Berlin, where it was founded by Walter Huth and Otto Wiener on December 20, 1909. It produced some of the most capable fighter aircraft...

 and the aviation division of AEG
AEG
Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft was a German producer of electrical equipment founded in 1883 by Emil Rathenau....

.

Junkers continued to believe in the monoplane layout, and continued the J-series with a number of newer monoplane designs. One of the most successful was the J 7, which was later stretched to form the two-seat J 8. The J 8 was the first cantilever monoplane design, and looked extremely "modern" when compared to contemporary wire-braced biplane designs. The J 8 was put into limited production by the Junkers-Fokker
Fokker
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919....

 Werke as the J 10, a small number of which saw service on the Eastern Front just before the war ended. Likewise, the single-seat J 7 itself led to the J 9 design, built in small numbers by both the Junkers firm itself (abbreviated "Jco" or "Jko"), and the Junkers-Fokker-Werke AG
Aktiengesellschaft
Aktiengesellschaft is a German term that refers to a corporation that is limited by shares, i.e. owned by shareholders, and may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria and Switzerland...

 (abbreviated "Jfa"), as the Junkers D.I
Junkers D.I
-External links:* *...

 low wing fighter plane, with the "Jfa" collaborative firm founded through strong influence of the German government on October 20, 1917.

The corrugated duralumin wing and fuselage "skin" introduced in the J-series became a trademark of Junkers aircraft built in the 1920s and 30s. Development continued during the course of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, including a growing (but troublesome) partnership with Fokker, as the Junkers-Fokker Aktiengesellschaft, or "Junkers-Fokker Werke", abbreviated "Jfa" by the German government of the time and founded on October 20, 1917. Several Junkers designs were licensed to Fokker during this period. The visual similarity of Junkers and Fokker aircraft during the next decade, especially after Reinhold Platz
Reinhold Platz
Reinhold Platz was a German aircraft designer and manufacturer in service of the Dutch company Fokker....

 adapted some of the Junkers design concepts, but mostly crafted in wood for the Fokker designs' wing structures instead of the all-metal Junkers construction techniques, is attributable to this early affiliation. The Great War ended with German Navy trials of model J11 which was an all metal floatplane prototype.

Early inter-war period

In the immediate post-war era, Junkers used their J8 layout as the basis for the F-13, first flown on 25 June 1919 and certified airworthy in July of the same year. This four passenger monoplane was the world's first all-metal airliner. Of note, in addition to significant European sales, some twenty-five of these airplanes were delivered to North American customers under the Junkers-Larsen affiliate and were used primarily as airmail planes.

The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

 signed only days after the F-13
Junkers F.13
The Junkers F.13 was the world's first all-metal transport aircraft, developed in Germany at the end of World War I. It was an advanced cantilever-wing monoplane, with enclosed accommodation for four passengers. Over 300 were sold...

 flew, initially forbade any aircraft construction in Germany for several months. After that span of time only the design of civilian aircraft was permitted to Germany. Junkers developed a series of progressively larger civil aircraft including the single-engined G.24
Junkers G 24
The Junkers G 24 was a German three-engine, all-metal low-wing monoplane passenger aircraft manufactured by Junkers from 1925. Junkers F 24 was the designation for single-engine versions of the same aircraft.-Design and development:...

 and three-engined G.31
Junkers G 31
|-See also:-External links:* * * *...

. Neither aircraft was a commercial success. With the expiration of treaty restrictions in 1926, Junkers introduced the Junkers W33 and Junkers W34 series which did find significant commercial success via large production orders in passenger, freight hauling, and, somewhat later, military configurations. The W-33/W-34 series also set multiple aviation "firsts" including records for flight duration, flight distance, altitude, rocket assisted take-off and inflight refueling between 1926 and 1930.

Junkers' produced a design study in 1924 for a visit to the United States. The study outlined a four-engined 80-passenger plane, incorporating a forward canard wing, as well as a main wing, both of which were fitted above twin pylons. Called the Junkers J.1000 Super Duck passenger seating was to be provided both in the main wing and the hull sections of the craft. This Junkers design, including a scale model, was intended to illustrate an aircraft capable of trans-Atlantic operations of 8 to 10 hours and was completely revolutionary for its day.

The basic principles outlined in this design were later introduced in the Junkers G.38
Junkers G.38
-Bibliography:* junkers.de * junkers.de - External links :* * Popular Mechanics, February 1930* article includes photo and cutaway drawing* cutaway drawing of G.38 better than 1931 article...

, which was introduced and put into regular service by Deutsche Luft Hansa
Deutsche Luft Hansa
Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. was a German airline, serving as flag carrier of the country during the later years of the Weimar Republic and throughout the Third Reich.-1920s:Deutsche Luft Hansa was founded on 6 January 1926 in Berlin...

. At the time of its introduction, this four-engined transport was the largest landplane in the world carrying thirty-four passengers and seven crew members. The G.38 sat some of its passengers in the wing area outboard of the fuselage, the front of which was covered with windows.

Also, in 1932, Junkers joint project with Maybach
Maybach
Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH is a German luxury car manufacturer. It was founded in 1909 by Wilhelm Maybach and his son. The company was originally a subsidiary of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH and was itself known as Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH until 1912.Today, the ultra-luxury car brand is owned by...

 designed and built an aerodynamic car but found due to the depression that the market for high end luxury cars was saturated.

Financial troubles

Around 1931 the company suffered from a series of financial difficulties that led to the collapse of the group of companies. The existing shareholders pressured Hugo to leave the company. Hugo, however, was the patent
Patent
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention....

 holder on a wide variety of the technologies used in most of the existing Junkers designs, including many of their engines.

A plan was started to solve both problems by "buying out" Hugo's engine patent portfolio and placing it into the hands of a new company, the Junkers Motoren-Patentstelle GmbH, which was eventually formed in November 1932. The new company would then license the technologies back to the various companies, most notably what was then Junkers Motorenbau (one of many "Jumo" companies). However, before Junkers actually transferred his patents to the Patentstelle, the collapse of the Junkers consortium was solved by the sale of the Junkers Thermo Technik GmbH to Robert Bosch
Robert Bosch
Robert Bosch was a German industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH.-Biography:...

, who still uses the brand name to the present.

Nazi takeover

The Nazi party came to power in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 in 1933, and all German aviation development was shifted away from long-range civil aircraft types. Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers
Hugo Junkers was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas show...

 himself was forced to transfer all his patents to the Nazis, who doubted that Junkers would comply with their plans. Shortly after, his holdings were expropriated and he was placed under house arrest. The company that had pioneered commercial aviation development for at least a decade was relegated to relatively small one- and two-engined military design competitions issued by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) the "Reich Aviation Ministry". Two exceptions to this were the legendary Ju 52
Junkers Ju 52
The Junkers Ju 52 was a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1932 to 1945. It saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler...

 and the Ju 90
Junkers Ju 90
The Junkers Ju 90 was a 40-seat, four-engine airliner developed for and used by Deutsche Luft Hansa shortly before World War II. It was based on the rejected Ju 89 bomber...

.

Ju 52 development had started in 1928 as a single-engined commercial transport and evolved, initially to a two-engined, later into the classic "trimotor" design for which the Tante Ju became world famous. The Ju 52 was a bona fide commercial success, with over 400 airplanes delivered to various airlines around the world prior to the outbreak of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, including the countries of: Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

, Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador , officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border...

, Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

, Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, and of course, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. As a consequence of its rugged design, Spain and France resumed Ju 52 production after cessation of the Second World War.

With the introduction of the Junkers Ju 86
Junkers Ju 86
The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s, and employed by both sides during World War II. The civilian model Ju 86B could carry 10 passengers. Two were delivered to Swissair and five to Luft Hansa...

 bomber of 1934, Junkers abandoned the corrugated sheeting of his earlier designs. The basic layout was used in the four-engine Junkers Ju 89
Junkers Ju 89
|-See also:-External links:*...

 heavy bomber
Heavy bomber
A heavy bomber is a bomber aircraft of the largest size and load carrying capacity, and usually the longest range.In New START, the term "heavy bomber" is used for two types of bombers:*one with a range greater than 8,000 kilometers...

, but this program ended with the death of Walther Wever
Walther Wever (general)
Walther Wever was a pre-World War II Luftwaffe Commander.-Early life:Walther Wever was born on 11 November 1887 in Wilhelmsort in the county of Bromberg . He was the son of Arnold Wever, the one-time director of a Berlin bank and the grandson of the Prussian Prosecutor-General Dr...

, and his Ural bomber
Ural bomber
The Ural bomber was a program to develop a long-range bomber for the Luftwaffe, created and led by General Walther Wever in the early 1930s. Wever died in an air crash in 1936 and the program ended almost immediately...

 program along with him. Junkers then adapted the Ju 89 to passenger use, introducing the Junkers Ju 90
Junkers Ju 90
The Junkers Ju 90 was a 40-seat, four-engine airliner developed for and used by Deutsche Luft Hansa shortly before World War II. It was based on the rejected Ju 89 bomber...

, one of the first planes specifically designed for scheduled trans-Atlantic flights to the US. Developed in 1937, the aircraft suffered multiple setbacks with crashes of prototypes in 1937 and 1938. Further refinements enabled certification in 1939 and spurred South African Airways
South African Airways
South African Airways is the national flag carrier and largest airline of South Africa, with headquarters in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. The airline flies to 36 destinations worldwide from its hub at OR Tambo International...

 to make an initial order for two aircraft fitted with US-built Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

 engines. Just as the aircraft was being readied for its first commercial flights, World War II began. With the outbreak of hostilities, all models were requisitioned by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 for military air-transport roles, and later, long-range maritime patrol.

World War II

Military aircraft production was begun by the company in the 1930s and eventually monopolized all its resources. Perhaps the most notable design was the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Junkers Ju 87
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was a two-man German ground-attack aircraft...

 dive bomber
Dive bomber
A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops. Diving towards the target reduces the distance the bomb has to fall, which is the primary factor in determining the accuracy of the drop...

, one of the Luftwaffe's most effective aerial weapons (at least in the early war period) and continually used for bombing attacks as an integral part of the Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
For other uses of the word, see: Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg is an anglicized word describing all-motorised force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery, combat engineers and air power, concentrating overwhelming force at high speed to break through enemy lines, and, once the lines are broken,...

 strategy. The Stuka was used both for precision tactical bombing and the strafing of enemy positions, acting as a sort of "airborne artillery" that was able to keep up with the fast-moving tanks and attack defended points long before traditional artillery
Artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 could be brought into range. Later in the war it was fitted with a large cannon and employed in a "tank busting" role against Soviet armour. It gained much notoriety for its use at both Dunkirk and later Stalingrad, where it caused enormous destruction under Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Field Marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.-Etymology:The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses , from the time of the early Frankish kings.-Usage and hierarchical...

 Wolfram von Richthofen
Wolfram von Richthofen
Dr.-Ing. Wolfram Freiherr von RichthofenIn German a Doctorate in engineering is abbreviated as Dr.-Ing. . was a German Generalfeldmarschall of the Luftwaffe during the Second World War...

's VIII Air Corps.

Perhaps even more successful was the Junkers Ju 88
Junkers Ju 88
The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company through the services of two American aviation engineers in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early...

, the primary light bomber
Light bomber
A light bomber is a relatively small and fast class of military bomber aircraft which were primarily employed before the 1950s. Such aircraft would typically not carry more than one ton of ordnance....

 of the German forces. It was used in practically every role imaginable; level bomber, shallow-angle dive bomber, night fighter
Night fighter
A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility...

, and bomber destroyer
Bomber destroyer
Historically, several aircraft were designated bomber destroyers prior and during the Second World War. They were interceptor aircraft dedicated to destroy enemy bomber aircraft with exceptionally powerful armament...

, as well as in anti-shipping raids. A variety of improved versions were also produced over the course of the war, including the Ju 188
Junkers Ju 188
The Junkers Ju 188 was a German Luftwaffe high-performance medium bomber built during World War II, the planned follow-on to the famed Ju 88 with better performance and payload...

 and Ju 388
Junkers Ju 388
The Junkers Ju 388 Störtebeker was a World War II German Luftwaffe multi-role aircraft based on the Ju 88 airframe by way of the Ju 188. It differed from its predecessors in being intended for high altitude operation, with design features such as a pressurized cockpit for its crew...

 which included numerous features for better performance, but never replaced the Ju 88 outright. A much more formidable aircraft was also planned, the Junkers Ju 288
Junkers Ju 288
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Hitchcock, Thomas H. Junkers 288 . Acton, MA: Monogram Aviation Publications, 1974. ISBN 0-914144-02-2.-External links:...

, but the required high-power engines never worked and the effort was eventually abandoned.

A total of 4,845 Ju 52s
Junkers Ju 52
The Junkers Ju 52 was a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1932 to 1945. It saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler...

 were produced before and during the war. The wide availability of Ju 52s enabled their immediate utilization for the German war effort as a transport aircraft for delivering men and supplies. They were additionally used, with minor modification, to carry out bombing raids. Prior to World War II, the Ju 52 was utilized in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

, where it took part in the Condor Legion
Condor Legion
The Condor Legion was a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force and from the German Army which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939. The Condor Legion developed methods of terror bombing which were used widely in the Second World War...

's destructive raids on Durango
Durango, Bizkaia
Durango is a city and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is also the capital city of Durangaldea, one of the comarcas of Biscay...

 and Guernica in 1937 which illustrated to the world—for the first time—the destructive potential and horror of strategic bombing. Unfortunately for its pilots and military passengers, by the outbreak of World War II, the Ju 52 was a thoroughly obsolete military design and unlike many other famous Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 aircraft, the Tante Ju was cumbersome, slow, and therefore vulnerable to attack. This resulted in many losses, namely at Crete
Crete
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

 and Stalingrad.

Post World War II

The Junkers company survived the Second World War and was reconstituted as Junkers GmbH and eventually merged into the MBB
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm was a German aerospace company formed as the result of several mergers in the late 1960s. Among its best-known products was the MBB Bo 105 light twin helicopter...

 consortium. Within West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

, Junkers GmbH was engaged in research on the future of aerospace transportation during the fifties and early-1960s. During this period, Junkers employed the famous Austrian engineer and space travel theorist, Eugen Sänger
Eugen Sänger
Eugen Sänger was an Austrian-German aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology.-Early career:...

, who in 1961 completed work for the design of an advanced orbital spacecraft at Junkers.

Junkers Jumo

Junkers also ran an engine factory, and in 1923 they separated it from the parent to form its own company, Junkers Motoren, or Jumo. This company expanded greatly in the 1920s and 30s, with factories spread across Germany. Jumo was the first German company to offer a truly modern engine suitable for aviation in the form of the 650 hp Jumo 210
Junkers Jumo 210
The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine, produced just before the start of World War II. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel in many ways...

. But with the rapid advances in airframes, after a few short years this engine was considered to be underpowered, causing Jumo to respond with the much larger Jumo 211
Junkers Jumo 211
|-See also:-References:* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the 211 saw widespread use in Junkers bombers but was little used otherwise, due largely to the better power output of the competing Daimler-Benz DB 601
Daimler-Benz DB 601
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Mankau, Heinz and Peter Petrick. Messerschmitt Bf 110, Me 210, Me 410. Raumfahrt, Germany: Aviatic Verlag, 2001. ISBN 3-92550-562-8.* Neil Gregor Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich. Yale University Press, 1998-External links:...

. Further development of the 211 led to the superb Jumo 213
Junkers Jumo 213
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

, which was in high demand for practically every late-war piston-engined aircraft. The Jumo 004
Junkers Jumo 004
The Jumo 004 was the world's first turbojet engine in production and operational use, and the first successful axial compressor jet engine ever built. Some 8,000 units were manufactured by Junkers in Germany during late World War II and powered the operational Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter,...

 jet engine
Jet engine
A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet to generate thrust by jet propulsion and in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets...

 was the first to be considered production quality, and was used in the then revolutionary Messerschmitt Me 262
Messerschmitt Me 262
The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but engine problems prevented the aircraft from attaining operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid-1944...

 jet fighter.

Aircraft

Junker's early aircraft were identified by the letter J for Junkers followed by a type number. From 1919 they introduced an additional sales designation using the same number but prefixed by a letter indicating the role of the aircraft:
A = Austausschflugzeug (suitable for either civil or military use)
EF = Entwurf-Flugzeug (experimental aircraft)
F = Flugzeug (aircraft)
G = Grossflugzeug (large aircraft)
H = aircraft built at Junker's Moscow plant
K = Kampflugzeug (combat aircraft)
S = Spezial (special)
T = (trainer)
W = Wasserflugzeug (seaplane).


Just once, the same number was used to identify two different completed types. This pair was the T 23 and G23, both also known as J 23.

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, machines in service had another designation, provided by the Flugzeugmeisterei (Air Ministry), again a letter number system indicating role:
CL = two-seat ground attack
D = single-seat biplane scout, by 1918 used for all single seat scouts.
E = single-seat monoplane scout
J = two-seat armoured close support biplane.


The best known and most confusing example is the Junkers J 4, known to the military as the Junkers J 1.

The single letter company letter was not replaced by Ju until 1933. This RLM
Reich Air Ministry
thumb|300px|The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938The Ministry of Aviation was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany...

 system applied to all German manufacturers; the first Junkers aircraft to receive a Ju number was the W 33, so retrospectively it became the Ju 33. However, earlier aircraft built in Moscow like the H 21 were often described by a Ju number, e.g. Ju 21.

  • Junkers J 1
    Junkers J 1
    The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel , was the world's first practical all-metal aircraft. Built early in World War I, when aircraft designers relied largely on fabric-covered wooden structures, the Junkers J 1 was a revolutionary development in aircraft design, being built and flown only 12...

    , (no military designation) experimental single seater, 1915.
  • Junkers J 2
    Junkers J 2
    The Junkers J 2 was the first all-metal aircraft intended as a dedicated military aircraft design, the first all-metal aircraft meant to be a fighter aircraft, and was the direct descendant of the pioneering J 1 all-metal aircraft technology demonstrator design of 1915.-Development:Only some two...

    , (military E.I) experimental single seater, designed as fighter, 1916.
  • Junkers J 3, mid-wing monoplane, cancelled before completion, first proposed corrugated-skin duralumin
    Duralumin
    Duralumin is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese, and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5%...

     design.
  • Junkers J 4, (military J.I) sesquiplane close support aircraft, 1917
  • Junkers J 5, unbuilt monoplane scout with engine behind pilot.
  • Junkers J 6, unbuilt parasol monoplane scout.
  • Junkers J 7, prototype for J 9, 1917.
  • Junkers J 8, prototype for J 10 & 11, 1917.
  • Junkers J 9, (military D.I) single-seat fighter, built in J.9/I and J.9/II (lengthened wingspan and rear fuselage) versions, 1918.
  • Junkers J 10, (military CL.I) monoplane
    Monoplane
    A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

     close support aircraft, 1918.
  • Junkers J 11, (navy C3MG) floatplane
    Floatplane
    A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage; only the floats of a floatplane normally come into contact with water, with the fuselage remaining above water...

     version of J 10, 1918.
  • Junkers J 12, project only.
  • Junkers F 13, passenger plane, 1919 originally J 13, sold as Junkers-Larsen in US, 1919.
  • Junkers J 15
    Junkers J 15
    -References:...

    , precursor of J/K 16, 1920
  • Junkers K 16, small single-engined passenger plane, alternatively known as J 16, 1922.
  • Junkers T 19
    Junkers T 19
    -References:...

    , trainer and tourer, 1922.
  • Junkers A 20, light transport, 1923.
  • Junkers J 21, also known as T 21 and H 21, reconnaissance aircraft for Red Army built in Russia, 1923.
  • Junkers J 22, also known as H 22, for Red Army, fighter similar to J 21, 1922
  • Junkers T 23
    Junkers T 23
    -References:...

    , sports mono- or biplane, 1923
  • Junkers G 23, 3-engined airliner, 1923
  • Junkers G 24
    Junkers G 24
    The Junkers G 24 was a German three-engine, all-metal low-wing monoplane passenger aircraft manufactured by Junkers from 1925. Junkers F 24 was the designation for single-engine versions of the same aircraft.-Design and development:...

    , enlarged G 23, 1925
  • Junkers F 24, single-engined development of G 23, 1928
  • Junkers T 26, training and sports aircraft, 1925.
  • Junkers J 29
    Junkers J 29
    -References:...

    , sports monoplane, double wing development aircraft, 1925.
  • Junkers K 30, military version of G 24.
  • Junkers G 31
    Junkers G 31
    |-See also:-External links:* * * *...

    , 15 seat airliner, 1926.
  • Junkers A 32
    Junkers A 32
    |-References:* *...

    , experimental monoplane, 1926.
  • Junkers W 33
    Junkers W 33
    The Junkers W 33 was a German-built singled-engine transport aircraft. It was aerodynamically and structurally advanced for its time , a clean, low-wing all metal cantilever monoplane. Almost 200 were produced...

    , single-engined light transport, 1926.

  • Junkers W 34, single-engine light transport+reconnaissance (development of W33), 1933.
  • Junkers A 35
    Junkers A 35
    -See also:*...

    , postal, training and military aircraft, 1926.
  • Junkers S 36, experimental light bomber, 1927.
  • Junkers K 37
    Junkers K 37
    |-References:* *...

    , light bomber,1928.
  • Junkers G 38, four-engined commercial transport, world's largest landplane when built, 1929.
  • Junkers K 39, experimental light bomber, 1927.
  • Junkers K 43, reconnaissance monoplane, 1927.
  • Junkers Ju 46
    Junkers Ju 46
    |-See also:-Bibliography:...

    , catapult mailplane derived from W 34.
  • Junkers K 47
    Junkers K 47
    |-References:* * * -External links:*...

    , close support aircraft, prototype of K.48, 1927.
  • Junkers A 48, production dive bomber, 1928.
  • Junkers Ju 49
    Junkers Ju 49
    |-See also:-Cited sources:* Cornelisse, Diana G. Splended Vision, Unswerving Purpose; Developing Air Power for the United States Air Force During the First Century of Powered Flight. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: U.S. Air Force Publications, 2002. ISBN 0-16-067599-5....

    , high altitude research aircraft, 1931.
  • Junkers A 50, sports monoplaneplane, 1929.
  • Junkers K 51, Ki 20 heavy bomber for Japan, c.1934.
  • Junkers Ju 52
    Junkers Ju 52
    The Junkers Ju 52 was a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1932 to 1945. It saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler...

    , single-engined precursor to Ju 52/3m, 1930
  • Junkers Ju 52/3m
    Junkers Ju 52
    The Junkers Ju 52 was a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1932 to 1945. It saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler...

     Tante Ju (Auntie Ju), passenger airliner and freighter, used as transport + bomber during World War II, 1932.
  • Junkers Ju 60
    Junkers Ju 60
    |-References:* *...

    , low wing high speed airliner, 1932.
  • Junkers EF 61
    Junkers EF 61
    The Junkers EF 61 was a German prototype twin-engined high-altitude bomber aircraft of the 1930s. Only two examples were built, but it provided valuable information on pressure cabins which aided the design of later pressurised aircraft....

    , high-altitude fighter + reconnaissance (prototype), 1936.
  • Junkers Ju 86
    Junkers Ju 86
    The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s, and employed by both sides during World War II. The civilian model Ju 86B could carry 10 passengers. Two were delivered to Swissair and five to Luft Hansa...

    , twin-engined Airliner, bomber + reconnaissance, 1934.
  • Junkers Ju 87
    Junkers Ju 87
    The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was a two-man German ground-attack aircraft...

    , Stuka, dive-bomber, 1935.
  • Junkers Ju 88
    Junkers Ju 88
    The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company through the services of two American aviation engineers in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early...

    , bomber + reconnaissance + night-fighter.
  • Junkers Ju 89
    Junkers Ju 89
    |-See also:-External links:*...

    , heavy transport, heavy bomber (prototype), 1936.
  • Junkers Ju 90
    Junkers Ju 90
    The Junkers Ju 90 was a 40-seat, four-engine airliner developed for and used by Deutsche Luft Hansa shortly before World War II. It was based on the rejected Ju 89 bomber...

    , heavy Transport, 1937.
  • Junkers Ju 160
    Junkers Ju 160
    |-See also:-Bibliography:...

    , low wing high speed airliner developed from Ju 60, 1934.
  • Junkers Ju 187
    Junkers Ju 187
    -References:D. Herwig & H. Rode Luftwaffe Secret Projects - Ground Attack & Special Purpose Aircraft. ISBN 1-85780-150-4-External links:*...

    , close support aircraft project, cancelled after mock-up built.
  • Junkers Ju 188
    Junkers Ju 188
    The Junkers Ju 188 was a German Luftwaffe high-performance medium bomber built during World War II, the planned follow-on to the famed Ju 88 with better performance and payload...

    , Rächer, bomber, 1941.
  • Junkers Ju 248, re-designation of Me 263
    Messerschmitt Me 263
    -See also:http://www.aviastar.org/air/germany/me-263.php-References:* David Myhra, "Messerschmitt Me 263", Schiffer Publishing, 1999...

    .
  • Junkers Ju 252
    Junkers Ju 252
    -References:* Green, William. Warplanes of the Third Reich. New York:Doubleday, 1972. ISBN 0-385-05782-2.-External links:* *...

    , transport, 1941.
  • Junkers Ju 287
    Junkers Ju 287
    -Bibliography:* Hitchcock, Thomas H. Junkers 287 . Acton, MA: Monogram Aviation Publications, 1974. ISBN 0-914144-01-4.-External links:*...

    , prototype jet-engined bomber with swept forward wings, 1945.
  • Junkers Ju 288
    Junkers Ju 288
    |-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Hitchcock, Thomas H. Junkers 288 . Acton, MA: Monogram Aviation Publications, 1974. ISBN 0-914144-02-2.-External links:...

    , bomber (prototype), 1941.
  • Junkers Ju 290
    Junkers Ju 290
    The Junkers Ju 290 was a long-range transport, maritime patrol aircraft and heavy bomber used by the Luftwaffe late in World War II.-Design and development:...

    , transport, patrol, 1941.
  • Junkers Ju 322
    Junkers Ju 322
    -See also:-Bibliography:* Green, William. Warplanes of the Third Reich. London: Macdonald and Jane's Ltd., 1970 . ISBN 0-356-02382-6....

    , Mammut (Mammoth), transport glider (prototype), 1941.
  • Junkers Ju 352
    Junkers Ju 352
    -References:...

    , Herkules (Hercules), transport, 1944.
  • Junkers Ju 388
    Junkers Ju 388
    The Junkers Ju 388 Störtebeker was a World War II German Luftwaffe multi-role aircraft based on the Ju 88 airframe by way of the Ju 188. It differed from its predecessors in being intended for high altitude operation, with design features such as a pressurized cockpit for its crew...

    , Störtebeker, reconnaissance + night-fighter, 1943.
  • Junkers Ju 390
    Junkers Ju 390
    The Junkers Ju 390 was a German aircraft intended to be used as a heavy transport, maritime patrol aircraft, and long-range bomber, a long-range derivative of the Ju 290...

    , long-range bomber (Amerika Bomber) (prototype), 1943.
  • Junkers Ju 488
    Junkers Ju 488
    -References:* Filly, Brian. Junkers Ju 88 in Action, part 2. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1991.* Green, William. War Planes of the Second World War:Volume Ten Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft. London:Macdonald, 1968....

    , heavy bomber design, did not fly.
  • Junkers EF 101, A design for a carrier aircraft that carried one "parasite" plane. It had a range of 10564 miles, and carried twin propellers on each of its four engines.
  • Junkers EF 112, 1942 twin-boom project
  • Junkers EF 131, Ju 287 variant.
  • Junkers EF 132, heavy bomber, partly built in USSR but not completed.
  • Junkers EF 140
    OKB-1 EF 140
    |-See also:-References:* Gordon, Yefim. “Early Soviet Jet Bombers”. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1 85780 181 4* Gunston, Bill. “The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995”. London, Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1 85532 405 9...

    , bomber/reconnaissance, forward sweep, completed post-war in USSR.
  • Junkers EF 150, bomber, largely Russian designed and completed post-war in USSR.

Aircraft engines

Data from Kay, 2004, pp. 257–278

All Junkers diesel engines were two stroke, opposed piston designs, an arrangement he invented in the early 1890s. It was intended to provide an alternative to Nicholaus Otto's patented four stroke which would run on low grade fuels such as blast furnace waste gases. By 1896 Junkers engines were generating electrical power in steelworks.
  • Junkers Fo2, horizontal, petrol, c.1923.
  • Junkers L1, petrol, c. 1924.
  • Junkers L2, petrol, 1925.
  • Junkers L5
    Junkers L5
    -External links:* * http://www.oldengine.org/members/diesel/Duxford/germaer1.htm...

    , enlarged L 2, petrol, 1925.
  • Junkers Fo3, diesel, 1926.
  • Junkers L55, "double L5" (V-12), petrol, 1927
  • Junkers L7, small version of L 2, petrol; not flown.
  • Junkers Fo4, diesel, commercially called the Junkers SL1, 1928.
  • Junkers L8, petrol, geared, higher power development of L5, 1929.
  • Junkers L88, "double L8" (V1-2), petrol.
  • Jumo 204
    Junkers Jumo 204
    -Bibliography:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

    , development of the SL1, initially referred to as the Jumo 4, 1930.
  • Jumo 205
    Junkers Jumo 205
    The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful aircraft diesel engines. The Jumo 204 first entered service in 1932. Later engines in the series were styled Jumo 206, Jumo 207 and Jumo...

    , diesel, 1933.
  • Jumo 206, diesel, enlarged 205.
  • Jumo 207, supercharged diesel.
  • Jumo 208, diesel, c.1940
  • Jumo 210
    Junkers Jumo 210
    The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine, produced just before the start of World War II. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel in many ways...

    , initially known as L 10, petrol, c. 1932.
  • Jumo 211
    Junkers Jumo 211
    |-See also:-References:* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

    , petrol, 1936.
  • Jumo 213
    Junkers Jumo 213
    |-See also:-Bibliography:* Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-517-67964-7-External links:*...

    , petrol, 1943.
  • Jumo 222, petrol, 6- bank radial, 1939.
  • Junkers 109-004
    Junkers Jumo 004
    The Jumo 004 was the world's first turbojet engine in production and operational use, and the first successful axial compressor jet engine ever built. Some 8,000 units were manufactured by Junkers in Germany during late World War II and powered the operational Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter,...

    , turbojet, 1940.
  • Junkers 109-012, turbojet, few completed by Soviets, 1946.
  • Junkers 109-022, turboprop, project completed by Soviets, 1950.

External links

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