Intracoastal Waterway
Overview
 
The Intracoastal Waterway is a 3,000-mile (4,800-km) waterway
Waterway
A waterway is any navigable body of water. Waterways can include rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and canals. In order for a waterway to be navigable, it must meet several criteria:...

 along the Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 and Gulf
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 coasts of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Some lengths consist of natural inlets, salt-water rivers, bays, and sounds
Sound (geography)
In geography a sound or seaway is a large sea or ocean inlet larger than a bay, deeper than a bight and wider than a fjord; or it may be defined as a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land ....

; others are artificial canals. It provides a navigable route along its length without many of the hazards of travel on the open sea.
The shipping hazards and safe havens of the Atlantic coast were well known and appreciated since colonial times, and considered of great communication, commercial and military importance to both the colonial power and the newly established, independent United States.
Encyclopedia
The Intracoastal Waterway is a 3,000-mile (4,800-km) waterway
Waterway
A waterway is any navigable body of water. Waterways can include rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and canals. In order for a waterway to be navigable, it must meet several criteria:...

 along the Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 and Gulf
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 coasts of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Some lengths consist of natural inlets, salt-water rivers, bays, and sounds
Sound (geography)
In geography a sound or seaway is a large sea or ocean inlet larger than a bay, deeper than a bight and wider than a fjord; or it may be defined as a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land ....

; others are artificial canals. It provides a navigable route along its length without many of the hazards of travel on the open sea.

Context and early history

The shipping hazards and safe havens of the Atlantic coast were well known and appreciated since colonial times, and considered of great communication, commercial and military importance to both the colonial power and the newly established, independent United States. The physical features of the eastern coast were advantageous for intracoastal development, resulting from erosion and deposition of sediment over its geologic history, but also enhanced and redistributed by the action of the Atlantic ocean currents along it. Since the coastline represented their national border and commerce of the time was chiefly by water, the fledgling government established a degree of national control over it. Inland transportation to supply the coasting trade at the time however, was less known and virtually undeveloped, but when new lands
Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada.Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, and three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, and Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south...

 and their favorable river systems were added in 1787, a radically new and free national policy
Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States, passed July 13, 1787...

 was established for their development and transportation use. Over time, internal improvements
Internal improvements
Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States for public works from the end of the American Revolution through much of the 19th century, mainly for the creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and navigation improvements...

 of natural coastal and inland waterways would develop into the Great Loop
Great loop
The circumnavigation of Eastern North America by water is known as The Great Loop. Also improperly referred to as the Great Circle Route , the trip varies from 5,000 miles to 7,500 miles depending on the options used. The boats used range from personal watercraft to 60-foot yachts...

, which provides water-borne traffic circumnavigation of the eastern continental United States, using minimal ocean travel, with the Intracoastal Waterway providing its eastern and southern route.

Initial suggestions

The improvement of the country's natural transportation routes was a major concern for all geographic regions as well as from a national perspective of building and binding the nation together; these improvements were also a source of major political division concerning where and how improvements should be developed, as well as who should pay, and who should do the work. In 1808, the first federal government report on existing, possible and likely avenues of transportation improvement was presented; it included much of the distance where and in the manner that the ICW now traverses the Atlantic coast. At the request of the Senate in 1807, Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1831, he founded the University of the City of New York...

 presented an overall plan for future transportation developments of national importance and scope. Along with inland east-west improvements, Gallatin's north-south improvements included the following:
"The map of the United States will show that they possess a tide water inland navigation, secure from storms and enemies, and which, from Massachusetts to the southern extremity of Georgia, is principally, if not solely, interrupted by four necks of land. These are the Isthmus of Barnstable, that part of New Jersey which extends from the Raritan to the Delaware, the peninsula between the Delaware and the Chesapeake, and that low and marshy tract which divides the Chesapeake from Albemarle Sound. ...
Should this great work, the expense of which, as will hereafter be shown, is estimated at about three millions of dollars, be accomplished, a sea vessel entering the first canal in the harbor of Boston would, through the bay of Rhode Island, Long Island Sound, and the harbor of New York, reach Brunswick on the Raritan; thence pass through the second canal to Trenton on the Delaware, down that river to Christiana or Newcastle, and through the third canal to Elk River and the Chesapeake, whence, sailing down that bay and up Elizabeth River, it would, through the fourth canal, enter the Albemarle Sound, and by Pamlico, Core, and Bogue sounds, reach Beaufort and Swansborough in North Carolina. From the last-mentioned place, the inland navigation, through Stumpy and Toomer's sounds, is continued until a diminished draught of water, and by cutting two low and narrow necks, not exceeding three miles together, to Cape Fear River, and thence by an open but short and direct run along the coast is reached that chain of islands between which and the main the inland navigation is continued, to St, Marys along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. It is unnecessary to add any comments on the utility of the work, in peace or war, for the transportation of merchandise or the conveyance of persons.


While Gallatin discussed the details of engineering, construction and costs, including the national benefits to accrue from lowered transportation costs between state markets and internationally, his full $20 million plan spread over ten years was never approved. That is not to say his plan was never implemented however, for with experience in the War of 1812, shortly thereafter and its attendant British blockade, the continued need for such facility was soon highlighted. Since Gallatin had based his principal proposals on the known advantageous natural geographic features of the country, many of his proposals were the locations of future navigation improvements surveyed, authorized and constructed starting with the 1824 General Survey Act
General Survey Act
The General Survey Act was a law passed by the United States Congress in April 1824, which authorized the president to have surveys made of routes for transport roads and canals "of national importance, in a commercial or military point of view, or necessary for the transportation of public mail." ...

 and the first of many pieces of rivers and harbors legislation
Rivers and Harbors Act
Rivers and Harbors Act may refer to one of many pieces of legislation and appropriations passed by the United States Congress since the first such legislation in 1824. At that time congress appropriated $75,000 to improve navigation on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers by removing sandbars, snags,...

, as well by individual state-built improvements. Since these 1824 acts, the United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 38,000 civilian and military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency...

 (USACE) has had responsibility for navigation waterway improvements and maintenance. All four proposed sections of Gallatin's intracoastal plan were eventually built; the Delaware and Raritan Canal
Delaware and Raritan Canal
The Delaware and Raritan Canal is a canal in central New Jersey, United States, built in the 1830s that served to connect the Delaware River to the Raritan River. It was intended as an efficient and reliable means of transportation of freight between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and New York City,...

 was later abandoned for a better alternative, but the Cape Cod Canal
Cape Cod Canal
The Cape Cod Canal is an artificial waterway traversing the narrow neck of land that joins Cape Cod to mainland Massachusetts.Part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, the canal is roughly 17.4 miles long and connects Cape Cod Bay in the north to Buzzards Bay in the south...

 remains in operation, and the Delaware and the Dismal Swamp portions still form part of the larger present day Intracoastal Waterway.

19th century growth

Starting in 1826, Congress authorized the first survey for an inland canal between Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, and during early developments the growth of steam power to propel water, land and sea transportation. Over time, additional portions of other coastal improvements were authorized for development, including the Houston Ship Channel and the Delaware River in 1872. Following the Civil War, waterway system developments suffered as government funding moved increasingly from navigation to railroads; over time this resulted in anti-competitive pricing and acquisition practices by railroads over water transportation, but also in insufficient haulage capacity to move the required freight to the coasts. These conditions would be investigated, accompanied by considered conclusions and recommendations, as early 1873 by the "Report of Windom
William Windom
This page is about the former United States politician. William Windom was an American politician from Minnesota. He served as U.S. Representative from 1859 to 1869, and as U.S. Senator from 1870 to January 1871, from March 1871 to March 1881, and from November 1881 to 1883...

 Select Committee" from the Senate's Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard
United States Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard
The United States Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, was a Senate committee, initially authorized by Senate resolution as a select committee on December 16, 1872...

, but their plans and recommendations "received less attention than was anticipated, of course by reason of the rapid growth of interest in railways." While some policy corrections would be implemented over the next 30 years, continued insufficient capacity of railroad transportation would become apparent following the harvest season of 1906.

In the River and Harbors Appropriations Acts of 1882 and 1884, Congress signaled its intent to improve waterways to benefit the nation by promoting competition amongst transportation modes. The earlier act was the first act of Congress to combine appropriations for development of nation's waterways with a reaffirmation of the policy of freedom from tolls and other user charges, first stated in 1787; it was passed over President Chester Arthur's veto, who considered it wasteful spending for the government's growing federal surplus. In 1887, the Interstate Commerce Act would establish federal regulation of railroads; Congress continued to promote the policy of freedom from tolls or special taxes on waterways. In 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act
Sherman Antitrust Act
The Sherman Antitrust Act requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by...

, the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, but the federal government would utilize it minimally until Theodore Roosevelt's presidency more than 10 years later.

20th century developments

The invention of the diesel engine in 1892, eventually led to the conversion of fuels for transportation from coal and steam to diesel and the internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

; this would be greatly enhanced but WWI military uses and the beginning of a new age of fuel usage and consumption. The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1909 set national policy for an intracoastal waterway from Boston to the Rio Grande River, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1910 authorized a 9-foot x 100 ft channel on Gulf Intracoastal Waterway between Apalachicola River and St. Andrew Bay, Florida, as well as a study of the most efficient means to move cargo. Between 1910 and 1914, navigation channels were deepened, and the screw propeller proved efficient for improved steering and flanking qualities. Also during this period, the Panama Canal Act was passed in 1911; it proved key to the revival of waterway transportation in the U.S, since when it opened in 1914 the canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

 allowed coastal shipping to extend to the country's west coast
West Coast of the United States
West Coast or Pacific Coast are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the United States. The term most often refers to the states of California, Oregon, and Washington. Although not part of the contiguous United States, Alaska and Hawaii do border the Pacific Ocean but can't be included in...

 for the first time. The law also prohibited railroads from owning, controlling, or operating a water carrier through the Canal and led to succeeding legislation that eliminated monopoly of transportation modes by railroads. The country's World War I experience demonstrated the need for bulk cargo transportation, with Congress establishing the Federal Barge Lines and spurring development of cheaper ways to transport farm commodities, including the first use of standardized freight barges.

In 1924, Congress incorporated Inland Waterways Corporation, which is generally regarded as beginning of modern water carrier operations, and in 1925 Congress authorized construction of a "Louisiana and Texas Intracoastal Waterway", as well as surveys east of New Orleans to Apalachicola Bay; this was the first legislation to treat the ICW as a continuous whole. The River and Harbor Act of January 21 1927, passed by Congress, authorized the portion of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, using the route planned out by the Jacksonville District of the Army Corps Of Engineers. In 1936 the continuous 9ft x100 ft channel was completed between Apalachicola River and New Orleans. During World War II the need for efficient transportation of bulk materials within the continental United States was well demonstrated, after German submarines sink numerous merchant ships off the East Coast. By 1942, the 9 ft x 100 ft ICW channel was completed between New Orleans and Corpus Christi.

Today, federal law provides for the waterway to be maintained at a minimum depth of 12 feet (4 m) for most of its length, but inadequate funding has prevented that. Consequently for larger ships, shoaling or shallow water are encountered along several sections of the waterway, with these having 7-foot (2.1-m) or 9-foot (2.7-m) minimum depths from earlier improvements. While no tolls are charged for waterway usage, commercial users have been charged a fuel tax
Fuel tax
A fuel tax is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel. In most countries the fuel tax is imposed on fuels which are intended for transportation...

 since 1978, which is used to maintain and improve its constructed facilities. That year, the Inland Waterways Revenue Act imposed a barge fuel tax; originally set at 0.04 cents/gal in 1980, it was gradually raised to 10 cents/gal by 1986. The act also created the Inland Waterways Trust Fund under the US Treasury to hold these funds, which are used to cover half the cost of new construction and major rehabilitation of the inland waterways infrastructure (33 U.S.C. ch.32)
Title 33 of the United States Code
Title 33 of the United States Code outlines the role of navigable waters in the United States Code.—Navigable Waters Generally—International Rules for Navigation at Sea—Navigation Rules for Harbors, Rivers, and Inland Waters Generally—Navigation Rules for Great Lakes and Their Connecting and...

. The later Water Resources Development Act of 1986
Water Resources Development Act of 1986
The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 is part of , a series of acts enacted by Congress of the United States on November 17, 1986....

 was a wide ranging bill regarding all water resources utilization nationally. Concerning transportation on waterways, this law established the Inland Waterways Users Board to make recommendations regarding construction and rehabilitation priorities and spending levels for the inland waterways, and also gradually increased the incremental fuel tax to 20 cents/gal by 1995.

Current route

The Intracoastal Waterway runs for most of the length of the Eastern Seaboard
Eastern seaboard
An Eastern seaboard can mean any easternmost part of a continent, or its countries, states and/or cities.Eastern seaboard may also refer to:* East Coast of Australia* East Coast of the United States* Eastern Seaboard of Thailand-See also:...

, from its unofficial northern terminus at the Manasquan River
Manasquan River
The Manasquan River is a waterway in central New Jersey. It flows from central Monmouth County, beginning in Freehold Township, to the Atlantic Ocean, where it empties between the communities of Manasquan and Point Pleasant via the Manasquan Inlet. It widens greatly as it nears the ocean, making...

 in New Jersey, where it connects with the Atlantic Ocean at the Manasquan Inlet
Manasquan Inlet
The Manasquan Inlet is an inlet that connects the Atlantic Ocean withthe Manasquan River, dividing the counties of Ocean Countyand Monmouth County in the state of New Jersey....

, then around the Gulf of Mexico to Brownsville
Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville is a city in the southernmost tip of the state of Texas, in the United States. It is located on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Brownsville is the 16th largest city in the state of Texas with a population of...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

.

The waterway currently consists of three non-contiguous segments: the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is the portion of the Intracoastal Waterway located along the Gulf Coast of the United States. It is a navigable inland waterway running approximately 1700 kilometers from Carrabelle, Florida, to Brownsville, Texas.The waterway provides a channel with a controlling...

, extending from Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville is a city in the southernmost tip of the state of Texas, in the United States. It is located on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Brownsville is the 16th largest city in the state of Texas with a population of...

 east to Carrabelle, Florida
Carrabelle, Florida
Carrabelle is a city in Franklin County, Florida, United States. The population was 1,303 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S Census estimates of 2009, the city had a population of 1,231.-Location:...

; a second section of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, beginning at Tarpon Springs, Florida
Tarpon Springs, Florida
Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. The population was 21,003 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2004 estimates, the city had a population of 22,554....

, and extending south to Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers is the county seat and commercial center of Lee County, Florida, United States. Its population was 62,298 in the 2010 census, a 29.23 percent increase over the 2000 figure....

; and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, extending from Key West, Florida
Key West, Florida
Key West is a city in Monroe County, Florida, United States. The city encompasses the island of Key West, the part of Stock Island north of U.S. 1 , Sigsbee Park , Fleming Key , and Sunset Key...

 to Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. With a population of 242,803 as of the 2010 Census, it is Virginia's second-largest city behind neighboring Virginia Beach....

 (milepost 0.0). These segments were originally intended to be connected via a northern Florida dredged waterway from St. Marks to Tarpon Springs and the Cross Florida Barge Canal
Cross Florida Barge Canal
The Cross Florida Barge Canal was a canal project to connect the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean across Florida for barge traffic. Two sections were built but the project was cancelled, mainly for environmental reasons. It is now a protected green belt corridor, one mile wide...

 across northern Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, but these projects were never completed due to environmental concerns. Additional canals and bays extend a navigable waterway to Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

.

The Intracoastal Waterway has a good deal of commercial activity; barges haul petroleum, petroleum products, foodstuffs, building materials, and manufactured goods. It is also used extensively by recreational boaters. On the east coast, some of the traffic in fall and spring is by snowbirds
Snowbird (people)
The term snowbird is used to describe people from the U.S. Northeast, U.S. Midwest, or Canada who spend a large portion of winter in warmer locales such as California, Arizona, Florida, Texas, the Carolinas, or elsewhere along the Sun Belt region of the southern and southwest United States,...

 who regularly move
Seasonal human migration
Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles. It includes migrations such as moving sheep or cattle to higher elevations during summer to escape heat and find more forage...

 south in winter and north in summer. The waterway is also used when the ocean is too rough to travel on. Numerous inlets connect the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico with the Intracoastal Waterway.

The Intracoastal Waterway connects to several navigable rivers where shipping traffic can travel to inland ports, including the Mississippi
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

, Alabama
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

, Savannah
Savannah River
The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border...

, James
James River (Virginia)
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia. It is long, extending to if one includes the Jackson River, the longer of its two source tributaries. The James River drains a catchment comprising . The watershed includes about 4% open water and an area with a population of 2.5 million...

, Susquehanna
Susquehanna River
The Susquehanna River is a river located in the northeastern United States. At long, it is the longest river on the American east coast that drains into the Atlantic Ocean, and with its watershed it is the 16th largest river in the United States, and the longest river in the continental United...

, Delaware
Delaware River
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.A Dutch expedition led by Henry Hudson in 1609 first mapped the river. The river was christened the South River in the New Netherland colony that followed, in contrast to the North River, as the Hudson River was then...

, Hudson
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

, and Connecticut
Connecticut River
The Connecticut River is the largest and longest river in New England, and also an American Heritage River. It flows roughly south, starting from the Fourth Connecticut Lake in New Hampshire. After flowing through the remaining Connecticut Lakes and Lake Francis, it defines the border between the...

 Rivers.

Natural bodies of water

The following natural bodies of water are included in the Intracoastal Waterway system:
  • Albemarle Sound
    Albemarle Sound
    Albemarle Sound is a large estuary on the coast of North Carolina in the United States located at the confluence of a group of rivers, including the Chowan and Roanoke. It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Outer Banks, a long barrier peninsula upon which the town of Kitty Hawk is located,...

  • Apalachicola Bay
    Apalachicola Bay
    Apalachicola Bay is an estuary and lagoon located on Florida's northwest coast renowned for its oysters. The Apalachicola Bay system also includes St. Georges Sound, St. Vincent Sound and East Bay, covering an area of about . Four islands St. Vincent Island to the west, Cape St. George Island and St...

  • Barnegat Bay
    Barnegat Bay
    Barnegat Bay is a small brackish arm of the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 30 miles long, along the coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. It is a long barrier peninsula, as well as by the north end of Long Beach Island...

  • Biscayne Bay
    Biscayne Bay
    Biscayne Bay is a lagoon that is approximately 35 miles long and up to 8 miles wide located on the Atlantic coast of South Florida, United States. It is usually divided for purposes of discussion and analysis into three parts: North Bay, Central Bay, and South Bay. Its area is...

  • Bogue Sound
    Bogue Sound
    Bogue Sound is a medium-sized geographic sound in the state of North Carolina. It separates the Bogue Banks from mainland Carteret County. Morehead City's port is accessed via the Bogue Sound. Two bridges cross the sound: NC 58 on the B...

  • Buzzards Bay
    Buzzards Bay
    Buzzards Bay is a bay along the southern edge of Massachusetts in the United States. The name may also refer to:*Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, a village in Bourne, Massachusetts*Buzzards Bay , the name of the horse that won the 2005 Santa Anita Derby...

  • Cape Cod Bay
    Cape Cod Bay
    Cape Cod Bay is a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U.S. state of Massachusetts. Measuring below a line drawn from Brant Rock in Marshfield to Race Point in Provincetown, Massachusetts, it is enclosed by Cape Cod to the south and east, and Plymouth County, Massachusetts, to the west....

  • Casco Bay
    Casco Bay
    Casco Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Maine on the southern coast of Maine, New England, United States. Its easternmost approach is Cape Small and its westernmost approach is Two Lights in Cape Elizabeth...

  • Charleston Harbor
    Charleston Harbor
    The Charleston Harbor is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean at Charleston, South Carolina. The inlet is formed by the junction of Ashley and Cooper rivers at . Morris and Sullivan's Island, shelter the entrance...

  • Charlotte Harbor
    Charlotte Harbor (estuary)
    Charlotte Harbor Estuary is a natural estuary spanning the west coast of Florida from Venice to Bonita Springs on the Gulf of Mexico and is one of the most productive wetlands in Florida...

  • Chesapeake Bay
    Chesapeake Bay
    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay's drainage basin covers in the District of Columbia and parts of six states: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West...

  • Corpus Christi Bay
    Corpus Christi Bay
    Corpus Christi Bay is a scenic semi-tropical bay on the Texas coast found in San Patricio and Nueces counties, next to the major city of Corpus Christi. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by Mustang Island, and is fed by the Nueces River and Oso Creek from its western and southern extensions,...

  • Delaware Bay
    Delaware Bay
    Delaware Bay is a major estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States whose fresh water mixes for many miles with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. It is in area. The bay is bordered by the State of New Jersey and the State of Delaware...

  • East River
    East River
    The East River is a tidal strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island from the island of Manhattan and the Bronx on the North American mainland...

  • Elizabeth River
    Elizabeth River (Virginia)
    The Elizabeth River is a tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads harbor at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. It is located along the southern side of the mouth of the James River, between the cities of Portsmouth and Norfolk...

  • Galveston Bay
    Galveston Bay
    Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along the upper coast of Texas in the United States. It is connected to the Gulf of Mexico and is surrounded by sub-tropic marshes and prairies on the mainland. The water in the Bay is a complex mixture of sea water and fresh water which supports a wide...

  • Gulf of Maine
    Gulf of Maine
    The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of North America.It is delineated by Cape Cod at the eastern tip of Massachusetts in the southwest and Cape Sable at the southern tip of Nova Scotia in the northeast. It includes the entire coastlines of the U.S...

  • Halifax River
    Halifax River
    The Halifax River is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, located in northeast Volusia County, Florida. The waterway was originally known as the North Mosquito River, but was renamed after George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, during the British occupation of Florida .-Geography:The...

  • Hampton Roads
    Hampton Roads
    Hampton Roads is the name for both a body of water and the Norfolk–Virginia Beach metropolitan area which surrounds it in southeastern Virginia, United States...

  • Laguna Madre
    Laguna Madre
    The Laguna Madre extends well into Mexico, to the mouth of the Río Soto la Marina in the state of Tamaulipas. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico on the east by a number of barrier islands, including Barra Los Americanos, Barra Jesús María, and Barra Soto la Marina, and is bounded on the west...

  • Little River
    Little River
    -In Australia:* Little River, Victoria, a river and township near Geelong** Little River Earth Sanctuary* Little River , in southeastern Victoria*Little River , several streams...

  • Mississippi River
    Mississippi River
    The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

  • Mississippi Sound
    Mississippi Sound
    The Mississippi Sound is a sound along the Gulf Coast of the United States. It runs east-west along the southern coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, from Waveland, Mississippi, to the Dauphin Island Bridge, a distance of about 145 kilometers...

  • Mobile Bay
    Mobile Bay
    Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. Its mouth is formed by the Fort Morgan Peninsula on the eastern side and Dauphin Island, a barrier island on the western side. The Mobile River and Tensaw River empty into the northern end of the...

  • Mosquito Lagoon
    Mosquito Lagoon
    Mosquito Lagoon is located in the northern part of the Indian River Lagoon system and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It extends from Ponce de León Inlet in Volusia County, Florida, to the north end of Merritt Island. It connects to the Indian River via the Haulover Canal. The Lagoon divides...

  • Pensacola Bay
    Pensacola Bay
    Pensacola Bay is a bay located in the northwestern part of Florida, United States, known as the Florida Panhandle.The bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, is located in Escambia County and Santa Rosa County, adjacent to the city of Pensacola, Florida, and is about 13 miles long and 2.5 miles ...

  • Perdido Bay
    Perdido Bay
    Perdido Bay is a bay at the mouth of and draining the Perdido River, a designated Outstanding Florida Waters river, in Baldwin County, Alabama and Escambia County, Florida, United States.-Geography:...

  • Indian River Lagoon
    Indian River Lagoon
    The Indian River Lagoon is a grouping of three lagoons: Mosquito Lagoon, Banana River, and the Indian River, on the Atlantic Coast of Florida. It was originally named Rio de Ais after the Ais Indian tribe, who lived along the east coast of Florida....

  • Long Island Sound
    Long Island Sound
    Long Island Sound is an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the United States between Connecticut to the north and Long Island, New York to the south. The mouth of the Connecticut River at Old Saybrook, Connecticut, empties into the sound. On its western end the sound is bounded by the Bronx...

  • Pamlico Sound
    Pamlico Sound
    Pamlico Sound in North Carolina, is the largest lagoon along the U.S. East Coast, being long and 24 to 48 km wide. It is a body of water separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Outer Banks, a row of low, sandy barrier islands, including Cape Hatteras. The Neuse and Pamlico rivers flow in...

  • Pine Island Sound
    Pine Island Sound
    Pine Island Sound is located in Lee County, Florida, lying between Pine Island and the barrier islands of Sanibel Island, Captiva Island, North Captiva Island and Cayo Costa, which separate the Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The Sound connects to Gasparilla Sound and Charlotte Harbor to the north,...

  • Port Royal Sound
    Port Royal Sound
    Port Royal Sound is a coastal sound, or inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the Sea Islands region, in Beaufort County in the U.S. state of South Carolina...

  • Santa Rosa Sound
    Santa Rosa Sound
    Santa Rosa Sound is a sound connecting Pensacola Bay and Choctawhatchee Bay in Florida. The northern shore consists of the Fairpoint Peninsula and portions of the mainland in Santa Rosa County and Okaloosa County...

  • Savannah River
    Savannah River
    The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border...

  • Sarasota Bay
    Sarasota Bay
    Sarasota Bay is an estuary located off the west coast of Florida in the United States.The bay and its surrounding area appeared on the earliest maps of the area, being named Zarazote on one dating from the early 18th century...

  • Saint Helena Sound
    Saint Helena Sound
    Saint Helena Sound is a coastal inlet in Beaufort and Colleton counties, South Carolina. The inlet is located East of Beaufort, between Edisto Island. and Hunting Island. Saint Helena Sound is 7.5 mi/12.1 km wide. The Combahee River empties from the Northwest and the Edisto River and...

  • Tampa Bay
    Tampa Bay
    Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida, comprising Hillsborough Bay, Old Tampa Bay, Middle Tampa Bay, and Lower Tampa Bay."Tampa Bay" is not the name of any municipality...

  • Waccamaw River
    Waccamaw River
    The Waccamaw River is a river, approximately 140 miles long, in southeastern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina in the United States. It drains an area of approximately 1110 square miles in the coastal plain along the eastern border between the two states into the Atlantic Ocean...

  • Winyah Bay
    Winyah Bay
    Winyah Bay is a coastal estuary that is the confluence of the Waccamaw River, the Pee Dee River, the Black River and the Sampit River in Georgetown County in eastern South Carolina...


Other canals

  • Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal
  • Dismal Swamp Canal
    Dismal Swamp Canal
    The Dismal Swamp Canal is located along the eastern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina in the United States. It is the oldest continually operating man-made canal in the United States, opened in 1805...

  • Cape May Canal
    Cape May Canal
    The Cape May Canal is a waterway that stretches nearly three miles from Cape May Harbor to the Delaware Bay, at the southern tip of Cape May County, New Jersey. The canal was constructed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II to provide a protected route to avoid German...

  • Delaware and Raritan Canal
    Delaware and Raritan Canal
    The Delaware and Raritan Canal is a canal in central New Jersey, United States, built in the 1830s that served to connect the Delaware River to the Raritan River. It was intended as an efficient and reliable means of transportation of freight between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and New York City,...

    -no longer operational or part of the Intracoastal Waterway
  • Okeechobee Waterway
    Okeechobee Waterway
    The Okeechobee Waterway is a man-made waterway stretching from Fort Myers on the west coast to Stuart on the east coast of Florida. It was built/finished in 1937 to provide a water route across Florida, allowing boats to pass east–west across the state rather than travelling the long route around...

  • Point Pleasant Canal
    Point Pleasant Canal
    The Point Pleasant Canal is a canal in Point Pleasant, New Jersey. It was completed in late 1925 to connect the Manasquan Inlet and Manasquan River with Bay Head Harbor on the northern end of the Barnegat Bay...

  • Lewes and Rehoboth Canal
    Lewes and Rehoboth Canal
    The Lewes and Rehoboth Canal is a canal in Sussex County, Delaware. It connects the Broadkill River to Rehoboth Bay, and forms a portion of the Intracoastal Waterway.-External links:* - Southern terminus - Northern terminus...


See also

  • Waterways along and crossings of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway
  • Waterways along and crossings of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
  • Inland waterways of the United States
    Inland waterways of the United States
    The inland waterways of the United States include over 25,000 miles of navigable waters. Much of the commercially important waterways of the United States consist of the Mississippi River System—the Mississippi River and connecting waterways.Almost all of the navigable rivers and canals in...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK