Interpol
Overview
Interpol, whose full name is the International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL, is an organization facilitating international police cooperation. It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission in 1923 and adopted its telegraphic address as its common name in 1956.

Its membership of 190 countries provides finance of around €59 million through annual contributions.
Encyclopedia
Interpol, whose full name is the International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL, is an organization facilitating international police cooperation. It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission in 1923 and adopted its telegraphic address as its common name in 1956.

Its membership of 190 countries provides finance of around €59 million through annual contributions. The organization's headquarters is in Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

, France. It is the second largest intergovernmental organization after the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

, in terms of number of member state
Member state
A member state is a state that is a member of an international organisation.The World Trade Organization has members that are sovereign states and members that are not, thus WTO members are not called member states.- Worldwide :...

s.

Its current Secretary-General is Ronald Noble
Ronald Noble
Ronald Kenneth Noble is an American law enforcement officer, and the current Secretary General of INTERPOL.-Biography:...

, a former United States Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement. Its current President is Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

's Senior Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
Ministry of Home Affairs (Singapore)
The Ministry of Home Affairs is a ministry of the Government of Singapore responsible for public safety, civil defence and immigration. It is also known as the Home Team. It is headed by the Minister for Home Affairs....

 and former Commissioner of Police
Commissioner of Police (Singapore)
The Commissioner of Police is the top-ranking police officer of the Singapore Police Force. Assisted by the Deputy Commissioner of Police, he reports to the Minister for Home Affairs....

 Khoo Boon Hui
Khoo Boon Hui
Tan Sri Khoo Boon Hui , born in 1954 in Singapore, is the Senior Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs and the current president of INTERPOL...

; the President before that, Jackie Selebi
Jackie Selebi
Jacob Sello Selebi is the former national commissioner of the South African Police Service, and a former president of Interpol. In January 2008, Selebi was put on extended leave as national police commissioner, and resigned as president of Interpol, after he was charged with corruption in his...

, National Commissioner of the South African Police Service
South African Police Service
The South African Police Service is the national police force of the Republic of South Africa. Its 1116 police stations in South Africa are divided according to the provincial borders, and a Provincial Commissioner is appointed in each province...

, held his term from 2004 till his resignation on 13 January 2008, after which he was charged in South Africa on three counts of corruption and one of defeating the course of justice, and replaced by Arturo Herrera Verdugo, current National Commissioner of Investigations Police of Chile and former vice president for the American Zone, who remained acting president until the organization meeting in October 2008.

In order to maintain as politically neutral a role as possible, Interpol's constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 forbids it to undertake any interventions or activities of a political, military, religious, or racial nature. Its work focuses primarily on public safety, terrorism
Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

, organized crime
Organized crime
Organized crime or criminal organizations are transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals for the purpose of engaging in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are...

, crimes against humanity, environmental crime
Environmental crime
Environmental crime can be broadly defined as illegal acts, which directly harmthe environment. International bodies such as the G8, Interpol, EU, UN Environment Programme and the UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute have recognised the following environmental crimes:* Illegal...

, genocide
Genocide
Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group", though what constitutes enough of a "part" to qualify as genocide has been subject to much debate by legal scholars...

, war crimes, piracy
Piracy
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. The term can include acts committed on land, in the air, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against persons traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator...

, illicit drug production, drug trafficking, weapons smuggling, human trafficking
Human trafficking
Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery...

, money laundering
Money laundering
Money laundering is the process of disguising illegal sources of money so that it looks like it came from legal sources. The methods by which money may be laundered are varied and can range in sophistication. Many regulatory and governmental authorities quote estimates each year for the amount...

, child pornography
Child pornography
Child pornography refers to images or films and, in some cases, writings depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child...

, white-collar crime
White-collar crime
Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime has been defined by Edwin Sutherland as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation" . Sutherland was a proponent of Symbolic Interactionism, and believed that criminal behavior was...

, computer crime
Computer crime
Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Netcrime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet. Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health...

, intellectual property crime
Intellectual property
Intellectual property is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law...

 and corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

.

In 2008, the Interpol General Secretariat employed a staff of 588, representing 84 member countries. The Interpol public website received an average of 2.2 million page visits every month. Interpol issued 3,126 red notice
Red notice
An Interpol notice or international notice is issued by Interpol to share information between its members. There are seven types, six of which are known by their colour codes: Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Black, Orange....

s for the year 2008 which led to the arrest of 718 people.

History

The first significant move towards creating INTERPOL was in 1914 at the First International Criminal Police Congress. Police officers, lawyers and magistrates from 14 countries gathered in Monaco
Monaco
Monaco , officially the Principality of Monaco , is a sovereign city state on the French Riviera. It is bordered on three sides by its neighbour, France, and its centre is about from Italy. Its area is with a population of 35,986 as of 2011 and is the most densely populated country in the...

 to discuss arrest procedures, identification techniques, centralized international criminal records and extradition proceedings. However World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 delayed this initiative and it was not until 1923 that Interpol was founded at the Second International Police Congress in Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 as the International Criminal Police (ICP). Founding members were Poland, Austria, Belgium, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia. The United States government joined INTERPOL in 1938.

Following the Anschluss
Anschluss
The Anschluss , also known as the ', was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938....

(Austria's annexation by Germany) in 1938, the organization fell under the control of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, and the Commission's headquarters were eventually moved to Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 in 1942. From 1938 to 1945, the presidents of Interpol included Otto Steinhäusl
Otto Steinhäusl
Otto Steinhäusl was an Austrian-born SS-Oberführer, Polizeipräsident of Vienna, and President of Interpol .-Early career:...

, Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich , also known as The Hangman, was a high-ranking German Nazi official.He was SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei, chief of the Reich Main Security Office and Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia...

, Arthur Nebe
Arthur Nebe
SS-Gruppenführer Arthur Nebe was a member of the NSDAP party with card number 574,307. In July 1931, he joined the SS and his membership number was 280,152. His early career included the Berlin position of Police Commissioner in the 1920s...

, and Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. Between January 1943 and May 1945, he held the offices of Chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt , President of Interpol and, as a Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS, he was the...

. All were generals in the SS, and Kaltenbrunner was the highest ranking SS officer executed after the Nuremberg Trial.

After the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in 1945, the organization was revived as the International Criminal Police Organization by European Allies of World War II
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 officials from Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

 and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. Its new headquarters were established in Saint-Cloud
Saint-Cloud
Saint-Cloud is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.Like other communes of the Hauts-de-Seine such as Marnes-la-Coquette, Neuilly-sur-Seine or Vaucresson, Saint-Cloud is one of the wealthiest cities in France, ranked 22nd out of the 36500 in...

, a town on the outskirts of Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

. They remained there until 1989, when they were moved to their present location, Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

.

Until the 1980s Interpol did not intervene in the prosecution of Nazi war criminals in accordance with Article 3 of its Constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 forbidding intervention in 'political' matters. However, it has issued arrest warrants for former country leaders like Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali is a Tunisian political figure who was the second President of Tunisia from 1987 to 2011. Ben Ali was appointed Prime Minister in October 1987, and he assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless coup d'état that ousted President Habib Bourguiba, who was...

 and Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak is a former Egyptian politician and military commander. He served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011....

 despite Article 3, on the grounds that they were accused of corruption (particularly embezzlement).

On 2 July 2010, former Interpol President Jackie Selebi
Jackie Selebi
Jacob Sello Selebi is the former national commissioner of the South African Police Service, and a former president of Interpol. In January 2008, Selebi was put on extended leave as national police commissioner, and resigned as president of Interpol, after he was charged with corruption in his...

 was found guilty of corruption by the South African High Court in Johannesburg for accepting bribes worth €156,000 from a drug trafficker. After being charged in January 2008, Selebi resigned as president of Interpol and was put on extended leave as National Police Commissioner of South Africa.

Constitution

The role of Interpol is defined by the general provisions of its constitution.

In article 2:
  1. To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly . The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled...

    .
  2. To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.


In article 3:
It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.

Methodology

I­nterpol differs from most law-enforcement agencies—agents do not make arrests themselves, and there is no single Interpol jail where criminals are taken. The agency functions as an administrative liaison between the law-enforcement agencies of the member countries, providing communications and database assistance. This is vital when fighting international crime because language, cultural and bureaucratic differences can make it difficult for officers of different nations to work together. For example, if ICE
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Homeland Security , responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nation's border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security...

 and FBI special agents track a terrorist to Italy, they may not know whom to contact in the Polizia di Stato, if the Carabinieri have jurisdiction over some aspect of the case, or who in the Italian government needs to be notified of the ICE/FBI's involvement. ICE and FBI can contact the Interpol National Central Bureau in Italy, which will act as a liaison between the United States and Italian law-enforcement agencies.

Interpol's databases help law enforcement see the big picture of international crime. While other agencies have their own extensive crime databases, the information rarely extends beyond one nation's borders. Interpol can track criminals and crime trends around the world. They maintain collections of fingerprints and mug shots, lists of wanted persons, DNA samples and travel documents. Their lost and stolen travel document database alone contains more than 12 million records. They also analyze all this data and release information on crime trends to the member countries.

A secure worldwide communications network allows Interpol agents and member countries to contact each other at any time. Known as I-24/7, the network offers constant access to Interpol's databases. While the National Central Bureaus are the primary access sites to the network, some member countries have expanded it to key areas such as airports and border access points. Member countries can also access each other's criminal databases via the I-24/7 system.

In the event of an international disaster, terrorist attack or assassination, Interpol can send an incident response team. This team can offer a range of expertise and database access to assist with victim identification, suspect identification and the dissemination of information to other nations' law enforcement agencies. In addition, at the request of local authorities, they can act as a central command and logistics operation to coordinate other law enforcement agencies involved in a case. Such teams were deployed 12 times in 2005. Interpol began issuing its own passport
Interpol passport
Interpol passports are travel documents issued by the international policing organization Interpol. The intention is that Interpol member states will waive visa requirements for Interpol staff, investigators and law enforcement personnel travelling on official business, thereby improving response...

 in 2009 with hopes that member states would remove visa requirements for individuals traveling for Interpol business, thereby improving response times.

Finances

In 2009 Interpol's income was €59 million, of which 82% comprised statutory contributions by member countries and 14% income from projects, private foundations and commercial enterprises. From 2004 to 2010 Interpol's external auditors have been the Cour des comptes
Cour des Comptes
The Court of Audit is a quasi-judicial body of the French government charged with conducting financial and legislative audits of most public institutions and some private institutions, including the central Government, national public corporations, social security agencies , and public services...

.

Emblem

The current emblem of Interpol was adopted in 1950 and according to their website has the following symbolismhttp://www.interpol.int/public/icpo/LegalMaterials/emblem/default.asp:
  • the globe indicates worldwide activity
  • the olive branches represent peace
  • the sword represents police action
  • the scales signify justice

Member states and sub-bureaus

Sub-bureaus shown in italics.

Non-member countries

Secretaries-general and presidents

Secretaries-general since organization's inception in 1923:
 Austria Oskar Dressler  1923–1946
 Early Modern France Louis Ducloux  1946–1951
 Early Modern France Marcel Sicot  1951–1963
 Early Modern France Jean Népote  1963–1978
 Early Modern France André Bossard  1978–1985
Raymond Kendall
Raymond Kendall
Raymond Edward Kendall , QPM is a British law enforcement officer and former Interpol Secretary-General.-Biography:Kendall commenced military service in the Royal Air Force in 1951, serving in Malaya . He joined the Metropolitan Police in 1962, spending most of his service in Special Branch and...

 
1985–2000
 United States Ronald Noble
Ronald Noble
Ronald Kenneth Noble is an American law enforcement officer, and the current Secretary General of INTERPOL.-Biography:...

 
2000–present


Presidents since organization's inception in 1923:
 Austria Johann Schober
Johann Schober
Johann Schober was an Austrian police officer who served three times as Chancellor of Austria .-Early career:...

 
1923–1932
 Austria Franz Brandl  1932–1934
 Austria Eugen Seydel  1934–1935
 Austria Michael Skubl  1935–1938
 Nazi Germany Otto Steinhäusl
Otto Steinhäusl
Otto Steinhäusl was an Austrian-born SS-Oberführer, Polizeipräsident of Vienna, and President of Interpol .-Early career:...

 
1938–1940
 Nazi Germany Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich , also known as The Hangman, was a high-ranking German Nazi official.He was SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei, chief of the Reich Main Security Office and Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia...

 
1940–1942
 Nazi Germany Arthur Nebe
Arthur Nebe
SS-Gruppenführer Arthur Nebe was a member of the NSDAP party with card number 574,307. In July 1931, he joined the SS and his membership number was 280,152. His early career included the Berlin position of Police Commissioner in the 1920s...

 
1942–1943
 Nazi Germany Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. Between January 1943 and May 1945, he held the offices of Chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt , President of Interpol and, as a Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS, he was the...

 
1943–1945
 Belgium Florent Louwage  1945–1956
 Portugal Agostinho Lourenço  1956–1960
Richard Jackson  1960–1963
 Finland Fjalar Jarva  1963–1964
 Belgium Firmin Franssen  1964–1968
 West Germany Paul Dickopf
Paul Dickopf
Paulinus Dickopf was member of the German Federal Criminal Police Office between 1965 and 1971 raising to the position of president. Under the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler he was a member of the Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel. He was also the President of Interpol from 1968 -1972...

 
1968–1972
 Canada William Leonard Higgitt  1972–1976
 Sweden Carl Persson  1976–1980
 Philippines Jolly Bugarin  1980–1984
 United States John Simpson
John Simpson (police official)
Mark John Richard Simpson was the first U.S. Interpol President and former director of the United States Secret Service .-Notes:...

 
1984–1988
 Early Modern France Ivan Barbot  1988–1992
 Canada Norman Inkster
Norman Inkster
Norman David Inkster, OC served as 18th Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, from September 1, 1987 to June 24, 1994...

 
1992–1994
 Sweden Björn Eriksson
Björn Eriksson
Björn Eriksson is a Swedish civil servant. A former director of the Swedish Coast Guard, the Swedish Customs Service, the Swedish Police Service, and the Interpol, he was from 1996 to August 31, 2009 governor of Östergötland County, residing at the castle in Linköping.- References :...

 
1994–1996
 Japan Toshinori Kanemoto  1996–2000
 Spain Jesús Espigares Mira  2000–2004
 South Africa Jackie Selebi
Jackie Selebi
Jacob Sello Selebi is the former national commissioner of the South African Police Service, and a former president of Interpol. In January 2008, Selebi was put on extended leave as national police commissioner, and resigned as president of Interpol, after he was charged with corruption in his...

 
2004–2008
 Chile Arturo Herrera Verdugo  acting president until the General Assembly in Saint Petersburg in October 2008, and candidate for the President on that General Assembly
 Singapore Khoo Boon Hui
Khoo Boon Hui
Tan Sri Khoo Boon Hui , born in 1954 in Singapore, is the Senior Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs and the current president of INTERPOL...

 
Oct 2008–present

See also

  • Europol
    Europol
    Europol is the European Union's criminal intelligence agency. It became fully operational on 1 July 1999....

    , a similar EU-wide organization.
  • Intelligence assessment
  • International Criminal Court
    International Criminal Court
    The International Criminal Court is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression .It came into being on 1 July 2002—the date its founding treaty, the Rome Statute of the...

  • Interpol Terrorism Watch List
    Interpol Terrorism Watch List
    Interpol launched the Interpol Terrorism Watch List on 11 April 2002 for access by Interpol offices and authorized police agencies in its 186 member countries, during the 17th Interpol Regional Conference for the Americas in Mexico City...

  • UN Police
    UN Police
    The UN Police is an integral part of the United Nations peace operations. Currently there are over 12500 UN Police operating in over 90 countries. The UN police help to allow for a safer environment, as well as protecting civilians from criminal activities...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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