International sanctions
International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.

There are several types of sanctions.
  • Diplomatic sanctions - the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies.
  • Economic sanctions - typically a ban on trade
    Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

    , possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments, or with certain exceptions (such as food
    Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals...

     and medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  • Military sanctions - military intervention
  • Sport sanctions - preventing one country's people and teams from competing in international events.

Economic sanctions are distinguished from trade sanctions, which are applied for purely economic reasons, and typically take the form of tariff
A tariff may be either tax on imports or exports , or a list or schedule of prices for such things as rail service, bus routes, and electrical usage ....

s or similar measures, rather than bans on trade.

Reasons for sanctioning

Sanctions formulations are designed into three categories. The categories are used to differentiate between the political contexts due to the global nature of the act. First, Sanctions are designed to force cooperation with international Law. This can be seen in the sanctions placed on Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 in Resolution No. 661on August 6 1990 after the initial invasion of neighboring Kuwait. The United Nations placed an Embargo on the nation in an attempt to prevent armed conflict. Resolution 665 and Resolution 670 were further added creating both navel and air blockade on Iraq. The purpose of the initial sanctions was to coerce Iraq into following international law, which included the recognized sovereignty of Kuwait. The second category of design is those sanctions with the purpose to contain a threat to peace within a geographical boundary. The 2010 Iran nuclear proliferation debate is a contemporary example. The current United Nations Security Council passed on June 9, Resolution 1929 providing restrictions on missile and weaponry materials that could be used for the creation of destructive weapons. This principle of restriction is to contain the possibility of Iranian aggression with in the neighboring region. The third category involves the United Nations Security Councils condemnation of actions of a specific action or policy of a member/non-member nation. The white majority declared a declaration of Rhodesian Independence on November 11 1965. The General assemble and United Nations in a 107 to 2 vote took to condemning Rhodesia on all military economic as well as oil and petroleum products. The international display of disapproval forced sanctions onto the Rhodesian people but without a clear goal as to a remedy for the economic sanctions. The three categories are a blanket explanation on the reasons sanctions are applied to nations but it does not go as far to say that voting members share the same political reasons. It is often the case for many nations to apply self-interests with one or more of the categories when voting whether or not to implement sanctions.

Diplomatic sanctions

Diplomatic sanctions are political measures taken to express disapproval or displeasure at a certain action through diplomatic and political means, rather than affecting economic or military relations. Measures include limitations or cancellations of high-level government visits or expelling or withdrawing diplomatic missions or staff.

Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions can vary from imposing import duties on goods from, or blocking the export of certain goods to the target country, to a full naval blockade
A blockade is an effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade, and is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually...

 of its ports in an effort to verify, and curb or block specified imported goods.

Well known examples of economic sanctions include the United Nations sanctions against South Africa
1961 in South Africa
-March:* 12 March - The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions submits a memorandum to the United Nations General Assembly calling for economic sanctions against South Africa* 15 March - South Africa withdraws from the Commonwealth-May:...

, United Nations sanctions against Zimbabwe, United Nations sanctions against Iraq
Iraq sanctions
The Iraq sanctions were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on the nation of Iraq. They began August 6, 1990, four days after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, stayed largely in force until May 2003 , and certain portions including reparations to Kuwait...

 (1990–2003) and the United States embargo against Cuba
United States embargo against Cuba
The United States embargo against Cuba is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo partially imposed on Cuba in October 1960...

 (1962–present). Since 1993 many countries have imposed trade sanctions on Burma (Myanmar). South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 is the typical case study used for giving sanctions credibility, though that is a contentious claim itself.

On May 13, 1998, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 imposed economic sanctions on India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, following its second round of nuclear tests. However, these have since been lifted.

In 2001/2002, the United States imposed economic sanctions against the state of Zimbabwe, through the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 or ZDERA, , restricting access to financing, debt relief and rescheduling, forcing the government to operate on a cash only basis.

Military sanctions

Similarly, military sanctions can range from carefully targeted military strikes to degrade a nation's conventional or non-conventional capabilities, to the less aggressive form of an arms embargo
Arms embargo
An arms embargo is an embargo that applies to weaponry. It may also include "dual use" items. An arms embargo may serve one or more purposes:# to signal disapproval of behavior by a certain actor,# to maintain neutral standing in an ongoing conflict, or...

 to cut off supplies of arms or dual-use items.

Sport sanctions

Sport sanctions are used as a way of psychological warfare
Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare , or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations , have been known by many other names or terms, including Psy Ops, Political Warfare, “Hearts and Minds,” and Propaganda...

, intended to crush morale of general population in target country. The only instance where sports sanctions were used were the international sanctions against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1992-1995, enacted by UN Security Council by resolution 757
United Nations Security Council Resolution 757
United Nations Security Council Resolution 757, adopted on May 30, 1992, after reaffirming resolutions 713 , 721 , 724 , 727 , 740 743 , 749 and 752 , the Council condemned the failure of the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to implement Resolution 752.After demanding the...

. The Gleneagles Agreement
Gleneagles Agreement
The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. In 1977, Commonwealth Presidents and Prime Ministers agreed, as part of their support for the international campaign against apartheid, to discourage contact and...

 approved by the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 in 1977, committed member nations to discourage contact and competition between their sportsmen and sporting organisations, teams or individuals from South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

. However, it was not binding and unable to stop events such as the 1980 British Lions tour to South Africa
1980 British Lions tour to South Africa
In 1980 the British Lions rugby union team toured South Africa . The tour was not a success in terms of international results, the Lions losing the first three tests before salvaging some pride with a win in the fourth...

 or the 1981 South Africa rugby union tour of New Zealand

Sanctions on individuals

The United Nations Security Council can implement sanctions on political leaders or economic individuals. Theses persons usually find ways of evading their sanction because of political connections within their nation.

Sanctions in international law

Entities favorable to the target of another government's sanctions may claim that sanctions imposed by single countries or by an intergovernmental body like the United Nations are "illegal" or "criminal" due to, in the case of economic sanctions, the Right to development
Right to development
The right to development was first recognized in 1981 in Article 22 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights as a definitive individual and collective right...

 or, in the case of military sanctions, the Right of self-defense.

A 1996 report by International Progress Organization
International Progress Organization
The International Progress Organization is a Vienna-based think tank dealing with world affairs. As an international non-governmental organization it enjoys consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and is associated with the United Nations Department of...

criticized sanctions as "an illegitimate form of collective punishment of the weakest and poorest members of society, the infants, the children, the chronically ill, and the elderly."

Dissolution of sanctions

There are several ways to remove and dissolve sanctions that have been implemented on a nation(s). In some cases such as those implemented on Iraq in 1990, only a reverse resolution can be used to remove the sanctions. This is done when no provision is put in the resolution for the removal of sanctions. This is generally only done if the sanctioned party has shown willingness to adopt certain conditions of the Security Council. Another way sanctions can be removed is when time limits are implemented with the initial sanction. After an extended duration the sanction will eventually be lifted off the nation despite cooperation. Additional sanctions may be placed however if the Security Council deems it necessary. The practice of time limitations has grown over the years and allows for gradual removal of restrictions on nations conforming to at least partial conditions imposed by the Security Council .
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