Idaho
Overview
 
Idaho is a state in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state.

Idaho is a mountainous state, and is the 14th largest state by land area, with an area larger than that of all of New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

.
Encyclopedia
Idaho is a state in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state.

Idaho is a mountainous state, and is the 14th largest state by land area, with an area larger than that of all of New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

. It is landlocked
Landlocked
A landlocked country is a country entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 48 landlocked countries in the world, including partially recognized states...

, surrounded by the states of Washington, Oregon
Oregon
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 and the Canadian province of British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

. However, the network of dams and locks on the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 and Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

 make the city of Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

 the farthest inland seaport on the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States.

According to the United States Census 2010, Idaho had a population of 1,567,582. The state's postal abbreviation is ID. Idaho's nickname is the Gem State, because nearly every known gemstone
Gemstone
A gemstone or gem is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments...

 has been found there. In addition, Idaho is one of only two places in the world where star garnets can be found (the other is the Himalaya Mountains, in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

), and is the only place six-pointed star garnets have been found. Additionally Idaho is sometimes called the Potato State owing to its popular crop. The state motto is Esto Perpetua (Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 for "Let it be forever").

Etymology

The exact origin of the name remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing
George M. Willing
George Maurice "Doc" Willing, Jr. was an American physician, prospector, and political lobbyist. He is known for his time as an unelected delegate to the United States Congress for Jefferson Territory and as the person who introduced James Reavis to the fraudulent Peralta land...

 suggested the name "Idaho," which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language
Shoshone language
Shoshoni or Shoshone is a Native American language spoken by the Shoshone people. Principal dialects of Shoshoni include Western Shoshoni in Nevada, Gosiute in western Utah, Northern Shoshoni in southern Idaho and northern Utah, and Eastern Shoshoni in Wyoming.Shoshoni-speaking Native Americans...

 term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing later claimed that he had made up the name himself. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory
Colorado Territory
The Territory of Colorado was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 28, 1861, until August 1, 1876, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Colorado....

 when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs
Idaho Springs, Colorado
The City of Idaho Springs is a municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado that is the most populous settlement in Clear Creek County, Colorado. Idaho Springs is located in Clear Creek Canyon, in the mountains upstream from Golden, some thirty miles west of Denver...

".
However, the name "Idaho" did not go away. The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County
Idaho County, Idaho
Idaho County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 16,267. The county seat is Grangeville...

 was created in eastern Washington Territory
Washington Territory
The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 8, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington....

. The county was named after a steamship
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.

Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account that the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how".

The name "Idaho" may be derived from the Plains Apache
Plains Apache language
The Plains Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Plains Apache peoples living primarily in central Oklahoma....

 word "ídaahę́" which means "enemy." The Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

s used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory
Idaho Territory
The Territory of Idaho was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 4, 1863, until July 3, 1890, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Idaho.-1860s:...

.

An excerpt from a 1956 Idaho History Textbook:
"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down". The second is "dah" which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark (!) does in the English language. The Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain".

Geography


Idaho borders six states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon
Oregon
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

 are to the west, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

 and Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

 are to the south, and Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

 and Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

 are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

 to the north.
The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres (9,300 km²), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

 state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

 rush through Hells Canyon
Hells Canyon
Hells Canyon is a wide canyon located along the border of eastern Oregon and western Idaho in the United States. It is North America's deepest river gorge at and part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area....

, the deepest gorge in the United States.
Shoshone Falls
Shoshone Falls
Shoshone Falls is a waterfall on the Snake River located approximately five miles east of Twin Falls, Idaho. Sometimes called the "Niagara of the West," Shoshone Falls is 212 feet high—45 feet higher than Niagara Falls—and flows over a rim 1,000 feet wide.A park overlooking the waterfall is...

 plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than that of Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls, located on the Niagara River draining Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls, which combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfalls in the world and has...

.
The major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

, the Clark Fork
Clark Fork (river)
The Clark Fork is a river in the U.S. states of Montana and Idaho, approximately long. The largest river by volume in Montana, it drains an extensive region of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and northern Idaho in the watershed of the Columbia River, flowing northwest through a long...

/Pend Oreille River
Pend Oreille River
The Pend Oreille River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately long, in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington in the United States, as well as southeastern British Columbia in Canada. In its passage through British Columbia its name is spelled Pend-d'Oreille River...

, the Clearwater River
Clearwater River (Idaho)
The Clearwater River is a river in north central Idaho, which flows westward from the Bitterroot Mountains along the Idaho-Montana border, and joins the Snake River at Lewiston. In October 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition descended the Clearwater River in dugout canoes, putting in at "Canoe...

, the Salmon River
Salmon River (Idaho)
The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. The Salmon is also known as The River of No Return. It flows for through central Idaho, draining and dropping more than between its headwaters, near Galena Summit above the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National...

. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River
Coeur d'Alene River
The Coeur d'Alene River flows from the Silver Valley into Lake Coeur d'Alene in the U.S. state of Idaho. The stream continues out of Lake Coeur d'Alene as the Spokane River...

, the Spokane River
Spokane River
The Spokane River is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately long, in northern Idaho and eastern Washington in the United States. It drains a low mountainous area east of the Columbia, passing through the city of Spokane, Washington.-Description:...

, the Boise River
Boise River
The Boise River is a tributary of the Snake River in the northwestern United States. It drains a rugged portion of the Sawtooth Range in southwestern Idaho northeast of Boise, as well as part of the western Snake River Plain...

, and the Payette River
Payette River
The Payette River is an river in southwestern Idaho and is a major tributary of the Snake River.Its headwaters originate in the Sawtooth and Salmon River Mountains at elevations over...

. The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. The Port of Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

, at the confluence of the Clearwater
Clearwater River (Idaho)
The Clearwater River is a river in north central Idaho, which flows westward from the Bitterroot Mountains along the Idaho-Montana border, and joins the Snake River at Lewiston. In October 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition descended the Clearwater River in dugout canoes, putting in at "Canoe...

 and the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

s is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon.

Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak
Borah Peak
Borah Peak is the highest mountain in the U.S. state of Idaho. It is located in the central section of the Lost River Range, within the Challis National Forest in eastern Custer County. The peak is named for William Borah , a prominent U.S...

, 12662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range
Lost River Range
The Lost River Range is a group of high mountains located in central Idaho, in the northwestern United States. It runs southeast for approximately 75 miles from the Salmon River near the community of Challis to the Snake River Valley near Arco...

 north of Mackay
Mackay, Idaho
Mackay is a city in Custer County, Idaho, United States. The population was 566 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Mackay is located at , at an elevation of 5,905 feet ....

. Idaho's lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

, where the Clearwater River
Clearwater River (Idaho)
The Clearwater River is a river in north central Idaho, which flows westward from the Bitterroot Mountains along the Idaho-Montana border, and joins the Snake River at Lewiston. In October 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition descended the Clearwater River in dugout canoes, putting in at "Canoe...

 joins the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

 and continues into Washington. The Sawtooth Range
Sawtooth Range (Idaho)
The Sawtooth Range is part of the Rocky Mountains, located within a few miles south of Stanley, Idaho, in the Western United States. Much of mountain range is within the Sawtooth Wilderness, part of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area...

 is often considered Idaho's most famous mountain range. Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range
Bitterroot Range
The Bitterroot Range runs along the border of Montana and Idaho in the northwestern United States. The range spans an area of 62,736 square kilometers  and is named after the bitterroot , a small pink flower that is the state flower of Montana.- History :In 1805, the Corps of Discovery,...

, the White Cloud Mountains
White Cloud Mountains
The White Cloud Mountains are part of the Rocky Mountainsof the western United States,located in central Idaho, southeast of Stanley in Custer County. The range is located within the Sawtooth National Recreation Area and the area that is the proposed "White Cloud - Boulder Wilderness Area." The...

, the Lost River Range
Lost River Range
The Lost River Range is a group of high mountains located in central Idaho, in the northwestern United States. It runs southeast for approximately 75 miles from the Salmon River near the community of Challis to the Snake River Valley near Arco...

, the Clearwater Mountains
Clearwater Mountains
The Clearwater Mountains are part of the Rocky Mountains, located in the panhandle of Idaho in the Western United States. The mountains lie between the Salmon River and the Bitterroot Range and encompass an area of .- North Clearwater Mountains :...

, and the Salmon River Mountains
Salmon River Mountains
The Salmon River Mountains are a major mountain range covering most of the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho. The range is over long and its boundaries are usually defined by the Salmon River and its large tributary forks. Part of the central Rocky Mountains, the entire range lies west of...

.

Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area
Boise metropolitan area
The Boise City-Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area , as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of five counties in southwestern Idaho, anchored by the cities of Boise and Nampa...

, Idaho Falls
Idaho Falls, Idaho
Idaho Falls is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the largest city in Eastern Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813, with a metro population of 130,374....

, Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

, and Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

 are in the Mountain Time Zone
Mountain Time Zone
The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time, also known as Greenwich Mean Time, during the shortest days of autumn and winter , and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time in the spring, summer, and early autumn...

. (A legislative oddity ( §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone
Central Time zone
In North America, the Central Time Zone refers to national time zones which observe standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC , and daylight saving, or summer time by subtracting five hours...

, but this error was corrected with a 2007 Amendment.) Areas north of the Salmon River
Salmon River (Idaho)
The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. The Salmon is also known as The River of No Return. It flows for through central Idaho, draining and dropping more than between its headwaters, near Galena Summit above the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National...

, including Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

, Moscow
Moscow, Idaho
Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border. It is the most populous city and county seat of Latah County and the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state...

, Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

, and Sandpoint
Sandpoint, Idaho
Sandpoint is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Bonner County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 7,365 at the 2010 census.Sandpoint's major economic contributors include forest products and light manufacturing, tourism and recreation and government services...

 are in the Pacific Time Zone
Pacific Time Zone
The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time . The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 120th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. During daylight saving time, its time offset is UTC-7.In the United States...

 and revolve commercially and culturally around Washington State through the second largest city, Spokane, Washington
Spokane, Washington
Spokane is a city located in the Northwestern United States in the state of Washington. It is the largest city of Spokane County of which it is also the county seat, and the metropolitan center of the Inland Northwest region...

.

Climate

Idaho has much variation in its climate. Although the state's western border is located about 350 miles (563.3 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

, and precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 are at their maximum extent. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with a predominantly elevated altitude. The maritime influence is the least prominement in the eastern part of the state where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences more extreme, showing a more semi-arid continental climate.

Climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 in Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 100 °F (37.8 °C) for the maximum temperature are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees very little snow. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal
Day
A day is a unit of time, commonly defined as an interval equal to 24 hours. It also can mean that portion of the full day during which a location is illuminated by the light of the sun...

 difference in temperature is often in the summer. Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. This is what led the railroad tycoon Harriman family to develop the most famous ski resort, Sun Valley. Idaho's all time highest temperature of 118 °F (47.8 °C) was recorded at Orofino
Orofino, Idaho
Orofino is a city in Clearwater County, Idaho, along Orofino Creek and the north bank of the Clearwater River. The population was 3,247 at the 2000 census, and the city is the county seat of Clearwater County...

 on July 28, 1934; the all time lowest temperature of -60 F was recorded at Island Park Dam
Island Park Dam
Island Park Dam is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Fremont County, Idaho. The dam lies in Targhee National Forest near Island Park...

 on January 18, 1943.
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Idaho Cities. (F)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boise 38/24 45/27 55/33 62/38 72/46 81/53 91/59 90/59 79/50 65/40 48/31 38/23
Lewiston 42/30 47/31 55/36 62/41 71/47 79/54 89/60 89/60 78/51 63/41 48/34 40/28
Pocatello 33/16 38/19 49/27 59/33 68/40 78/46 88/52 88/51 76/42 62/33 45/24 33/16
http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-idaho/

Lakes

  • Alturas Lake
    Alturas Lake
    Alturas Lake is an alpine lake in Blaine County, Idaho, United States, located in the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The lake is approximately south of Stanley and northwest of Ketchum...

  • Bear Lake (Idaho-Utah)
    Bear Lake (Idaho-Utah)
    Bear Lake is a natural freshwater lake on the Utah-Idaho border in the Western United States. It is the second largest natural freshwater lake in Utah and has been called the "Caribbean of the Rockies" for its unique turquoise-blue color, the result of suspended limestone deposits in the water...

  • Hayden Lake
  • Henry's Lake
  • Hidden Lake
  • Lake Cascade
    Lake Cascade
    Lake Cascade is located on the North Fork of the Payette River in Valley County, Idaho, USA, in the Boise National Forest. It is the fourth largest lake or reservoir in the state...

  • Lake Coeur d'Alene
    Lake Coeur d'Alene
    Lake Coeur d'Alene is a natural lake in the Idaho Panhandle, located in the vicinity of the city of the same name. It spans long, ranges from 1 to wide and has over of shoreline for boaters and vacationers to explore and enjoy.-Geology and geography:...

  • Lake Lowell
  • Lake Ruvet
  • Lake Walcott
    Lake Walcott
    Lake Walcott is a reservoir in south central Idaho in the northwestern United States, impounded by Minidoka Dam. The damming of the Snake River by the Minidoka Project formed the 11,000 acre lake beginning in 1909. "Bird Island" is an island in the lake. Lake Walcott is used for water-sports and...

  • Payette Lake (McCall)
  • Pend Oreille
    Lake Pend Oreille
    Lake Pend Oreille is a lake in the northern Idaho Panhandle, with a surface area of . It is 65 miles long, and 1,150 feet deep in some regions, making it the fifth deepest in the United States. It is fed by the Clark Fork River and the Pack River, and drains via the Pend Oreille River...

  • Little Redfish Lake
    Little Redfish Lake
    Little Redfish Lake is a name given to two different alpine lakes in central Idaho, both in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area and Custer County. This article refers to the lake on Redfish Lake Creek downstream of Redfish Lake and south of Stanley...

  • Lucky Peak Lake
    Lucky Peak Lake
    Lucky Peak Lake is a reservoir on the Boise River in the U.S. state of Idaho. It is located mainly in Ada County, extending into Boise County and Elmore County. It was created in 1955 with the construction of Lucky Peak Dam....

  • Pettit Lake
    Pettit Lake
    Pettit Lake is a large alpine lake in Blaine County, Idaho, United States, located in the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The lake is approximately south of Stanley and northwest of Ketchum. Pettit Lake can be accessed from State Highway 75 via Sawtooth National Forest...

  • Priest Lake
    Priest Lake
    Priest Lake, Idaho, United States is located in the northernmost portion of the Idaho Panhandle, 80 miles north of Spokane Washington, with the northern end of the lake extending to within 15 miles of the Canadian border. The primary lake, lower Priest is 19 miles long and over 300 feet deep...

  • Redfish Lake
    Redfish Lake
    Redfish Lake is an alpine lake in central Idaho, United States, located in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, at the base of the Sawtooth Mountains in Custer County....

  • Sawtooth Lake
    Sawtooth Lake
    Sawtooth Lake is an alpine lake in Custer County, Idaho, United States, located high in the Sawtooth Mountains in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The lake is approximately southwest of Stanley. A trail from the Iron Creek trailhead and campground leads approximately 5 miles to Sawtooth Lake...

  • Stanley Lake
    Stanley Lake
    Stanley Lake is an alpine lake in Custer County, Idaho, United States, located at the base of the Sawtooth Mountains in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The lake is approximately west of Stanley, readily accessed via a spur road from State Highway 21...

  • Warm Lake
    Warm Lake
    Warm Lake is a popular lake in Idaho, United States. It is located 26 miles east of Cascade in Valley County, at 5,298 feet above sea level.The lake's abundance of wildlife makes it very popular for camping, fishing and hunting. Visitors typically have a chance of seeing moose, deer, bear, elk,...

  • Williams Lake (Salmon)

History

Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave
Wilson Butte Cave
Wilson Butte Cave is located on the Snake River plain near Twin Falls in Jerome County, Idaho. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is maintained by the Bureau of Land Management or BLM.-External links:...

 near Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

 in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. American Indian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 peoples predominant in the area included the Nez Perce in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone
Shoshone
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

 in the south.

An early presence of French-Canadian trappers is visible in names and toponyms that have survived to this day: Nez Percé, Coeur d'Alène, Boisé, Payette, some preexisting the Lewis and Clark and Astorian expeditions which themselves included significant numbers of French and Metis guides recruited for their familiarity with the terrain.

Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country
Oregon Country
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed ownership region of the Pacific Northwest of North America. The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, and American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from...

, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. From 1843 to 1849 present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon
Provisional Government of Oregon
The Provisional Government of Oregon was a popularly elected government created in the Oregon Country, in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. It existed from May 2, 1843 until March 3, 1849. Created at a time when no country had sovereignty over the region, this independent government...

. When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what was left of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory.

Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory
Idaho Territory
The Territory of Idaho was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 4, 1863, until July 3, 1890, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Idaho.-1860s:...

 on July 4, 1863 at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon
Oregon Territory
The Territory of Oregon was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 14, 1848, until February 14, 1859, when the southwestern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Oregon. Originally claimed by several countries , the region was...

, Washington
Washington Territory
The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 8, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington....

, and Dakota
Dakota Territory
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.The Dakota Territory consisted of...

 Territories. The new territory included present-day Idaho, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, and most of Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

. The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River
Clearwater River (Idaho)
The Clearwater River is a river in north central Idaho, which flows westward from the Bitterroot Mountains along the Idaho-Montana border, and joins the Snake River at Lewiston. In October 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition descended the Clearwater River in dugout canoes, putting in at "Canoe...

 both directions. The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House
Kullyspell House
Kullyspell House was a fur trading post established in 1809 on Lake Pend Oreille in what is now North Idaho...

, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille
Lake Pend Oreille
Lake Pend Oreille is a lake in the northern Idaho Panhandle, with a surface area of . It is 65 miles long, and 1,150 feet deep in some regions, making it the fifth deepest in the United States. It is fed by the Clark Fork River and the Pack River, and drains via the Pend Oreille River...

 for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson
David Thompson (explorer)
David Thompson was an English-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as "Koo-Koo-Sint" or "the Stargazer"...

 of the North West Company
North West Company
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what was to become Western Canada...

. In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company
Pacific Fur Company
The Pacific Fur Company was founded June 23, 1810, in New York City. Half of the stock of the company was held by the American Fur Company, owned exclusively by John Jacob Astor, and Astor provided all of the capital for the enterprise. The other half of the stock was ascribed to working partners...

 at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. This post, known as "MacKenzie's Post" or "Clearwater", operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned. The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860. The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861.

After some tribulation as a territory, including the illegal and chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

 in December 1864 to Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

 in January 1865, disenfranchisement of Mormon
Mormon
The term Mormon most commonly denotes an adherent, practitioner, follower, or constituent of Mormonism, which is the largest branch of the Latter Day Saint movement in restorationist Christianity...

 polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1877, and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

 which had been a state since 1863, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890. The economy of the state, which had been primarily supported by metal mining, shifted towards agriculture, forest products and tourism.

In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.

The Idaho State Historical Society
Idaho State Historical Society
The Idaho State Historical Society is a historical society located in the U.S. state of Idaho that preserves and promotes Idaho’s cultural heritage. The society's vision is to inspire, enrich, and reach out to all Idahoans by providing leadership in the areas of preservation and dissemination of...

 and numerous local historical societies and museums preserve and promote Idaho’s cultural heritage
Culture of Idaho
Although the culture of Idaho is reflective of the broader culture of the United States to some extent, some of the forces that have shaped the culture of Idaho are ethnographic, geographic, and historical in nature...

.

Demographics

At the 2010 Census, 84.0% of the population was non-Hispanic White, 0.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 1.1% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.2% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 1.7% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 11.2% of Idaho's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).

As of 2005, Idaho has an estimated population of 1,429,096, which is an increase of 33,956, or 2.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 135,140, or 10.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 people (that is 111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration
Human migration
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic, often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement or cultural assimilation. Only a few nomadic...

 of 75,795 people into the state. There are large numbers of Americans of English and German ancestry in Idaho. Immigration
Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants,...

 from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.

This made Idaho the sixth fastest-growing state after Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

, Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, Florida, Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

, and Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

. From 2004 to 2005, Idaho grew the third-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada and Arizona.

Nampa
Nampa, Idaho
Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

, the state's second largest city, has experienced particularly strong growth in recent years. According to census estimates Nampa has grown 22.1% to nearly 65,000 residents between 2000 and 2003. As of 2007, the population in Nampa
Nampa, Idaho
Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

 was estimated at 84,000. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell
Caldwell, Idaho
Caldwell is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 43,281, as of July 2009.Caldwell is the home of the College of Idaho. It is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area....

, Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

, Meridian
Meridian, Idaho
-History:The town was established in 1891 on the Onweiler farm north of the present site and was called Hunter. Two years later an I.O.O.F. lodge was organized and called itself Meridian because it was located on the Boise Meridian and the town was renamed...

, Post Falls
Post Falls, Idaho
Post Falls is a city in Kootenai County, Idaho, United States near the Idaho state line between Spokane, Washington, and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The population was 17,247 at the 2000 census, and grew to 27,574 people by the 2010 census, making it Idaho's tenth largest city.-History:Post Falls is...

 and Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

.

Since 1990, Idaho's population has increased by 386,000 (38%).

The Boise Metropolitan Area
Boise metropolitan area
The Boise City-Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area , as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of five counties in southwestern Idaho, anchored by the cities of Boise and Nampa...

 (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

, Idaho Falls
Idaho Falls, Idaho
Idaho Falls is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the largest city in Eastern Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813, with a metro population of 130,374....

, Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

 and Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

.

As of 2006, six official micropolitan statistical areas
United States micropolitan area
United States Micropolitan Statistical Areas , as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, are urban areas in the United States based around a core city or town with a population of 10,000 to 49,999. The micropolitan area designation was created in 2003...

 are based in Idaho. Twin Falls is the largest of these.

The center of population
Center of population
In demographics, the center of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population...

 of Idaho is located in Custer County
Custer County, Idaho
Custer County is a rural mountain county located in the center of the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1881, it was named for the General Custer Mine, where gold was discovered five years earlier . The population was 4,342 at the 2000 census; it is estimated to have fallen to 4,166 by 2007...

, in the town of Stanley
Stanley, Idaho
Stanley is a city in Custer County, Idaho, United States. The population was 100 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Idaho is located in Stanley.-Geography:...

.

The most common reported ancestries in the state are: German (18.9%), English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 (18.1%), Irish
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 (10%), American (8.4%), Norwegian
Norwegian American
Norwegian Americans are Americans of Norwegian descent. Norwegian immigrants went to the United States primarily in the later half of the 19th century and the first few decades of the 20th century. There are more than 4.5 million Norwegian Americans according to the most recent U.S. census, and...

 (3.6%), and Swedish
Swedish American
Swedish Americans are Americans of Swedish descent, especially the descendants of about 1.2 million immigrants from Sweden during 1885-1915. Most were Lutherans who affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ; some were Methodists...

 (3.5%).

Religion

According to a report produced by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life the self-identified religious affiliations of Idahoans over the age of 18 as of 2008 are:
Denomination %
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints  23
Evangelical Protestant 22
Catholic 18
Unaffiliated 18
Mainline Protestant 16
Other Faiths 2
Jehovah's Witness 1
Eastern Orthodox <0.5
Other Christian <0.5
Jewish <0.5
Muslim <0.5
Buddhist <0.5
Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

<0.5
Other World <0.5
Don't know/refused <0.5


The largest denominations by number of members in 2000 were The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 311,425; (2008: 406,764) the Roman Catholic Church with 130,847; the Assemblies of God with 18,745; and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

 with 17,683.

Economy

Gross state product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 for 2004 was US$43.6 billion. The per capita income for 2004 was US$26,881.
Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. All three varieties of wheat, Dark Northern Spring, Hard Red and Soft White are grown in the state. Nez Perce County is considered a premier Soft White growing locale.

Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese
Processed cheese
Processed cheese, process cheese, cheese slice, prepared cheese, cheese singles or cheese food is a food product made from normal cheese and sometimes other unfermented dairy ingredients, plus emulsifiers, extra salt, food colorings, or whey...

 is located in Gooding, Idaho
Gooding, Idaho
Gooding is the county seat and largest city of Gooding County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 3,384 at the 2000 census.The city is named for Frank R. Gooding, a local sheep rancher who became a prominent political figure in Idaho in the early 20th Century, serving as both Governor of...

. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia
Glanbia
Glanbia plc is an international nutritional solutions and cheese group, headquartered in Ireland. Glanbia is listed on the Irish and London Stock Exchange . The Group has four segments; US Cheese & Global Nutritionals, Dairy Ireland, Joint Ventures & Associates and Other Business...

 group. The Idaho National Laboratory
Idaho National Laboratory
Idaho National Laboratory is an complex located in the high desert of eastern Idaho, between the town of Arco to the west and the cities of Idaho Falls and Blackfoot to the east. It lies within Butte, Bingham, Bonneville and Jefferson counties...

 (INL), a government lab for nuclear energy research, is also an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries located across the nation.

Locally, a variety of industries are important. Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry year-round climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Other examples would be ATK Corporation, which operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Two are sporting and one is defense contract. The Lewis-Clark Valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory. Four of the world's six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WA valley. Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Julietta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothchilds until Prohibition. In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state.

Today, the largest industry in Idaho is the science and technology sector. It accounts for over 25% of the State's total revenue and 70%+ of the State's exports (in dollars). Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology Inc.
Micron Technology
Micron Technology, Inc. is an American multinational corporation based in Boise, Idaho, USA, best known for producing many forms of semiconductor devices. This includes DRAM, SDRAM, flash memory, SSD and CMOS image sensing chips. Consumers may be more familiar with its consumer brand Crucial...

, the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random access memory
Dynamic random access memory
Dynamic random-access memory is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can be either charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1...

 (DRAM) chips. Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

 has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production. ON Semiconductor
ON Semiconductor
ON Semiconductor , is a semiconductors supplier company. Products include power and signal management, logic, discrete and custom devices for automotive, communications, computing, consumer, industrial, LED lighting, medical, military/aerospace and power applications...

, whose worldwide headquarters in Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

, is a widely recognized innovator in modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Coldwater Creek
Coldwater Creek
Coldwater Creek is a women's apparel and accessories retailer based in Sandpoint, Idaho, United States. The company was founded in 1984 by Dennis and Ann Pence. Coldwater Creek sells its products in stores, through catalogs and online. The online outlet carries apparel that was featured during...

, a women's clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint
Sandpoint, Idaho
Sandpoint is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Bonner County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 7,365 at the 2010 census.Sandpoint's major economic contributors include forest products and light manufacturing, tourism and recreation and government services...

. Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was a company that sold :computers, computer components, :computer software, and :information technology services. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982...

 (now a part of Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation that specializes in developing and marketing hardware systems and enterprise software products – particularly database management systems...

) has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Sun brings $4M in annual salaries and over $300M of revenue to the state each year.
A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including JC Penney (as The Golden Rule) in Twin Falls, Safeways in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston and Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Flying Service of Pasco, Washington, which became United Air Lines and subsequently Varney Air Group that became Continental Airlines.

The state personal income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

 ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credit
Tax credit
A tax credit is a sum deducted from the total amount a taxpayer owes to the state. A tax credit may be granted for various types of taxes, such as an income tax, property tax, or VAT. It may be granted in recognition of taxes already paid, as a subsidy, or to encourage investment or other behaviors...

s for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.

The state sales tax
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

 is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drug
Prescription drug
A prescription medication is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a medical prescription before it can be obtained. The term is used to distinguish it from over-the-counter drugs which can be obtained without a prescription...

s are not. Hotel, motel
Motel
A motor hotel, or motel for short, is a hotel designed for motorists, and usually has a parking area for motor vehicles...

, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.

Idaho has a state gambling lottery
Idaho Lottery
The Idaho Lottery, which began on July 19, 1989, is run by the government of Idaho. It is a member of the Multi-State Lottery Association...

 which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools
School district
School districts are a form of special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools.-United States:...

 and Idaho higher education from 1990–2006.

Energy

The energy landscape of Idaho is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. The Snake River Plain
Snake River Plain
The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located primarily within the state of Idaho in the United States of America. It stretches about westward from northwest of the state of Wyoming to the Idaho-Oregon border. The plain is a wide flat bow-shaped depression, and covers about a quarter of Idaho...

 and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the best hydroelectric power resources in the nation and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power
Geothermal power
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of minerals...

 and wind power
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 potential. These realities have shaped much of the state’s current energy landscape.

Most of the energy consumed in Idaho is imported from other states. Imports account for more than 80% of total energy consumption, including all of Idaho's natural gas and petroleum supplies and more than half of its electricity. Of the electricity consumed in Idaho in 2005, 48% came from hydroelectricity, 42% was generated by burning coal and 9% was generated by burning natural gas. The remainder came from other renewable sources such as wind.

The state’s numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556 thousand MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho’s electricity generated in the state. Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127 thousand MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Coal-fired generation and the state’s small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state’s electricity output. The state produces 739 thousand MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand.

While Idaho’s 515 trillion Btu total energy consumption is low compared with other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation’s 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million Btu is currently just above the national average of 333 million Btu. As the 13th largest state in land area, distance creates the additional problem of "line loss". When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled.

In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030.
This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho’s finite hydroelectric resources.

Transportation

Major highways
Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking the two largest metropolitan areas of Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

 in the south and Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

 in the north. US 95
U.S. Route 95 in Idaho
In the U.S. state of Idaho, U.S. Route 95 is a north–south highway near the western border of the state, stretching from Oregon to British Columbia for over .-Route description:...

 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated that the state's highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. Interstate 84
Interstate 84 in Idaho
In the U.S. state of Idaho, Interstate 84 heads southeast from the Oregon state line, it spurs to Interstate 184 in Boise. Eventually I-84 spurs Interstate 86 and mainline I-84 heads southeast towards Utah and I-86 is continues due east and heads to Pocatello, meeting with Interstate 15.-Future:...

 is the main highway linking the Southeast and Southwest portions of the state, along with Interstate 86
Interstate 86 (west)
Interstate 86 is an intrastate Interstate Highway, located entirely within the state of Idaho. It runs 63 miles from an intersection with Interstate 84 located approximately 7 miles east of Declo in rural Cassia County, to an intersection with Interstate 15 at Pocatello...

 and Interstate 15.

Major federal aid highways in Idaho:






North
  • U.S. Highway 2
    U.S. Route 2 in Idaho
    US Route 2 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Idaho, running in Bonner and Boundary Counties. It extends from the Washington state line and SH-41 in Oldtown, east to the Montana state line near Moyie Springs.-Route description:...

  • U.S. Highway 12
    U.S. Route 12 in Idaho
    US Route 12 is a state highway in north central Idaho. It extends from the Washington state line in Lewiston east to the Montana state line at Lolo Pass, generally along the route of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and is known as the Northwest Passage Scenic Byway -Route description:US 12 enters...



North/South
  • U.S. Highway 93
    U.S. Route 93 in Idaho
    U.S. Route 93 is a north–south U.S. Highway in the U.S. state of Idaho.-Route description:US 93 enters Idaho from a point immediately north of the border casino town of Jackpot, Nevada....

  • U.S. Highway 95
    U.S. Route 95 in Idaho
    In the U.S. state of Idaho, U.S. Route 95 is a north–south highway near the western border of the state, stretching from Oregon to British Columbia for over .-Route description:...

  • Interstate 15


West/East
  • U.S. Highway 20
  • U.S. Highway 26
  • U.S. Highway 30
  • Interstate 84
    Interstate 84 in Idaho
    In the U.S. state of Idaho, Interstate 84 heads southeast from the Oregon state line, it spurs to Interstate 184 in Boise. Eventually I-84 spurs Interstate 86 and mainline I-84 heads southeast towards Utah and I-86 is continues due east and heads to Pocatello, meeting with Interstate 15.-Future:...

  • Interstate 86
    Interstate 86 (west)
    Interstate 86 is an intrastate Interstate Highway, located entirely within the state of Idaho. It runs 63 miles from an intersection with Interstate 84 located approximately 7 miles east of Declo in rural Cassia County, to an intersection with Interstate 15 at Pocatello...

  • Interstate 90
    Interstate 90 in Idaho
    In the U.S. state of Idaho, Interstate 90 has a small routing in the panhandle, just under 74 miles . Traveling east from Spokane, Washington, I-90 passes through Post Falls and Coeur d'Alene, over Fourth of July Summit, and through the Silver Valley before entering Montana at Lookout Pass.I-90 is...



Southwest
  • Interstate 184
    Interstate 184
    Interstate 184 is a short Interstate Highway spur route of Interstate 84 located in Idaho. I-184 connects I-84 travelers to downtown Boise. The western terminus of I-184 is with I-84; the eastern terminus 13th Street in downtown Boise, where I-184 empties eastbound traffic onto Myrtle Street and...



Air Travel

Major airports include the Boise Airport
Boise Airport
Boise Airport , also known as Boise Air Terminal or Gowen Field, is a joint civil-military, commercial and general aviation airport located three nautical miles south of downtown Boise in Ada County, Idaho, USA...

 serving the southwest region of Idaho, and the Spokane International Airport
Spokane International Airport
Spokane International Airport is a commercial airport located about west of downtown Spokane in Spokane County, Washington. It is the primary airport for Spokane, eastern Washington, Coeur d'Alene, and northern Idaho...

 (located in Spokane, Washington
Spokane, Washington
Spokane is a city located in the Northwestern United States in the state of Washington. It is the largest city of Spokane County of which it is also the county seat, and the metropolitan center of the Inland Northwest region...

), which serves northern Idaho. Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport
Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport
Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport is a public airport located in Whitman County in the U.S. state of Washington, two miles east of Pullman and four miles west of Moscow, Idaho...

 serving the Palouse
Palouse
The Palouse is a region of the northwestern United States, encompassing parts of southeastern Washington, north central Idaho and, in some definitions, extending south into northeast Oregon. It is a major agricultural area, primarily producing wheat and legumes...

; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport
Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport
Lewiston – Nez Perce County Airport is a public airport located in the southern part of the city of Lewiston, in Nez Perce County, Idaho, USA. The airport has two runways.- Airlines and destinations :-External links:*...

, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central and west central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport
Magic Valley Regional Airport
Magic Valley Regional Airport , also known as Joslin Field- Gateway to the Great Rift, is a public airport located 4 miles south of Twin Falls, in Twin Falls County, Idaho, USA...

 in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport
Idaho Falls Regional Airport
Idaho Falls Regional Airport , formerly known as Fanning Field, is a public airport located in the northwest part of Idaho Falls, in Bonneville County, Idaho, USA. The airport has two runways. The airport terminal has been expanded twice and partially re-built once...

; and the Pocatello Regional Airport
Pocatello Regional Airport
-History:In 1943, the Pocatello Army Airfield was built as a Second Air Force heavy bomber training base.In 1949, it became surplus property and was obtained by the city of Pocatello to build a commercial airport....

.

Rail Travel

Idaho is served by two transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects North Idaho with Seattle, Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

 and Spokane
Spokane, Washington
Spokane is a city located in the Northwestern United States in the state of Washington. It is the largest city of Spokane County of which it is also the county seat, and the metropolitan center of the Inland Northwest region...

 to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. The BNSF travels through Kootenai
Kootenai County, Idaho
Kootenai County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1864, named after Kootenai tribe. The entire county comprises the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 138,494 at the 2010 census...

, Bonner
Bonner County, Idaho
Bonner County is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1907, it was named for Edwin L. Bonner, a ferry operator. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 40,877. The county seat and largest city is Sandpoint.-History:Bonner County was formed...

 and Boundary
Boundary County, Idaho
Boundary County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 10,972. The county seat and largest city is Bonners Ferry....

 Counties. The Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Green River, WY, and Ogden, Utah
Ogden, Utah
Ogden is a city in Weber County, Utah, United States. Ogden serves as the county seat of Weber County. The population was 82,825 according to the 2010 Census. The city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, and still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a...

 and serves Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

, Nampa
Nampa, Idaho
Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

, Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

, and Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

. Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint
Sandpoint, Idaho
Sandpoint is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Bonner County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 7,365 at the 2010 census.Sandpoint's major economic contributors include forest products and light manufacturing, tourism and recreation and government services...

. There has been a push recently to return Amtrak service to southern Idaho, as well.

Ports

The Port of Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

 is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. A series of dams and locks on the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

 and Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 facilitate barge travel from here to Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels.

Law and government

State Constitution

The Constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. The constitution defines the form and functions of the state government, and may be amended through plebiscite. Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc.).

Idaho Code

All of Idaho's state laws are contained in the Idaho Code. The code is amended through the Legislature with the approval of the Governor. Idaho still follows its original state Constitution.

State government

The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.

Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor
Lieutenant Governor of Idaho
Lieutenant Governor of Idaho is a constitutional statewide elected office in the State of Idaho. According to the Idaho Constitution, the lieutenant governor is elected to a four-year term....

, Secretary of State
Secretary of State of Idaho
The Secretary of State of Idaho is one of the constitutional officers of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is an elected position within the executive branch of the state government...

, Controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an original elected constitutional office. Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.

Idaho's government has an alcohol monopoly
Alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control states, generally called control states, are those in the United States that have state monopoly over the wholesaling and/or retailing of some or all categories of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits....

.

Executive Branch

The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 C. L. "Butch" Otter
C. L. Otter
Clement Leroy "Butch" Otter is the 32nd and current Governor of Idaho since January 2007 and is a member of the Republican Party. Otter previously represented the state's First Congressional District....

, who was elected in 2006 and re-elected in 2010.

Legislative Branch

Idaho's legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning that their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.

Terms for both the Senate
Idaho Senate
The Idaho Senate is the upper chamber of the Idaho State Legislature. It consists of 35 Senators elected to two-year terms, each representing a district of the state. The Senate meets at the Idaho State Capitol in Boise, Idaho.-Composition of the Senate:...

 and House of Representatives
Idaho House of Representatives
The Idaho House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Idaho State Legislature. It consists of 70 representatives elected to two-year terms and meets at the Idaho State Capitol in Boise, Idaho.-Composition of the House:...

 are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.

The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

, Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

, Blaine County
Blaine County, Idaho
Blaine County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 21,376. The county seat and largest city is Hailey. The county is home to the Sun Valley ski resort....

 and the northern Panhandle.

See also List of Idaho senators and representatives

Judicial Branch

The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court
Idaho Supreme Court
The Idaho Supreme Court is the state supreme court of the state of Idaho, composed of the chief justice and four associate justices.The decisions of the Idaho Supreme Court are binding on all other Idaho state courts.The only court that may reverse or modify its decisions is the Supreme Court of...

. There is also an intermediate appellate court
Appellate court
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court or court of appeals or appeal court , is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal...

, the Idaho Court of Appeals
Idaho Court of Appeals
The Idaho Court of Appeals is the intermediate-level appellate court for the state of Idaho. The court was created by statute by the Idaho Legislature and began operations in 1982.-Jurisdiction:...

, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. The state's District Courts serdistricts.

Counties

Idaho is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties
County (United States)
In the United States, a county is a geographic subdivision of a state , usually assigned some governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states; Louisiana is divided into parishes and Alaska into boroughs. Parishes and boroughs are called "county-equivalents" by the U.S...

. Since 1919 there are 44 counties in the state, ranging in size from 410 to 8,502 square miles (1,062 to 22,020 square kilometers).
County nameCounty seatYear foundedPopulation 2008 Est.Population PercentageArea (sq. m.)Area Percentage
Ada
Ada County, Idaho
Ada County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 392,365. The county seat and largest city is Boise, which is also the state capital. Other cities in the county with over 10,000 residents include Meridian, Eagle,...

Boise
Boise, Idaho
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

1864 380,920 25.00 % 1,060 1.21 %
Adams
Adams County, Idaho
Adams County is a rural county located in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the county had a population of 3,976. The county seat and largest city is Council.Adams County was established in 1911 and was named in honor of President John Adams...

Council
Council, Idaho
Council is a city in and the county seat of Adams County, Idaho, United States. The population was 839 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Council is located at ....

1911 3,499 00.23 % 1,370 1.57 %
Bannock
Bannock County, Idaho
Bannock County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It was established in 1893 and named after the local Bannock tribe. It is part of the Pocatello, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Bannock and Power counties. As of the 2000 Census...

Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

1893 80,812 05.30 % 1,147 1.31 %
Bear Lake
Bear Lake County, Idaho
Bear Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 6,411 . The county seat is Paris, and Montpelier is the largest city....

Paris
Paris, Idaho
Paris is a rural city located on the western side of the Bear Lake Valley in Bear Lake County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 576 at the 2000 census. The county seat of Bear Lake County, it was settled on September 26, 1863 by pioneer settlers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day...

1893 5,798 00.38 % 1,049 1.20 %
Benewah
Benewah County, Idaho
Benewah County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established on January 23, 1915, from sections of Kootenai County, it was named for a chief of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. As of the 2010 census the county had a population of 9,285. The county seat and largest city is St...

St. Maries
St. Maries, Idaho
St. Maries is a city in Benewah County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,652 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Benewah County. Pronounced St. Mary's.-Geography:St. Maries is located at ....

1915 9,352 00.61 % 784 0.90 %
Bingham
Bingham County, Idaho
Bingham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 41,735 . The county seat and largest city is Blackfoot. Bingham County comprises the Blackfoot, ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area.Bingham County was created January 13, 1885, and...

Blackfoot
Blackfoot, Idaho
Blackfoot is a city in Bingham County, Idaho, United States. The population was 10,419 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Bingham County. Blackfoot is self-designated the "Potato Capital of the World", because it claims to have the largest potato industry in the world...

1885 43,903 02.88 % 2,120 2.42 %
Blaine
Blaine County, Idaho
Blaine County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 21,376. The county seat and largest city is Hailey. The county is home to the Sun Valley ski resort....

Hailey
Hailey, Idaho
Hailey is a city in and the county seat of Blaine County, in the Wood River Valley of the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 6,200 at the 2000 census. Hailey is the site of Friedman Memorial Airport , the airport for the resort area of Sun Valley/Ketchum, north. The town...

1895 21,731 01.43 % 2,661 3.04 %
Boise
Boise County, Idaho
Boise County is a rural mountain county in the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 6,670 at the 2000 census; it was estimated at 7,571 in 2007...

Idaho City
Idaho City, Idaho
Idaho City is a city in and the county seat of Boise County, Idaho, United States, located about northeast of Boise. The population was 458 at the 2000 census.Idaho City is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

1864 7,504 00.49 % 1,907 2.18 %
Bonner
Bonner County, Idaho
Bonner County is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1907, it was named for Edwin L. Bonner, a ferry operator. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 40,877. The county seat and largest city is Sandpoint.-History:Bonner County was formed...

Sandpoint
Sandpoint, Idaho
Sandpoint is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Bonner County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 7,365 at the 2010 census.Sandpoint's major economic contributors include forest products and light manufacturing, tourism and recreation and government services...

1907 41,168 02.70 % 1,920 2.19 %
Bonneville
Bonneville County, Idaho
Bonneville County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 104,234. Its county seat and largest city is Idaho Falls...

Idaho Falls
Idaho Falls, Idaho
Idaho Falls is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the largest city in Eastern Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813, with a metro population of 130,374....

1911 99,135 06.51 % 1,901 2.17 %
Boundary
Boundary County, Idaho
Boundary County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 10,972. The county seat and largest city is Bonners Ferry....

Bonners Ferry
Bonners Ferry, Idaho
Bonners Ferry is a city in and the county seat of Boundary County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,543 at the 2010 census.-History:...

1915 10,962 00.72 % 1,278 1.46 %
Butte
Butte County, Idaho
Butte County is a rural county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. It was established in 1917, and its county seat and largest city is Arco. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 2,891...

Arco
Arco, Idaho
Arco is a city in Butte County, Idaho, United States. The population was 995 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Butte County.Craters of the Moon National Monument is located along U.S. Route 20, southwest of the city. The Idaho National Laboratory is located east of Arco...

1917 2,751 00.18 % 2,234 2.55 %
Camas
Camas County, Idaho
Camas County is a county in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census, the rural county had a population of 991 . The county seat is Fairfield....

Fairfield
Fairfield, Idaho
Fairfield is the county seat of and the only city in Camas County, Idaho, United States. The population was 395 at the 2000 census, nearly half of the rural county's population.-Geography:...

1917 1,126 00.07 % 1,079 1.23 %
Canyon
Canyon County, Idaho
Canyon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 188,923. The county seat is Caldwell, and its largest city is Nampa.. Canyon County is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.- History :The county was...

Caldwell
Caldwell, Idaho
Caldwell is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 43,281, as of July 2009.Caldwell is the home of the College of Idaho. It is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area....

1891 183,939 12.07 % 604 0.69 %
Caribou
Caribou County, Idaho
Caribou County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 6,963. The county seat and largest city is Soda Springs, followed by Grace and Bancroft.- History :...

Soda Springs
Soda Springs, Idaho
Soda Springs is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,381 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Caribou County....

1919 6,826 00.45 % 1,799 2.06 %
Cassia
Cassia County, Idaho
Cassia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 22,952. The county seat and largest city is Burley.-History:...

Burley
Burley, Idaho
Burley is a city in Cassia and Minidoka counties in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 10,345 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Cassia County....

1879 21,348 01.40 % 2,580 2.95 %
Clark
Clark County, Idaho
Clark County is a rural county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 1,022 . The county seat and largest city is Dubois...

Dubois
Dubois, Idaho
Dubois is a city in Clark County, Idaho, United States. The population was 647 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Clark County.The city was named for U.S. Senator Fred Dubois....

1919 910 00.06 % 1,765 2.02 %
Clearwater
Clearwater County, Idaho
Clearwater County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1911, the county was named after the Clearwater River. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 8,930 . The county seat is Orofino....

Orofino
Orofino, Idaho
Orofino is a city in Clearwater County, Idaho, along Orofino Creek and the north bank of the Clearwater River. The population was 3,247 at the 2000 census, and the city is the county seat of Clearwater County...

1911 8,176 00.54 % 2,488 2.84 %
Custer
Custer County, Idaho
Custer County is a rural mountain county located in the center of the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1881, it was named for the General Custer Mine, where gold was discovered five years earlier . The population was 4,342 at the 2000 census; it is estimated to have fallen to 4,166 by 2007...

Challis
Challis, Idaho
Challis is a city in Custer County, Idaho, United States. The population was 909 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Custer County.-History:...

1881 4,254 00.28 % 4,937 5.64 %
Elmore
Elmore County, Idaho
Elmore County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 27,038, down 7.2% from 29,130 in 2000. The largest city and county seat is Mountain Home....

Mountain Home
Mountain Home, Idaho
Mountain Home is the largest city and county seat of Elmore County, Idaho. The population was 14,206 at the 2010 census. Mountain Home is the principal city of the Mountain Home, ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Elmore County....

1889 28,997 01.90 % 3,101 3.54 %
Franklin
Franklin County, Idaho
Franklin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 11,329 . The county seat and largest city is Preston. Franklin County is part of the Logan, Utah-Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.Established in 1913, Franklin County was named...

Preston
Preston, Idaho
Preston is a city in Franklin County, Idaho, United States. The population was 4,682 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Franklin County. It is part of the Logan, Utah-Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

1913 12,454 00.82 % 668 0.76 %
Fremont
Fremont County, Idaho
Fremont County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1893, and was named for the explorer John C. Frémont. As of the 2000 census the county had a population of 11,819 . The county seat and largest city is St. Anthony...

St. Anthony
St. Anthony, Idaho
St. Anthony is a city in and the county seat of Fremont County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,342 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Rexburg, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:St...

1893 12,551 00.82 % 1,896 2.17 %
Gem
Gem County, Idaho
Gem County is a county in the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 15,181 at the 2000 census; it was estimated at 16,496 in 2007. The county seat is Emmett.Gem County is home to the Idaho ground squirrel....

Emmett
Emmett, Idaho
Emmett is a city in Gem County, Idaho, United States. The population was 5,490 at the 2000 census; it was estimated to have risen to 6,341 by 2007...

1915 16,513 01.08 % 566 0.65 %
Gooding
Gooding County, Idaho
Gooding County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 14,155...

Gooding
Gooding, Idaho
Gooding is the county seat and largest city of Gooding County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 3,384 at the 2000 census.The city is named for Frank R. Gooding, a local sheep rancher who became a prominent political figure in Idaho in the early 20th Century, serving as both Governor of...

1913 14,295 00.94 % 734 0.84 %
Idaho
Idaho County, Idaho
Idaho County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 16,267. The county seat is Grangeville...

Grangeville
Grangeville, Idaho
Grangeville is the largest city in and the county seat of Idaho County, Idaho, United States, in the west central part of the state. It had a population of 3,141 at the 2010 census.- Culture :...

1861/1864 15,448 01.01 % 8,502 9.71 %
Jefferson
Jefferson County, Idaho
Jefferson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1913, and was named after Thomas Jefferson, the third U.S. President. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 19,155 . The county seat and largest city is Rigby...

Rigby
Rigby, Idaho
Rigby is a small city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,998 at the 2000 census.The larger "Rigby area" includes such outlying unincorporated communities as Annis, Garfield, Grant, Labelle, and Clark...

1913 23,860 01.57 % 1,106 1.26 %
Jerome
Jerome County, Idaho
Jerome County is a county in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 18,342 . The county seat and largest city is Jerome....

Jerome
Jerome, Idaho
Jerome is a city in Jerome County, Idaho, U.S.A. The population was 10,890 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Jerome County, and sits at an elevation of 3763 feet above sea level. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Jerome is located at ...

1919 20,468 01.34 % 602 0.69 %
Kootenai
Kootenai County, Idaho
Kootenai County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1864, named after Kootenai tribe. The entire county comprises the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 138,494 at the 2010 census...

Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

1864 137,475 09.02 % 1,316 1.50 %
Latah
Latah County, Idaho
Latah County is a county located in the north central region of the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 37,244 at the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city is Moscow, which is the home of the University of Idaho, the state's flagship and land-grant university...

Moscow
Moscow, Idaho
Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border. It is the most populous city and county seat of Latah County and the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state...

1886 35,906 02.36 % 1,077 1.23 %
Lemhi
Lemhi County, Idaho
Lemhi County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1869, named after Fort Lemhi , a remote Mormon missionary settlement from 1855-58 in Bannock and Shoshone territory. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 7,806...

Salmon
Salmon, Idaho
Salmon is a city in Lemhi County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,122 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Lemhi County...

1869 7,808 00.51 % 4,570 5.22 %
Lewis
Lewis County, Idaho
Lewis County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1911, it was named after the explorer Meriwether Lewis. The population was 3,821 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Nezperce, and Kamiah is the county's largest city.-Geography:...

Nezperce
Nezperce, Idaho
Nezperce is a city in and the county seat of Lewis County, Idaho, United States. The population was 523 at the 2000 census. Nezperce is named for the local Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans Indians. -Geography:Nezperce is located at...

1911 3,594 00.24 % 480 0.55 %
Lincoln
Lincoln County, Idaho
Lincoln County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 census the county had a population of 4,044 The county seat and largest city is Shoshone....

Shoshone
Shoshone, Idaho
Shoshone is the county seat and largest city of Lincoln County, Idaho, United States. The population was 1,398 at the 2000 census. In contrast to the Shoshone Native American tribe for which it is named, the city's name is correctly pronounced "Show-shown," with a silent 'e'.- History :Shoshone has...

1895 4,503 00.30 % 1,206 1.38 %
Madison
Madison County, Idaho
Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 27,467 . The county seat and largest city is Rexburg. Madison County is part of the Rexburg, ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area.- History :The area was originally settled by members...

Rexburg
Rexburg, Idaho
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 17,257 people, 4,274 households, and 2,393 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,534.4 people per square mile . There were 4,533 housing units at an average density of 928.4 per square mile...

1914 37,456 02.46 % 473 0.54 %
Minidoka
Minidoka County, Idaho
Minidoka County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county seat and largest city is Rupert. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 20,174 ....

Rupert
Rupert, Idaho
Rupert is the county seat and largest city of Minidoka County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Burley, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area...

1913 18,645 01.22 % 763 0.87 %
Nez Perce
Nez Perce County, Idaho
Nez Perce County [Eng. pron. Nezz Purse] is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 39,265 at the 2010 Census. The county seat is Lewiston. The county is named for the Nez Percé tribe....

Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

1861/1864 38,975 02.56 % 856 0.98 %
Oneida
Oneida County, Idaho
Oneida County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 4,125 . The county seat and largest city is Malad City. The Oneida County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Most of the county's population lives in...

Malad City
Malad City, Idaho
For the Mumbai, India Suburb, see Malad .Malad City is the only city in and the county seat of Oneida County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 2,158 at the 2000 census....

1864 4,130 00.27 % 1,202 1.37 %
Owyhee
Owyhee County, Idaho
Owyhee County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Idaho. In area it is the second largest county in Idaho, behind Idaho County. As of the 2000 Census, Owyhee County had a population of 10,644...

Murphy
Murphy, Idaho
Murphy is an unincorporated census-designated place in Owyhee County, Idaho, United States. The county seat of Owyhee County, it is one of the smallest county seats nationwide. As of the 2010 census, its population was 97....

1863 10,877 00.71 % 7,697 8.79 %
Payette
Payette County, Idaho
Payette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1917, and at the 2000 Census the county had a population of 20,578 . The county seat is Payette....

Payette
Payette, Idaho
Payette is a city in and the county seat of Payette County, Idaho, United States. The population was 7,054 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Ontario, OR–ID Micropolitan Statistical Area....

1917 22,966 01.51 % 410 0.47 %
Power
Power County, Idaho
Power County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 7,538 ....

American Falls
American Falls, Idaho
American Falls is a city in and the county seat of Power County, Idaho, United States. The population was 4,111 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Pocatello, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

1913 7,683 00.50 % 1,443 1.65 %
Shoshone
Shoshone County, Idaho
Shoshone County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1864, named for the Native American Shoshone tribe. The population was 12,765 at the 2010 census. Shoshone County is commonly referred to as the Silver Valley, due to its century-old mining history...

Wallace
Wallace, Idaho
Wallace is a historic city in the Panhandle region of the U.S. state of Idaho and the county seat of Shoshone County in the Silver Valley mining district...

1861/1864 12,913 00.85 % 2,636 3.01 %
Teton
Teton County, Idaho
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1915, it was named after the Teton Mountains. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 5,999...

Driggs
Driggs, Idaho
Driggs is a city in Teton County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Jackson, WY-ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, and is located in Teton Valley. The population was 1,100 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Teton County...

1915 8,833 00.58 % 451 0.52 %
Twin Falls
Twin Falls County, Idaho
Twin Falls County is a county in the south central part of the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2000 Census, the county had a population of 64,284 . The county seat and largest city is Twin Falls....

Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

1907 74,284 04.87 % 1,928 2.20 %
Valley
Valley County, Idaho
Valley County is a rural county located in west central Idaho in the United States. Established in 1917, it was named after the Long Valley of the North Fork of the Payette River, which extends over 30 miles from Payette Lake at McCall south to Cascade to Round Valley.The valley was formerly a...

Cascade
Cascade, Idaho
Cascade is a rural city in and the county seat of Valley County, Idaho, United States, in the west central part of the state. It sits at an elevation of , along the North Fork of the Payette River...

1917 8,862 00.58 % 3,734 4.27 %
Washington
Washington County, Idaho
Washington County is a county in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1879 when Idaho was a territory, it was named after U.S. president George Washington. As of the 2000 Census, the county had a population of 9,977; it is estimated to have risen to 10,147 by 2007...

Weiser
Weiser, Idaho
Weiser is a city in the rural western part of the U.S. state of Idaho and the county seat of Washington County. With its mild climate, the city supports farm, orchard, and livestock endeavors in the vicinity. The city sits at the confluence of the Weiser River with the great Snake River, which...

1879 10,206 00.67 % 1,474 1.68 %


Total Counties: 44. Total 2008 Population Est.: 1,523,816. Total Area: 87530 square miles (226,701.7 km²).

Three counties were first designated as such by the Washington Territorial Legislature in 1861; they were subsequently re-designated as Idaho counties in 1864. The 1861 Nez Perce county has since been broken up into Nez Perce, Lewis, Boundary, Benewah, Latah, Kootenai and Clearwater counties.

Idaho license plates begin with a county designation based on the first letter of the county's name. Where a letter is at the beginning of more than one name, a number accompanies precedingly in alphabetical order. This reflects an anomalous coincidental situation wherein 10 counties begin with B, seven with C and four with L, which is 21 of the 44 counties.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

2008 61.5% 403,012 36.1% 236,440
2004 68.38% 409,235 30.26% 181,098
2000 67.17% 336,937 27.64% 138,637
1996 52.18% 256,595 33.65% 165,443
1992 42.03% 202,645 28.42% 137,013
1988 62.08% 253,881 36.01% 147,272
1984 72.36% 297,523 26.39% 108,510
1980 66.46% 290,699 25.19% 110,192
1976 59.88% 204,151 37.12% 126,549
1972 64.24% 199,384 26.04% 80,826
1968 56.79% 165,369 30.66% 89,273
1964 49.08% 143,557 50.92% 148,920
1960 53.78% 161,597 46.22% 138,853


After the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, many Midwestern and Southern Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 moved to the Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democrat-controlled. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 presidents and were Republicans themselves. This led to sometimes-bitter clashes between the two parties, including a range war with the Democrats backing the sheepherders and the Republicans the cattlemen. That ended with the "Diamondfield" Jack Davis murder trial. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.

Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho, as there was a polar shift in social and political stance between the two parties, when the Democrats became more liberal and the Republicans more conservative. At one time, Idaho had two Democratic parties, one being the mainstream and the other called the Anti-Mormon Democrats, lasting into the early 20th century. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party
Populist Party (United States)
The People's Party, also known as the "Populists", was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891. It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away...

 enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

. Since World War II, most statewide elected officials have been Republicans. The last time the Democratic Party held a majority in either house of the state legislature was the House of Representatives in 1958 by one seat. However, Democrats did hold the governorship from 1971 to 1995, despite the state's Republican tilt.

Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the House
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 over the years, but the Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senator Mike Crapo
Mike Crapo
Michael Dean "Mike" Crapo is the senior United States Senator from the state of Idaho and a member of the Republican Party.Born in the city of Idaho Falls, Crapo is a graduate of Brigham Young University and Harvard Law School. He practiced law in his home city throughout the 1980s, while...

, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church
Frank Church
Frank Forrester Church III was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Idaho from 1957 to 1981....

 has won reelection as a Democrat. Church was the last Idaho Democrat to win a U.S. Senate race, in 1974. Walt Minnick
Walt Minnick
Walter Clifford "Walt" Minnick is the former U.S. House of Representative for , serving from 2009 until 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party....

's 2008 win in the First Congressional District
Idaho's 1st congressional district
Idaho's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Idaho. The district encompasses the western and northern parts of the state and includes the western third of the state capital, Boise, and most of its suburbs, including Nampa, Caldwell, and Meridian...

 was the state's first Democratic Congressional victory in 16 years.

In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics as well. It has not supported a Democrat for president
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
Barry Morris Goldwater was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure during the first half of the 1960s, he was known as "Mr...

 in the state by fewer than two percentage points, compared to a landslide nationally. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

 carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and with 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County
Blaine County, Idaho
Blaine County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 21,376. The county seat and largest city is Hailey. The county is home to the Sun Valley ski resort....

, which contains the Sun Valley
Sun Valley, Idaho
Sun Valley is a resort city in Blaine County in the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho, adjacent to the city of Ketchum, lying within the greater Wood River valley. Tourists from around the world enjoy its skiing, hiking, ice skating, trail riding, tennis, and cycling. The population was 1,427...

 ski resort, supported John Kerry
John Kerry
John Forbes Kerry is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, the 10th most senior U.S. Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 presidential election, but lost to former President George W...

, who owns a home in the area. In 2008 Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

's 36.1 percent showing was the best for a Democratic presidential candidate in Idaho since 1976. However, Republican margins were narrower in 1992 and 1996.

In the 2006 elections, Republicans, led by gubernatorial candidate C. L. "Butch" Otter
C. L. Otter
Clement Leroy "Butch" Otter is the 32nd and current Governor of Idaho since January 2007 and is a member of the Republican Party. Otter previously represented the state's First Congressional District....

, won all the state's constitutional offices and retained both of the state's seats in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area.

Republicans lost one of the House seats in 2008 to Minnick, but Republican Jim Risch
Jim Risch
James Elroy "Jim" Risch is a Republican politician, rancher, and attorney from Ada County, currently serving as the junior United States Senator from Idaho. He previously served as Lieutenant Governor and Governor of Idaho.-Early life:Risch was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin...

 retained Larry Craig's Senate seat for the GOP by a comfortable margin.

Important cities and towns


Population > 100,000 (urbanized area)
  • Boise
    Boise, Idaho
    Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

     (state capital)

Population > 50,000 (urbanized area)
  • Idaho Falls
    Idaho Falls, Idaho
    Idaho Falls is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the largest city in Eastern Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813, with a metro population of 130,374....

     – Location of the main offices of the Idaho National Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory is an complex located in the high desert of eastern Idaho, between the town of Arco to the west and the cities of Idaho Falls and Blackfoot to the east. It lies within Butte, Bingham, Bonneville and Jefferson counties...

  • Nampa
    Nampa, Idaho
    Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

     – Home of Northwest Nazarene University
    Northwest Nazarene University
    Northwest Nazarene University is a private Christian liberal arts college located in Nampa, Idaho.-History:Eugene Emerson organized a combination grade school and Bible school in 1913 as Idaho Holiness School...

  • Pocatello
    Pocatello, Idaho
    Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

     – Home of Idaho State University
    Idaho State University
    Idaho State University is a public university located in Pocatello, Idaho. It has outreach programs in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Boise, and Twin Falls....

  • Meridian
    Meridian, Idaho
    -History:The town was established in 1891 on the Onweiler farm north of the present site and was called Hunter. Two years later an I.O.O.F. lodge was organized and called itself Meridian because it was located on the Boise Meridian and the town was renamed...

     – Suburb of Boise, Fastest growing city in Idaho

Population > 30,000 (urbanized area)
  • Caldwell
    Caldwell, Idaho
    Caldwell is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 43,281, as of July 2009.Caldwell is the home of the College of Idaho. It is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area....

     – Home of the College of Idaho
  • Coeur d'Alene
    Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
    Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

     – Home of North Idaho College
    North Idaho College
    North Idaho College is a community college with over 6,000 students in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, situated at the north end of Lake Coeur d'Alene.-History:The school was established during the Great Depression in 1933 as Coeur d'Alene Junior College...

    , major tourist hub
  • Lewiston
    Lewiston, Idaho
    Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

     – Home of Lewis-Clark State College
    Lewis-Clark State College
    Lewis–Clark State College is a public undergraduate college located in Lewiston, Idaho. It was founded in 1893, and has an annual enrollment of approximately 3,500 students. The college offers over 83 degrees and is well-known for its Criminal Justice, Education, Nursing, and Technical programs.-...

    , Seaport
  • Twin Falls
    Twin Falls, Idaho
    Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

     – Home of College of Southern Idaho
    College of Southern Idaho
    College of Southern Idaho is an American public community college. Its main campus is in Twin Falls, Idaho, with outreach programs in Boise, Hailey, Burley and Gooding....

    , BASE jumping
    BASE jumping
    BASE jumping, also sometimes written as B.A.S.E jumping, is an activity that employs an initially packed parachute to jump from fixed objects...


Population > 10,000 (urbanized area)
  • Ammon
    Ammon, Idaho
    Ammon is a city in Bonneville County, Idaho, United States. As of the 2000 census the population of Ammon was 6,187, with an estimated 2006 population of 12,065.Having nearly doubled in size since 2000, Ammon is among the fastest-growing cities in Idaho...

     – Suburb of Idaho Falls
  • Blackfoot
    Blackfoot, Idaho
    Blackfoot is a city in Bingham County, Idaho, United States. The population was 10,419 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Bingham County. Blackfoot is self-designated the "Potato Capital of the World", because it claims to have the largest potato industry in the world...

     – Home of the Idaho Potato Museum
    Idaho Potato Museum
    The gray building that now hosts the Idaho Potato Museum was once known as the Oregon Short Line Railroad Depot. Construction for this building began in 1903 and finished in 1913. At a later date Union Pacific Railroad bought the depot...

  • Burley
    Burley, Idaho
    Burley is a city in Cassia and Minidoka counties in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 10,345 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Cassia County....

  • Eagle
    Eagle, Idaho
    Eagle is a city in Ada County, Idaho, United States. The population was 19,908 at the 2010 census. Due to growth in the Boise metropolitan area, Eagle has become increasingly suburban in recent years.-Geography:...

     – Suburb of Boise
  • Garden City
    Garden City, Idaho
    Garden City is a city in Ada County, Idaho, United States. The population was 10,972 at the 2010 census. Garden City is nearly surrounded by Boise but retains a separate municipal government....

     – Suburb of Boise
  • Hayden
    Hayden, Idaho
    Hayden is a city in Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. The population was 9,159 at the 2000 census.- History :Hayden was once called "Hayden village." In 1955, it was incorporated as Hayden City...

  • Jerome
    Jerome, Idaho
    Jerome is a city in Jerome County, Idaho, U.S.A. The population was 10,890 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Jerome County, and sits at an elevation of 3763 feet above sea level. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Jerome is located at ...

  • Kuna
    Kuna, Idaho
    Kuna is a city in Ada County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 15,210 at the 2010 census...

     – Suburb of Boise
  • Moscow
    Moscow, Idaho
    Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border. It is the most populous city and county seat of Latah County and the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state...

     – Home of the University of Idaho
    University of Idaho
    The University of Idaho is the State of Idaho's flagship and oldest public university, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state...

  • Mountain Home
    Mountain Home, Idaho
    Mountain Home is the largest city and county seat of Elmore County, Idaho. The population was 14,206 at the 2010 census. Mountain Home is the principal city of the Mountain Home, ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Elmore County....

     – U.S. Air Force
    United States Air Force
    The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

     Base
  • Post Falls
    Post Falls, Idaho
    Post Falls is a city in Kootenai County, Idaho, United States near the Idaho state line between Spokane, Washington, and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The population was 17,247 at the 2000 census, and grew to 27,574 people by the 2010 census, making it Idaho's tenth largest city.-History:Post Falls is...

  • Rexburg
    Rexburg, Idaho
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 17,257 people, 4,274 households, and 2,393 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,534.4 people per square mile . There were 4,533 housing units at an average density of 928.4 per square mile...

     – Home of Brigham Young University-Idaho
    Brigham Young University-Idaho
    Brigham Young University–Idaho is a private university located in Rexburg, Idaho. Founded in 1888, the university is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , and transitioned from a junior college to a four-year institution in 2001, known for the greater part of its...



Smaller Towns and Cities
  • American Falls
    American Falls, Idaho
    American Falls is a city in and the county seat of Power County, Idaho, United States. The population was 4,111 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Pocatello, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

     – First town to be entirely relocated
  • Arco
    Arco, Idaho
    Arco is a city in Butte County, Idaho, United States. The population was 995 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Butte County.Craters of the Moon National Monument is located along U.S. Route 20, southwest of the city. The Idaho National Laboratory is located east of Arco...

     – First city to be lit by electricity generated from a nuclear power plant
  • Bonners Ferry
    Bonners Ferry, Idaho
    Bonners Ferry is a city in and the county seat of Boundary County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,543 at the 2010 census.-History:...

     – Northernmost major town in Idaho
  • Buhl
    Buhl, Idaho
    Buhl is a city located on the old Oregon Trail in the western half of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 4,037 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area....

     – "Trout capital of the world"
  • Bone- Population 2 But still has gas station
  • Driggs
    Driggs, Idaho
    Driggs is a city in Teton County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Jackson, WY-ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, and is located in Teton Valley. The population was 1,100 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Teton County...

     – skiing (Grand Targhee)
  • Eden
    Eden, Idaho
    Eden is a city in Jerome County, Idaho, United States. The population was 405 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Eden is located at ....

  • Emmett
    Emmett, Idaho
    Emmett is a city in Gem County, Idaho, United States. The population was 5,490 at the 2000 census; it was estimated to have risen to 6,341 by 2007...

  • Greenleaf
    Greenleaf, Idaho
    Greenleaf is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The population was 862 at the 2000 census. Named after Quaker poet and abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier.Greenleaf is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area....

  • Firth
    Firth, Idaho
    Firth is a city in Bingham County, Idaho, United States. The population was 408 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Firth is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , all of it land....

    - Home of the Firth Cougars
  • Fruitland
    Fruitland, Idaho
    Fruitland is a city in Payette County, Idaho, United States. It lies along U.S. Route 95 in the Treasure Valley of southwest Idaho, about 50 miles west of Boise and near the border with Oregon. Fruitland is named after the apple orchards that surround the community, and its slogan is "The Big...

  • Filer
    Filer, Idaho
    Filer is a city in Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. As of the 2000 census the city population was 1,620. Filer is located just west of the intersection of U.S...

     – Suburb of Twin Falls
  • Hazelton
    Hazelton, Idaho
    Hazelton is a city in Jerome County, Idaho, United States. The population was 753 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Hazelton is located at ....

  • Homedale
    Homedale, Idaho
    Homedale is a city in Owyhee County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,528 at the 2000 census. The town name was chosen by drawing names from a hat...

     – town's name was chosen from a hat
  • Island Park
    Island Park, Idaho
    Island Park is a city in Fremont County, Idaho, United States. The city's population was 215 at the 2000 census. The city was incorporated by owners of the many lodges and resorts along U.S. Route 20 in 1947, primarily to circumvent Idaho's liquor laws that prohibited the sale of liquor outside of...

     – snowmobiling, world-class fishing
  • Kimberly
    Kimberly, Idaho
    Kimberly is a city in Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,614 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Twin Falls, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.Kimberly was founded in 1905. It is named after Peter L...

     – Suburb of Twin Falls
  • Kellogg
    Kellogg, Idaho
    Kellogg is a city in the Silver Valley of Shoshone County, Idaho, United States, in the Idaho Panhandle region. The city lies near the Coeur d'Alene National Forest and about east-southeast of Coeur d'Alene along Interstate 90...

     – skiing ( Silver Mountain Ski Resort)
  • Malad City
    Malad City, Idaho
    For the Mumbai, India Suburb, see Malad .Malad City is the only city in and the county seat of Oneida County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 2,158 at the 2000 census....

  • McCall
    McCall, Idaho
    McCall is a resort town on the western edge of Valley County, Idaho, United States. Named after its founder, Tom McCall, it is situated on the southern shore of Payette Lake, near the center of the Payette National Forest...

     – skiing (Brundage Ski Resort) and Recreation Payette Lake
  • Middleton
    Middleton, Idaho
    Middleton is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,978 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

  • Montpelier
    Montpelier, Idaho
    Montpelier is a city in Bear Lake County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,785 at the 2000 census. The city is the largest community in the Bear Lake Valley, a farming region north of Bear Lake in southeastern Idaho along the Utah border...

     bank robbed by the wild bunch
  • Mullan
    Mullan, Idaho
    Mullan is a city located in a sheltered canyon of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains in Shoshone County in the northern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. The population was 840 at the 2000 census and decreased to 692 at the 2010 census. The city is in the east end of the Silver Valley mining district; the...

     – silver/lead/zinc mining
  • New Meadows
    New Meadows, Idaho
    New Meadows is a rural city in Adams County, Idaho, United States, at the southern and upper end of the Meadows Valley, on the Little Salmon River. Located in the west central part of the state, just south of the 45th parallel north, the population was 496 at the 2010 census. New Meadows is...

  • New Plymouth
    New Plymouth, Idaho
    New Plymouth is a city in Payette County, Idaho, United States. The population was 1,400 at the 2000 census. It was incorporated on February 15, 1896. It is the host of the annual Payette County Fair....

     – first planned community in Idaho, third west of the Rocky Mountains
  • Notus
    Notus, Idaho
    Notus is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The population was 458 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Notus is located at ....

  • Oakley
    Oakley, Idaho
    Oakley is a city in Cassia County, Idaho, United States. The population was 763 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Burley, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Oakley is located at , at 4,560 feet in elevation...

     – famous pioneer town, home of many historic buildings
  • Orofino
    Orofino, Idaho
    Orofino is a city in Clearwater County, Idaho, along Orofino Creek and the north bank of the Clearwater River. The population was 3,247 at the 2000 census, and the city is the county seat of Clearwater County...

     – Clearwater County seat, site of Dworshak Dam
    Dworshak Dam
    Dworshak Dam is a hydroelectric, concrete gravity dam in Clearwater County, Idaho, United States on the North Fork Clearwater River. The dam is located northwest of the city of Orofino, and east of Lewiston. The dam is the highest straight-axis concrete dam in the Western Hemisphere and the 22nd...

    , highest straight-axis dam in Western hemisphere
  • Paris
    Paris, Idaho
    Paris is a rural city located on the western side of the Bear Lake Valley in Bear Lake County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 576 at the 2000 census. The county seat of Bear Lake County, it was settled on September 26, 1863 by pioneer settlers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day...

     – Bear Lake County seat
  • Parma
    Parma, Idaho
    Parma is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The population was 1,771 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Boise City–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Parma is located at ....

  • Payette
    Payette, Idaho
    Payette is a city in and the county seat of Payette County, Idaho, United States. The population was 7,054 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Ontario, OR–ID Micropolitan Statistical Area....

     – Payette County seat
  • Plummer
    Plummer, Idaho
    Plummer is a city in Benewah County, Idaho, United States. The population was 990 at the 2000 census. It is the largest city within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation.-Geography:Plummer is located at ....

    - CDA tribal headquarters
  • Preston
    Preston, Idaho
    Preston is a city in Franklin County, Idaho, United States. The population was 4,682 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Franklin County. It is part of the Logan, Utah-Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

    - location of the 2004 film Napoleon Dynamite
    Napoleon Dynamite
    Napoleon Dynamite is a 2004 comedy film co-written and directed by Jared Hess and Jerusha Hess and stars Jon Heder as Napoleon Dynamite. The film was Jared Hess' first full-length feature and is partially adapted from his earlier short film, Peluca....

    and the annual International Bed Races
  • Rupert
    Rupert, Idaho
    Rupert is the county seat and largest city of Minidoka County, Idaho, United States. It is part of the Burley, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area...

    - Minidoka County seat
  • Rigby
    Rigby, Idaho
    Rigby is a small city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,998 at the 2000 census.The larger "Rigby area" includes such outlying unincorporated communities as Annis, Garfield, Grant, Labelle, and Clark...

     – Television birthplace
  • Salmon
    Salmon, Idaho
    Salmon is a city in Lemhi County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,122 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Lemhi County...

     – Gateway to "River of No Return" (Salmon River
    Salmon River (Idaho)
    The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. The Salmon is also known as The River of No Return. It flows for through central Idaho, draining and dropping more than between its headwaters, near Galena Summit above the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National...

    )
  • Sandpoint
    Sandpoint, Idaho
    Sandpoint is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Bonner County, Idaho, United States. Its population was 7,365 at the 2010 census.Sandpoint's major economic contributors include forest products and light manufacturing, tourism and recreation and government services...

     – skiing (Schweitzer Mountain Ski Resort
    Schweitzer Mountain
    Schweitzer Mountain Resort is a ski resort in northern Idaho, 11 miles northwest of Sandpoint in Bonner County. Located in the Selkirk Mountains, it overlooks Lake Pend Oreille to the southeast with views of the Bitterroot and Cabinet mountain ranges...

    ) and Recreation Lake Pend Oreille
    Lake Pend Oreille
    Lake Pend Oreille is a lake in the northern Idaho Panhandle, with a surface area of . It is 65 miles long, and 1,150 feet deep in some regions, making it the fifth deepest in the United States. It is fed by the Clark Fork River and the Pack River, and drains via the Pend Oreille River...

  • Shelley
    Shelley, Idaho
    Shelley is a city in Bingham County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,813 at the 2000 census. The mascot for the city's high school is "King Russet", a russet-burbank potato that wears a crown, robe and scepter....

     – Home of the Russet SPUD
  • Soda Springs
    Soda Springs, Idaho
    Soda Springs is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,381 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Caribou County....

     – U.S.'s only captive geyser
  • St. Anthony
    St. Anthony, Idaho
    St. Anthony is a city in and the county seat of Fremont County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,342 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Rexburg, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:St...

     – sand dunes and several lava tube
    Lava tube
    Lava tubes are natural conduits through which lava travels beneath the surface of a lava flow, expelled by a volcano during an eruption. They can be actively draining lava from a source, or can be extinct, meaning the lava flow has ceased and the rock has cooled and left a long, cave-like...

    s
  • St. Maries
    St. Maries, Idaho
    St. Maries is a city in Benewah County, Idaho, United States. The population was 2,652 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Benewah County. Pronounced St. Mary's.-Geography:St. Maries is located at ....

     – Benewah County seat
  • Stanley, Idaho
    Stanley, Idaho
    Stanley is a city in Custer County, Idaho, United States. The population was 100 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Idaho is located in Stanley.-Geography:...

     – heart of the Sawtooth mountains
  • Star, Idaho
    Star, Idaho
    Star is a city in northwestern Ada County, Idaho, United States. The population was 1,795 at the 2000 census. It was named in the 19th century by travelers on their way to Middleton and Boise who used the star on the school house to find east and west. The name stuck and it became Star, Idaho...

  • Sun Valley
    Sun Valley, Idaho
    Sun Valley is a resort city in Blaine County in the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho, adjacent to the city of Ketchum, lying within the greater Wood River valley. Tourists from around the world enjoy its skiing, hiking, ice skating, trail riding, tennis, and cycling. The population was 1,427...

     – Year-round resort with world-class skiing
  • Wallace
    Wallace, Idaho
    Wallace is a historic city in the Panhandle region of the U.S. state of Idaho and the county seat of Shoshone County in the Silver Valley mining district...

     – Historic district and Shoshone County seat
  • Weiser
    Weiser, Idaho
    Weiser is a city in the rural western part of the U.S. state of Idaho and the county seat of Washington County. With its mild climate, the city supports farm, orchard, and livestock endeavors in the vicinity. The city sits at the confluence of the Weiser River with the great Snake River, which...

     – Washington County seat, home of the National Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest
  • Wilder
    Wilder, Idaho
    Wilder is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The population was 1,462 at the 2000 census. The home of former Idaho State Governor Phil Batt, Wilder is primarily an agricultural community, with onions, hops, seed corn, beans and alfalfa seed among the major crops...

  • Worley
    Worley, Idaho
    Worley is a city in southwestern Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. The population was 223 at the 2000 census. The city is within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation.-Geography:...

     – casino





National Parks, Reserves, Monuments and Historic sites

  • California National Historic Trail
  • City of Rocks National Reserve
  • Craters of the Moon National Monument
    Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve
    Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is a national monument and national preserve located in the Snake River Plain in central Idaho, U.S.A. It is along US 20 , between the small cities of Arco and Carey, at an average elevation of above sea level...

  • Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument
    Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument
    Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument near Hagerman, Idaho, contains the largest concentration of Hagerman Horse fossils in North America. The fossil horses for which the Monument is famous have been found in only one locale in the northern portion of the Monument called the Hagerman Horse Quarry...

  • Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
    Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
    The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States...

  • Minidoka National Historic Site
  • Nez Perce National Historical Park
    Nez Perce National Historical Park
    The Nez Perce National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park comprising 38 sites located throughout the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which are the traditional aboriginal lands of the Nez Perce. The sites commemorate the history, culture, and stories of the...

  • Oregon National Historic Trail
  • Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park, established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872, is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho...


National Recreation Areas

  • Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
    Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
    Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U.S. states of Oregon and Idaho. The recreation area was established by U.S...

  • Sawtooth National Recreation Area
    Sawtooth National Recreation Area
    The Sawtooth National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area located in central Idaho, within the Boise, Challis, and Sawtooth National Forests. The recreation area is managed by the U.S. Forest Service and includes the Sawtooth Wilderness...


National Wildlife Refuges

  • Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
    Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
    Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeast Idaho, seven miles south of Montpelier. Surrounded by mountains, it lies in Bear Lake Valley at an elevation ranging from on the marsh to on the rocky slopes of Merkley Mountain...

  • Camas National Wildlife Refuge
    Camas National Wildlife Refuge
    About half of the Camas National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Idaho consists of lakes, ponds, and marshlands; the remainder is grass sagebrush uplands, meadows, and farm fields. Camas Creek flows through the length of the refuge....

  • Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge
    Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge
    The Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge is an important breeding area for mammals, birds, and other animals. The National Wildlife Refuge is located on land surrounding Lake Lowell, just outside Nampa, Idaho...

  • Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
    Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
    Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge has the largest hardstem bulrush marsh in North America. Located in a high mountain valley near Soda Springs in southeastern Idaho, the refuge and surrounding mountains offer incredible scenic vistas, wildflowers, and fall foliage displays. Lands adjacent to the ...

  • Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge
    Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge
    Located from the Canadian border and from the town of Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge is bordered by the rugged Selkirk Mountains to the west, the Kootenai River, Deep Creek to the east, and State lands to the south....

  • Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge
    Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge
    Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho, northeast of Rupert. It includes about of shoreline around Lake Walcott, from Minidoka Dam upstream about ....


State parks


  • Bear Lake State Park
    Bear Lake State Park (Idaho)
    Bear Lake State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, along the shore of Bear Lake. The park is located in southern Bear Lake County near the border with Utah and Wyoming. There is a separate Bear Lake State Park on the southern shore in Utah....

  • Bruneau Dunes State Park
    Bruneau Dunes State Park
    Bruneau Dunes State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, featuring several large sand dunes and a small lake. The park is located south of Mountain Home, Idaho, outside of Bruneau. The park is the site of North America's highest single-structured sand dune which is approximately high...

  • Castle Rocks State Park
  • City of Rocks National Reserve
  • Coeur d'Alene Parkway State Park
  • Dworshak State Park
  • Eagle Island State Park
  • Farragut State Park
    Farragut State Park
    Farragut State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, on the southern tip of the Lake Pend Oreille in the Coeur d'Alene Mountains. Formerly the site held the Farragut Naval Training Station, a major training base of the U.S. Navy during World War II. The base was named after David Farragut, the...

  • Harriman State Park
    Harriman State Park (Idaho)
    Harriman State Park is a state park in eastern Idaho, USA. It is located on an wildlife refuge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and is home to an abundance of elk, moose, sandhill cranes, trumpeter swans, and the occasional black or grizzly bear. Two-thirds of the trumpeter swans that winter...

  • Hells Gate State Park
    Hells Gate State Park
    Hells Gate State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, at the entrance of Hells Canyon, the deepest canyon in North America. The canyon was carved by the Snake River. Hells Gate has the lowest elevation of an Idaho state park, at above sea level....

  • Henrys Lake State Park
  • Heyburn State Park
    Heyburn State Park
    Heyburn State Park is an Idaho state park in Benewah County, Idaho in the United States. The park, founded in 1908, is the oldest state park in the Pacific Northwest. There are of land and of water in the park on three lakes...

  • Lake Cascade State Park
  • Lake Walcott State Park
  • Land of the Yankee Fork State Park
  • Lucky Peak State Park
  • Massacre Rocks State Park
    Massacre Rocks State Park
    Massacre Rocks State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, featuring the Massacre Rocks, a famous spot along the Oregon Trail and California Trail during the middle 19th century...

  • McCroskey State Park
    McCroskey State Park
    McCroskey State Park is a state park of Idaho, USA, stretching along a ridge in the Palouse region. At this wilderness area is Idaho's second-largest state park...

  • Old Mission State Park
    Old Mission State Park
    Old Mission State Park is a state park and National Historic Landmark in northern Idaho, USA. It is also known as the Mission of the Sacred Heart or Cataldo Mission. It contains the church itself, the parish house, and the surrounding property...

  • Ponderosa State Park
  • Priest Lake State Park
  • Round Lake State Park
  • Thousand Springs State Park
  • Three Island Crossing State Park
  • Trail of the Coeur d'Alenes
    Trail of the Coeur d'Alenes
    The Trail of the Coeur d'Alenes is a rail trail in Idaho, USA, which follows the former Union Pacific Railroad right-of-way from Mullan, a mountain mining town near the Montana border, to Plummer, a town on the prairie near the Washington border....

  • Winchester Lake State Park


Colleges and universities

The Idaho State Board of Education oversees three comprehensive universities. The University of Idaho
University of Idaho
The University of Idaho is the State of Idaho's flagship and oldest public university, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state...

 in Moscow
Moscow, Idaho
Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border. It is the most populous city and county seat of Latah County and the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state...

 was the first university in the state (founded in 1889). A land-grant institution
Land-grant university
Land-grant universities are institutions of higher education in the United States designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890....

, the UI
University of Idaho
The University of Idaho is the State of Idaho's flagship and oldest public university, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state...

 is the state's flagship university. Idaho State University
Idaho State University
Idaho State University is a public university located in Pocatello, Idaho. It has outreach programs in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Boise, and Twin Falls....

 in Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

 opened in 1901 as the Academy of Idaho and received university status in 1963. Boise State University
Boise State University
Boise State University is a public university located in Boise, Idaho. Originally founded in 1932 as a junior college by the Episcopal Church, the university became an independent institution in 1934, and has been awarding baccalaureate and master degrees since 1965...

 is the most recent school to attain university status in Idaho, and is primarily geared toward being a commuter school for part-time undergraduate students. The school opened in 1932 as Boise Junior College and became Boise State University in 1974. Lewis-Clark State College
Lewis-Clark State College
Lewis–Clark State College is a public undergraduate college located in Lewiston, Idaho. It was founded in 1893, and has an annual enrollment of approximately 3,500 students. The college offers over 83 degrees and is well-known for its Criminal Justice, Education, Nursing, and Technical programs.-...

 in Lewiston
Lewiston, Idaho
Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

 is the only public, non-university 4-year college in Idaho.

Idaho has three regional community colleges: North Idaho College
North Idaho College
North Idaho College is a community college with over 6,000 students in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, situated at the north end of Lake Coeur d'Alene.-History:The school was established during the Great Depression in 1933 as Coeur d'Alene Junior College...

 in Coeur d'Alene
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur d'Alene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coeur d'Alene has the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census the population of Coeur...

; College of Southern Idaho
College of Southern Idaho
College of Southern Idaho is an American public community college. Its main campus is in Twin Falls, Idaho, with outreach programs in Boise, Hailey, Burley and Gooding....

 in Twin Falls
Twin Falls, Idaho
Twin Falls is the county seat and largest city of Twin Falls County, Idaho, United States. The population was 44,125 at the 2010 censusTwin Falls is the largest city of Idaho's Magic Valley region...

; and College of Western Idaho
College of Western Idaho
College of Western Idaho is an American public community college located in Nampa, Idaho. It serves the Boise metropolitan area.CWI began regular classes on January 20, 2009, with an enrollment of over 1100 students. Within its first year, CWI's enrollment expanded rapidly, with over 3600 students...

 in Nampa
Nampa, Idaho
Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

, which opened in 2009. A public technical college, Eastern Idaho Technical College
Eastern Idaho Technical College
Eastern Idaho Technical College is a regional technical college in Idaho Falls, Idaho, United States. It was founded in 1969.The college's divisions include: Business, Office, and Technology; Health Professions; Trades and Industry; and General Education...

, operates in Idaho Falls
Idaho Falls, Idaho
Idaho Falls is a city in and the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the largest city in Eastern Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813, with a metro population of 130,374....

.

Private institutions in Idaho are Boise Bible College
Boise Bible College
Boise Bible College is an accredited institution of higher learning which specializes in training students to serve in variety of ministry careers...

, affiliated with congregations of the Christian churches and churches of Christ; Brigham Young University-Idaho
Brigham Young University-Idaho
Brigham Young University–Idaho is a private university located in Rexburg, Idaho. Founded in 1888, the university is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , and transitioned from a junior college to a four-year institution in 2001, known for the greater part of its...

 in Rexburg
Rexburg, Idaho
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 17,257 people, 4,274 households, and 2,393 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,534.4 people per square mile . There were 4,533 housing units at an average density of 928.4 per square mile...

, which is affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; The College of Idaho in Caldwell
Caldwell, Idaho
Caldwell is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho, United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 43,281, as of July 2009.Caldwell is the home of the College of Idaho. It is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area....

, which still maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; Northwest Nazarene University
Northwest Nazarene University
Northwest Nazarene University is a private Christian liberal arts college located in Nampa, Idaho.-History:Eugene Emerson organized a combination grade school and Bible school in 1913 as Idaho Holiness School...

 in Nampa
Nampa, Idaho
Nampa is the largest and the fastest growing city in Canyon County, Idaho, USA. The population of Nampa was 81,557 at the 2010 census. Nampa is located about west of Boise along Interstate 84, and six miles west of Meridian. Nampa is part of the Boise metropolitan area...

; and New Saint Andrews College
New Saint Andrews College
New Saint Andrews College is a classical Christian college located in Moscow, Idaho. It was founded in 1994 and modeled in part on the curriculum of Harvard College of the seventeenth century. The college offers no undergraduate majors, but follows a single, integrated classical liberal arts...

 in Moscow
Moscow, Idaho
Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border. It is the most populous city and county seat of Latah County and the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state...

, of reformed Christian theological background.

  • Boise Bible College
    Boise Bible College
    Boise Bible College is an accredited institution of higher learning which specializes in training students to serve in variety of ministry careers...

  • Boise State University
    Boise State University
    Boise State University is a public university located in Boise, Idaho. Originally founded in 1932 as a junior college by the Episcopal Church, the university became an independent institution in 1934, and has been awarding baccalaureate and master degrees since 1965...

  • Brigham Young University-Idaho
    Brigham Young University-Idaho
    Brigham Young University–Idaho is a private university located in Rexburg, Idaho. Founded in 1888, the university is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , and transitioned from a junior college to a four-year institution in 2001, known for the greater part of its...

  • College of Idaho
  • College of Southern Idaho
    College of Southern Idaho
    College of Southern Idaho is an American public community college. Its main campus is in Twin Falls, Idaho, with outreach programs in Boise, Hailey, Burley and Gooding....

  • College of Western Idaho
    College of Western Idaho
    College of Western Idaho is an American public community college located in Nampa, Idaho. It serves the Boise metropolitan area.CWI began regular classes on January 20, 2009, with an enrollment of over 1100 students. Within its first year, CWI's enrollment expanded rapidly, with over 3600 students...

  • Eastern Idaho Technical College
    Eastern Idaho Technical College
    Eastern Idaho Technical College is a regional technical college in Idaho Falls, Idaho, United States. It was founded in 1969.The college's divisions include: Business, Office, and Technology; Health Professions; Trades and Industry; and General Education...


  • Idaho State University
    Idaho State University
    Idaho State University is a public university located in Pocatello, Idaho. It has outreach programs in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Boise, and Twin Falls....

  • Lewis-Clark State College
    Lewis-Clark State College
    Lewis–Clark State College is a public undergraduate college located in Lewiston, Idaho. It was founded in 1893, and has an annual enrollment of approximately 3,500 students. The college offers over 83 degrees and is well-known for its Criminal Justice, Education, Nursing, and Technical programs.-...

  • New Saint Andrews College
    New Saint Andrews College
    New Saint Andrews College is a classical Christian college located in Moscow, Idaho. It was founded in 1994 and modeled in part on the curriculum of Harvard College of the seventeenth century. The college offers no undergraduate majors, but follows a single, integrated classical liberal arts...

  • North Idaho College
    North Idaho College
    North Idaho College is a community college with over 6,000 students in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, situated at the north end of Lake Coeur d'Alene.-History:The school was established during the Great Depression in 1933 as Coeur d'Alene Junior College...

  • Northwest Nazarene University
    Northwest Nazarene University
    Northwest Nazarene University is a private Christian liberal arts college located in Nampa, Idaho.-History:Eugene Emerson organized a combination grade school and Bible school in 1913 as Idaho Holiness School...

  • University of Idaho
    University of Idaho
    The University of Idaho is the State of Idaho's flagship and oldest public university, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County in the northern portion of the state...



Sports

Central Idaho is home to one of North America's oldest ski resorts, Sun Valley
Sun Valley, Idaho
Sun Valley is a resort city in Blaine County in the central part of the U.S. state of Idaho, adjacent to the city of Ketchum, lying within the greater Wood River valley. Tourists from around the world enjoy its skiing, hiking, ice skating, trail riding, tennis, and cycling. The population was 1,427...

, where the world's first chairlift
Chairlift
An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and usually over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs...

 was installed. Sites include Hell's Canyon, the Salmon River
Salmon River (Idaho)
The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. The Salmon is also known as The River of No Return. It flows for through central Idaho, draining and dropping more than between its headwaters, near Galena Summit above the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National...

, and the embarkation point of Riggins, ID.
Club Sport League
Boise Hawks
Boise Hawks
The Boise Hawks are a minor league baseball team, located in Boise, Idaho. The team is currently a farm team for the Chicago Cubs and play in the Short-Season Class A Northwest League.-History:...

Baseball Minor League Baseball
Northwest League
The Northwest League of Professional Baseball is a Class A-Short Season minor baseball league. The league is the descendant of the Western International League which ran as a class B league from 1937-1951 and class A from 1952-1954...

Boise State Broncos
Boise State Broncos
The Boise State Broncos are the official athletic program of Boise State University. The Broncos compete in a wide variety of sports. Perhaps the most well-known of these sports is the football program. The program attained a 13-0 season in 2006 capped by a memorable overtime win in the 2007 Fiesta...

NCAA Div I FBS – MW
Mountain West Conference
The Mountain West Conference , popularly known as the Mountain West, is the youngest of the college athletic conferences affiliated with the NCAA’s Division I FBS . The MWC officially began operations in July 1999...

Idaho Vandals
Idaho Vandals
The Idaho Vandals are the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Idaho. They participate in NCAA Division I - FBS in the Western Athletic Conference ....

NCAA Div I FBS – WAC
Western Athletic Conference
The Western Athletic Conference is an American collegiate athletic conference, which was formed on July 27, 1962, making it the sixth oldest of the 11 college athletic conferences currently participating in the NCAA's Division I FBS...

Idaho State Bengals NCAA Div I FCS – Big Sky
Big Sky Conference
The Big Sky Conference is an intercollegiate college athletic conference affiliated with the NCAA's Division I, with football competing in the Football Championship Subdivision. The BSC was founded in 1963. Member institutions are located in the western United States in the states of Arizona,...

Idaho Falls Chukars
Idaho Falls Chukars
The Idaho Falls Chukars are a minor league baseball affiliate of the Kansas City Royals. They play in Idaho Falls, Idaho, at Melaleuca Field which holds 3,400 fans. The dimensions of the ball park are 340'left, 400'center, 350'right. The playing surface is Natural Grass...

Baseball Minor League Baseball
Idaho Stampede
Idaho Stampede
The Idaho Stampede is an American basketball team that plays in the NBA Development League. The team is based in the Boise, Idaho, area and as of 2005 plays at the CenturyLink Arena in Boise. The team was founded as a member of the Continental Basketball Association in 1997 and was league runner-up...

Basketball NBA Development League
NBA Development League
The NBA Development League, or NBA D-League, is the National Basketball Association's official minor league basketball organization. Known until summer 2005 as the National Basketball Development League , the NBA D-League started with eight teams in the fall of 2001...

Idaho Steelheads
Idaho Steelheads
The Idaho Steelheads are an American professional minor league ice hockey team based in Boise, Idaho. The team began playing in 1997 and has been a member of the ECHL since 2003....

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

East Coast Hockey League


Boise is the host to the largest 5 km run for women, the St. Luke's Women's Fitness Celebration.

Official state emblems

  • State Bird: Mountain Bluebird
    Mountain Bluebird
    The Mountain Bluebird is a medium-sized bird weighing about 2-5 ounces, with a length from 15–20 cm . They have light underbellies and black eyes. Adult males have thin bills are bright turquoise-blue and somewhat lighter beneath. Adult females have duller blue wings and tail, grey breast,...

  • State Dance: Square Dance
    Square dance
    Square dance is a folk dance with four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, beginning with Couple 1 facing away from the music and going counter-clockwise until getting to Couple 4. Couples 1 and 3 are known as the head couples, while Couples 2 and 4 are the side couples...

  • State Fish: Cutthroat Trout
    Cutthroat trout
    The cutthroat trout is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is one of the many fish species colloquially known as trout...

  • State Flower: Syringa
    Philadelphus lewisii
    Philadelphus lewisii is a deciduous shrub native to western North America, from northwestern California in the Sierra Nevada, north to southern British Columbia, and east to Idaho and Montana. It is widespread but not terribly common, usually appearing as an individual plant amongst other species...

     (Philadelphus lewisii)
  • State Fossil: Hagerman Horse
    Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument
    Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument near Hagerman, Idaho, contains the largest concentration of Hagerman Horse fossils in North America. The fossil horses for which the Monument is famous have been found in only one locale in the northern portion of the Monument called the Hagerman Horse Quarry...

     (Equus simplicidens)
  • State Fruit: Huckleberry
    Huckleberry
    Huckleberry is a common name used in North America for several species of plants in two closely related genera in the family Ericaceae:* Vaccinium* GaylussaciaHuckleberry may also refer to:-Plants:...

  • State Gem: Idaho star garnet
  • State Horse: Appaloosa
    Appaloosa
    The Appaloosa is a horse breed best known for its colorful leopard-spotted coat pattern. There is a wide range of body types within the breed, stemming from the influence of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history. Each horse's color pattern is genetically the result of various spotting...

  • State Motto: Esto perpetua ("Let it be perpetual")
  • State Insect: Monarch butterfly
    Monarch butterfly
    The Monarch butterfly is a milkweed butterfly , in the family Nymphalidae. It is perhaps the best known of all North American butterflies. Since the 19th century, it has been found in New Zealand, and in Australia since 1871 where it is called the Wanderer...

  • State Raptor: Peregrine falcon
    Peregrine Falcon
    The Peregrine Falcon , also known as the Peregrine, and historically as the Duck Hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-gray back, barred white underparts, and a black head and "moustache"...

  • State Song: Here We Have Idaho
    Here We Have Idaho
    Here We Have Idaho is the official state song of Idaho. The music for the Idaho state song, composed by Sallie Hume Douglas, was copyrighted on 4 November 1915, under the title "Garden of Paradise."...

  • State Tree: Western White Pine
    Western White Pine
    Western White Pine, Pinus monticola in the family Pinaceae, is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the northern Rocky Mountains. The tree extends down to sea level in many...

  • State Vegetable: Potato


See also

  • List of National Register of Historic Places in Idaho
  • List of people from Idaho
  • List of places in Idaho
  • Rocky Mountains
    Rocky Mountains
    The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

  • US state


External links


Related information

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