Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Overview
 
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport , known locally as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield Airport, and Hartsfield–Jackson, is located seven miles (11 km) south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. It has been the world's busiest airport
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 by passenger traffic and number of landings and take-offs since 2005, serving 89 million passengers per year. The airport is the primary hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

 of AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways, a subsidiary of the Dallas, Texas-based Southwest Airlines, is an American low-cost airline headquartered in Orlando, Florida. AirTran operates over 650 daily flights , primarily in the eastern and midwestern United States...

, Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, and Delta Connection
Delta Connection
Delta Connection is the name under which a number of individually owned regional airlines and one wholly owned regional carrier operate short and medium haul routes in association with Delta Air Lines Inc...

 partner Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines is an American airline based in the A-Tech Center in College Park, Georgia, flying to 144 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier and, as of February 2010, commenced service as a United Express carrier. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of SkyWest, Inc. ASA operates...

; the Delta hub is the world's largest airline hub.
Encyclopedia
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport , known locally as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield Airport, and Hartsfield–Jackson, is located seven miles (11 km) south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. It has been the world's busiest airport
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 by passenger traffic and number of landings and take-offs since 2005, serving 89 million passengers per year. The airport is the primary hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

 of AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways, a subsidiary of the Dallas, Texas-based Southwest Airlines, is an American low-cost airline headquartered in Orlando, Florida. AirTran operates over 650 daily flights , primarily in the eastern and midwestern United States...

, Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, and Delta Connection
Delta Connection
Delta Connection is the name under which a number of individually owned regional airlines and one wholly owned regional carrier operate short and medium haul routes in association with Delta Air Lines Inc...

 partner Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines is an American airline based in the A-Tech Center in College Park, Georgia, flying to 144 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier and, as of February 2010, commenced service as a United Express carrier. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of SkyWest, Inc. ASA operates...

; the Delta hub is the world's largest airline hub. Delta Air Lines flew 59.01% of passengers from the airport in February 2011, AirTran flew 17.76%, and Atlantic Southeast Airlines flew 13.86%. The airport has 199 gates, domestic and international.

Hartsfield–Jackson held its ranking as the world's busiest airport in 2010, both in terms of passengers and number of flights, by accommodating 89 million passengers (243,000 passengers daily) and 950,119 flights. Many of the nearly one million flights are domestic flights from within the United States, where Atlanta serves as a major hub for travel throughout the Southeastern United States.

Hartsfield–Jackson International Airport has international service to North America, South America, Central America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. As an international gateway to the United States, Hartsfield–Jackson ranks seventh.

The airport is located mostly in unincorporated area
Unincorporated area
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not a part of any municipality.To "incorporate" in this context means to form a municipal corporation, a city, town, or village with its own government. An unincorporated community is usually not subject to or taxed by a municipal government...

s in Fulton
Fulton County, Georgia
Fulton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. Its county seat is Atlanta, the state capital since 1868 and the principal county of the Atlanta metropolitan area...

 and Clayton
Clayton County, Georgia
Clayton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 236,517. The 2008 Census estimate placed the population at 273,718. The county seat is Jonesboro...

 counties; the city limits of Atlanta, College Park
College Park, Georgia
College Park is a city located partly in Fulton County, Georgia and partially in Clayton County, Georgia, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 13,942...

, and Hapeville
Hapeville, Georgia
Hapeville is a city in Fulton County, Georgia, United States, located directly adjacent to the city of Atlanta. The population was 6,373 at the 2010 census. It is named for Dr...

 extend to the airport grounds. The airport is served by MARTA
Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority or MARTA is the principal rapid-transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area and the ninth-largest in the United States. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting...

's Red/Gold rail line.

History

Hartsfield–Jackson had its beginnings with a five-year, rent-free lease on 287 acres (116 ha) that was the home of an abandoned auto racetrack. The lease was signed on April 16, 1925, by Mayor Walter Sims
Walter Sims
Walter Arthur Sims was an American politician.Born in Dawson County, Georgia, , he was the son of John Newton Sims ....

, who committed the city to develop it into an airfield. As part of the agreement, the property was renamed Candler Field after its former owner, Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke...

 tycoon and former Atlanta mayor Asa Candler
Asa Griggs Candler
Asa Griggs Candler was an American business tycoon who made his fortune selling Coca-Cola. He also served as the 44th Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 1916 to 1919...

. The first flight into Candler Field was on September 15, 1926, a Florida Airways mail plane flying from Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

. In May 1928, Pitcairn Aviation began service to Atlanta, followed in June 1930 by Delta Air Service. Later these two airlines, known as Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida.-History:...

 and Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, respectively, would both use Atlanta as their chief hubs
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

.

It was a busy airport from its inception and by the end of 1930 it placed third behind New York City and Chicago for regular daily flights with sixteen arriving and departing.
Candler Field's first control tower
Control tower
A control tower, or more specifically an Air Traffic Control Tower , is the name of the airport building from which the air traffic control unit controls the movement of aircraft on and around the airport. Control towers are also used to control the traffic for other forms of transportation such...

 was opened March 1939.
For the military use of the airport during World War II, see Atlanta Army Airfield
Atlanta Army Airfield
Atlanta Army Airfield is a former United States Army Air Corps training facility that operated on the grounds of the present Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport during World War II.-History:...


In October 1940, the U.S. government declared it a military airfield
Military base
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. In general, a military base provides accommodations for one or more units, but it may also be used as a...

 and the United States Army Air Force operated Atlanta Army Airfield
Atlanta Army Airfield
Atlanta Army Airfield is a former United States Army Air Corps training facility that operated on the grounds of the present Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport during World War II.-History:...

 jointly with Candler Field. The Air Force used the airport primarily for the servicing of transient aircraft, with many different types of combat aircraft being maintained at the airport. During World War II, the airport doubled in size and set a record of 1,700 takeoffs and landings in a single day, making it the nation's busiest airport in terms of flight operation. Atlanta Army Airfield closed after war's end.

In 1946 Candler Field was renamed Atlanta Municipal Airport and by 1948, more than one million passengers passed through a war surplus hangar that served as a terminal building. During the postwar regulated period, both Delta and Eastern operated an extensive route network from ATL to destinations throughout the United States. Southern Airways
Southern Airways
Southern Airways was a regional airline operating in the United States from its founding by Frank Hulse in 1949 until 1979 when it merged with North Central Airlines to become Republic Airlines, which on October 1, 1986, became part of Northwest Airlines, which in 2008 became a part of Delta Air...

 also established itself at ATL shortly after the war and maintained a network of short-haul routes around the Southeast through 1979.

On June 1, 1956 an Eastern flight to Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Canada was the first international flight out of Atlanta. (Atlanta's first scheduled international flight was the Delta/Pan Am interchange DC-8 to Europe starting in 1964; the first scheduled nonstop to a foreign country was Eastern's flight to Mexico City around 1972.) In 1957 Atlanta saw its first jet airliner: a prototype Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud Aviation Caravelle
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 . The Caravelle was one of the more successful European first generation jetliners, selling throughout Europe and even penetrating the United States market, with...

 that was touring the country arrived from Washington D.C. Atlanta was the busiest airport in the country with more than two million passengers passing through that year and, between noon and 2 p.m. each day, it became the busiest airport in the world. (The April 1957 OAG shows 165 weekday departures from Atlanta, including 45 between 12:05 and 2:00 PM (and 20 between 2:25 and 4:25 AM). Chicago Midway had 414 weekday departures, including 48 between 12:00 and 2:00 PM. For the year 1957 Atlanta was the ninth busiest airline airport in the country by flight count and about the same by passenger count.)

That same year, work on a new terminal began to help alleviate congestion. On May 3, 1961, a new $21 million terminal opened. It was the largest in the country and was able to accommodate over six million travelers a year. The new airport was stretched past its capacity the very first year when nine and half million people passed through. In March 1962 the longest runway (9/27, now 8R) was 7860 ft; runway 3 was 5505 ft and runway 15 was 7220 ft.

In 1967, the city of Atlanta and the airlines began to work on a master plan for future development of Atlanta Municipal Airport. Construction began on the present midfield terminal in January 1977 under the administration of Mayor Maynard Jackson
Maynard Jackson
Maynard Holbrook Jackson, Jr. was an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia. He served three terms, two consecutive terms from 1974 until 1982 and a third term from 1990 to 1994...

. It was the largest construction project in the South, costing $500 million. Named for former Atlanta mayor William Berry Hartsfield, who did much to promote air travel, William B. Hartsfield
William B. Hartsfield
William Berry Hartsfield was an American politician. He was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and served as its 49th and 51st Mayor from 1937 to 1941 and again from 1942 to 1962, making him the longest-serving mayor in Atlanta history....

 Atlanta International Airport
opened on September 21, 1980, on-time and under budget. It was designed to accommodate up to 55 million passengers per year and covered 2.5 million square feet (230,000 m²). In December 1984 a 9000 feet (2,743.2 m) fourth parallel runway was completed, and another runway was extended to 11889 feet (3,623.8 m) the following year.

Although Eastern was a larger airline than Delta until airline deregulation
Airline deregulation
Airline deregulation is the process of removing entry and price restrictions on airlines affecting, in particular, the carriers permitted to serve specific routes. In the United States, the term usually applies to the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978...

 in 1978, Delta was an early adopter of the hub and spoke route system, with Atlanta as its primary hub between the Midwest and Florida, giving it an early competitive advantage in the Atlanta market. Eastern ceased operations in 1991 due to labor issues and competition throughout the Eastern seaboard, leaving Delta with the only major airline hub in Atlanta. American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 considered establishing an Atlanta hub around the time of Eastern's demise, but determined that Delta was already too fortified there, and that the competitive environment was more favorable at Eastern's other hub in Miami
Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport , also known as MIA and historically Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the South Florida area...

.

ValuJet was established in 1993 to provide low-cost competition for Delta at ATL following Eastern's demise. Its safety practices were called into question early in its life, and the airline was temporarily grounded after the 1996 crash of ValuJet Flight 592
ValuJet Flight 592
ValuJet Flight 592 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight between Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, and William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia...

. It resumed operations in 1997 as AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways
AirTran Airways, a subsidiary of the Dallas, Texas-based Southwest Airlines, is an American low-cost airline headquartered in Orlando, Florida. AirTran operates over 650 daily flights , primarily in the eastern and midwestern United States...

 and remains the second-largest airline at ATL today. AirTran was acquired by Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

 in 2011 and Southwest plans to integrate its operations with AirTran in the future.

In May 2001, construction of a 9000 feet (2,743.2 m) fifth runway (10–28) began. It was completed at a cost of $1.28 billion and opened on May 27, 2006, and was the first runway added since 1984. It bridges Interstate 285
Interstate 285
Interstate 285 is an Interstate Highway loop encircling Atlanta, Georgia, for . I-285 is also known as unsigned State Route 407 and is colloquially referred to as the Perimeter. Suburban sprawl has made it one of the most heavily traveled roadways in the United States, and portions of the highway...

 (the Perimeter) on the south side of the airport, making Hartsfield-Jackson the only civilian airport in the nation to currently have a runway above an interstate (although Runway 17R/35L at Stapleton International Airport
Stapleton International Airport
Stapleton International Airport was Denver, Colorado's primary airport from 1929 to 1995. At different times it served as a hub for TWA, People Express, Frontier Airlines and Western Airlines as well as a hub for Continental Airlines and United Airlines at the time of its closure.In 1995 Stapleton...

 in Denver
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

 crossed Interstate 70
Interstate 70
Interstate 70 is an Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 near Cove Fort, Utah, to a Park and Ride near Baltimore, Maryland. It was the first Interstate Highway project in the United States. I-70 approximately traces the path of U.S. Route 40 east of the Rocky...

 until that airport was closed in 1995) . The massive project, which involved putting fill dirt eleven-stories high in some places, destroyed some surrounding neighborhoods, and dramatically changed the scenery of two cemeteries on the property, Flat Rock Cemetery and Hart Cemetery. It was added to help ease some of the traffic problems caused by landing small- and mid-size aircraft on the longer runways which are also used by larger planes such as the Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

, which generally require longer takeoff distances than the smaller planes. With the fifth runway, Hartsfield–Jackson is one of only a few airports that can perform triple simultaneous landings.
The fifth runway is expected to increase the capacity for landings and take-offs by 40%, from an average of 184 flights per hour to 237 flights per hour.

Along with the construction of the fifth runway, a new control tower
Control tower
A control tower, or more specifically an Air Traffic Control Tower , is the name of the airport building from which the air traffic control unit controls the movement of aircraft on and around the airport. Control towers are also used to control the traffic for other forms of transportation such...

 was built to see the entire length of the runway. The new control tower is the tallest airport control tower in the United States, with a height of over 398 feet (121.3 m). The old control tower, 585 feet (178.3 m) away from the new control tower, was demolished August 5, 2006.

Atlanta's city council voted on October 20, 2003 to change the name from Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport to the current Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, in honor of former mayor Maynard Jackson
Maynard Jackson
Maynard Holbrook Jackson, Jr. was an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia. He served three terms, two consecutive terms from 1974 until 1982 and a third term from 1990 to 1994...

, who died on June 23, 2003. The council initially planned on renaming the airport solely for Mayor Jackson, but public outcry, especially by Mayor Hartsfield's descendants, prompted the compromise.

In April 2007, an "end-around taxiway" opened, called Taxiway Victor. It is expected to save an estimated $26 million to $30 million in fuel each year by allowing airplanes landing on the northernmost runway to taxi to the gate area without preventing other aircraft from taking off. The taxiway drops approximately 30 feet (9.1 m) from the runway elevation to allow takeoffs to continue.

As a result of the Southeastern U.S. drought of 2007, the airport (the eighth-largest water user in the state) has made changes to reduce water usage. This includes adjusting toilets, of which there are 725 commodes and 338 urinals, in addition to 601 sinks. (The two terminals alone use 917,000 gallons or about 3.5 million liters each day in average.) It also suspended the practice of using firetrucks to spray water over aircraft when the pilot
Aviator
An aviator is a person who flies an aircraft. The first recorded use of the term was in 1887, as a variation of 'aviation', from the Latin avis , coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne...

 made a last landing before retirement (a water salute
Water salute
A water salute occurs for ceremonial purposes when a vehicle travels under plumes of water expelled by two or more fire fighting vehicles....

).
The city of Macon
Macon, Georgia
Macon is a city located in central Georgia, US. Founded at the fall line of the Ocmulgee River, it is part of the Macon metropolitan area, and the county seat of Bibb County. A small portion of the city extends into Jones County. Macon is the biggest city in central Georgia...

 offered to sell water to the airport, through a proposed pipeline.

The airport today employs approximately 55,300 airline, ground transportation, concessionaire, security, federal government, City of Atlanta and Airport tenant employees and is considered the largest employment center in the U.S. state of Georgia. With a payroll of $2.4 billion, the airport has a direct and indirect economic impact of $3.2 billion on the local and regional economy and a total annual, regional economic impact of more than $19.8 billion.

Expansion & Renovations

In 1999, Hartsfield–Jackson's leadership established the Development Program: "Focus On the Future" involving multiple construction projects with the intention of preparing the airport to handle a projected demand of 121 million passengers in 2015. The program was originally budgeted at $5.4 billion over a ten-year period, but due to project delays and increased construction costs, the total is now projected at over $9 billion.

Hartsfield–Jackson Rental Car Center

The Hartsfield–Jackson Rental Car Center, which opened on December 8, 2009, houses all ten current airport rental agencies with capacity for additional companies. The complex features 9,900 parking spaces split up between two four-story parking decks that together cover 2800000 square feet (260,128.5 m²), a 137000 square feet (12,727.7 m²) customer service center, and a maintenance center for vehicles, which features 140 gas pumps,and 30 bays for washing with each one equipped with a water recovery system. The automated people mover, nicknamed the ATL Skytrain
Consolidated Rental Car Facility Automated People Mover
The ATL SkyTrain is an automated people mover line at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The system opened on December 8, 2009. Unlike The Plane Train, which is located underground, inside the secure zone of the airport, the ATL SkyTrain is located outside the airport's secure zone...

, (using Mitsubishi Crystal Mover equipment) connects the facility to the airport and to the Gateway Center of the Georgia International Convention Center
Georgia International Convention Center
The Georgia International Convention Center or GICC, opened in April 2003, is the second largest convention center in the State of Georgia: second only to the Georgia World Congress Center. It is located at 2000 Convention Center Concourse, just off Camp Creek Parkway and Roosevelt Highway in...

 and the Hartsfield–Jackson Rental Car Center. A four-lane roadway was built across Interstate 85 to connect the Hartsfield–Jackson Rental Car Center to the existing airport road network.

Maynard H. Jackson, Jr. International Terminal

In July 2003, then-Atlanta mayor Shirley Franklin
Shirley Franklin
Shirley Clarke Franklin is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and served as mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 2002 to 2010...

 announced a new terminal to be named for Maynard H. Jackson, Jr.. The new international terminal would be built on the east side of the airport near International Concourse E, on a site that had been occupied by air cargo facilities and the midfield control tower. It would add twelve new gates able to hold wide-body jets, which can be converted to sixteen narrow-body gates, as well as new check-in desks and a baggage claim area solely for international carriers. Additionally, the international terminal would have its own parking lot just for international passengers with over 1,100 spaces. Arriving international passengers whose final destination is Atlanta would be able to keep possession of their luggage as they proceed to exit the airport. Currently, such passengers must "recheck" their luggage and clear long security lines, along with transit passengers, at Concourse E. Then, they must enter the underground Transportation Mall to reach the main terminal where they must "reclaim" their luggage. The new terminal will be connected to Terminal E by the people mover tram and will also have ground transportation access via I-75.
The new terminal was slated to open in 2006; however, time and cost overruns led then Airport General Manager Ben DeCosta to cancel the design contract in August 2005. The next day, the architect sued the airport claiming "fraud" and "bad faith", blaming the airport authority for the problems. In early 2007, the General Manager awarded a new design contract on the new international terminal to Atlanta Gateway Designers (AGD). Construction began in the summer of 2008. During late 2011, the construction is progressing rapidly with the exterior and interior almost completed. Estimates place the terminal's cost at $1.4 billion, and it is expected to open in April 2012.

Also scheduled to be completed after the new international terminal and concourse is a new terminal south of the current terminals. The project is currently known as the South Gate Complex, and is expected to include up to 70 gates at an estimated cost of approximately $1.8 billion. The new terminal will be connected to the main terminal by an expanded automated people mover system. When the South Gate Complex is completed, it is expected that most domestic carriers other than Delta will move to the SGC. This would leave Delta as the sole domestic carrier at the current terminal, which it will share with its SkyTeam partners. Since the SGC is not planned to have Customs and Border Protection facilities, international arrivals other than pre-cleared flights will also continue to use the current terminal (specifically British Airways and Lufthansa).

Accommodating the A380

In addition to the terminal that will expand international operations at the airport, Sections of some midfield taxiways will be widened from 145 feet (44.2 m) to 162 feet (49.4 m), and a section of Runway 27R will be widened from 220 feet (67.1 m) to 250 feet (76.2m) in order to accommodate the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 operations at the airport. Air France and Korean Air are considering whether they will commence A380 service from Atlanta once these sections of the taxiway and runway are completed. Additionally, one or more of the gates in the International Terminal will be designated specifically for the A380 at the airport, streamlining operations.

Concourse D Modernisation and Expansion

The City of Atlanta has approved for the modernisation of Concourse D, with an additional 60,000 square feet (18,288 m2) , the addition of more escalators and elevators and more Food & Beverage Options. The architect firm Moody and Bryson will do the renovations, set for completion by Spring 2014.

Layout

Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport has terminal and concourse space totaling 5800000 square feet (538,837.6 m²).
The airport has two terminals where passengers check-in and claim bags, the North Terminal and the South Terminal. The two terminals are part of a larger building. The portions of the building between the two terminals include the Atrium, which is a large, open seating area featuring concessionaires, a bank, conference rooms, an interfaith chapel, and offices on the upper floors with the main security checkpoint, the Ground Transportation Center and a Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority or MARTA is the principal rapid-transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area and the ninth-largest in the United States. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting...

 (MARTA) train station on other levels.

Six parallel concourse buildings are used for passenger boarding. The first concourse is connected to the main terminal, and is known as Concourse T (for Terminal). The remaining five concourses are designated successively by distance from the terminal as Concourses A, B, C, D, and E. Concourse E replaced Concourse T as the international terminal when it opened in 1994 in time for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics of Atlanta, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States....

, which were held in Atlanta .
International passengers who arrive in Atlanta are subjected to a security re-check after clearing customs due to a design flaw that routes these passengers into the concourse instead of the main terminal lobby. The concourses are connected by an underground Transportation Mall, which begins at the main terminal and passes under the center of each concourse. At one time, there was a second underground walkway between Concourses B and C which connected the north end of the two concourses and made it possible to transfer without returning to the center of the concourse. This was constructed for Eastern Airlines, who occupied these two terminals. This is now closed and the entrance at Concourse B has been replaced by a bank of arrival/departure monitors.

The Automated People Mover

In addition to a pedestrian walkway, which includes a series of moving walkway
Moving walkway
A moving walkway or moving sidewalk is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports people, across a horizontal...

s, connecting the concourses, the Transportation Mall also features an automated people mover
People mover
A people mover or automated people mover is a fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system.The term is generally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks, but is sometimes applied to considerably more complex automated...

. The Automated People Mover has a station at the east end of the main terminal for passengers who have cleared security screening and are entering the Transportation Mall. This station also serves as the station for Concourse T. Other stations are located at each of the five concourses. A seventh station is located in the Baggage Claim area, directly under the Main Terminal. Only hand luggage may be carried on the people mover which is the world's busiest automated system, with over 64 million riders in 2002.

On August 10, 2010, the automated people mover was named "The Plane Train". Previously it had not been given an official name.

MARTA Station

Hartsfield–Jackson also has its own train station
Airport (MARTA station)
Airport is an elevated Rail station and southern terminus on the Red and Gold lines of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority rail system. It is served by the Gold Line at all times. It has an island platform between two tracks. This station is the southern terminus of the North-South...

 on the city's rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system, MARTA
Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority or MARTA is the principal rapid-transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area and the ninth-largest in the United States. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting...

. The above-ground station is inside in the main building, between the north and south terminals on the west end. The Airport train station is currently the southernmost station in the MARTA system.

Terminals, airlines, and destinations

The six concourses and their gates are:
  • Concourse T – 14 gates (T1–T5, T7-15)
  • Concourse A – 34 gates (A1–A34)
  • Concourse B – 35 gates (B1–B34, B36)
  • Concourse C – 37 gates (C1–C22, C30–C57)
  • Concourse D – 33 gates (D1, D1A–D8, D8A–D11, D11A–D16, D21–D46)
  • Concourse E – 33 gates (E1–E12, E14–E17, E26–E37)
  • Concourse F – 12 Gates (Opening, Spring 2012, part of International Terminal)
  • Note: All international arrivals (except flights with customs pre-clearance
    United States border preclearance
    The United States operates border preclearance facilities at a number of ports and airports in foreign countries. They are staffed and operated by U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers. Travelers pass through Immigration and Customs, Public Health, and Department of Agriculture inspections...

    ) are handled at Concourse E.


Cargo airlines

  • Air France Cargo
    Air France
    Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

  • Asiana Cargo
  • Atlas Air
    Atlas Air
    Atlas Air, Inc. is an American cargo airline based in Purchase, Harrison, New York. It operates scheduled freight flights on a wet lease basis for some of the world's leading airlines, flying to 101 cities in 46 countries. Its crew bases include: Miami International Airport, New York's John F...

  • British Airways World Cargo
    British Airways
    British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

  • Cathay Pacific Cargo
  • China Airlines
    China Airlines
    China Airlines is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of Republic of China . Although not directly state-owned, the airline is owned by China Airlines Group, which is owned by the China Aviation Development Foundation...

  • Cargolux
    Cargolux
    Cargolux Airlines International S.A., trading as Cargolux, is a cargo airline with its head office on the grounds of Luxembourg – Findel Airport in Sandweiler, Luxembourg. It is one of the largest scheduled all-cargo airlines in Europe with a global network...

  • Cargoitalia
    Cargoitalia
    Cargoitalia is a cargo airline with its head office in the Avioport Logistics Park in Lonate Pozzolo, Province of Varese, Italy, near Milan. The airline has its registered office in Milan. It operates all-cargo scheduled and charter services from Italy to the Middle East, the Far East and North...

  • EVA Air
    EVA Air
    EVA Airways Corporation "; ) is an airline based at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport near Taipei, Taiwan, operating passenger and dedicated cargo services to over 40 international destinations in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. EVA Air is largely privately owned and flies a fully...

  • FedEx Express
  • Korean Air Cargo
  • Lufthansa Cargo
    Lufthansa Cargo
    Lufthansa Cargo AG is a cargo airline from Germany, operating worldwide air freight and logistics services on behalf of Lufthansa, of which it is a wholly owned subsidiary. The company is headquartered in Building 451 of the Frankfurt Airport area in Frankfurt, the major hub of Lufthansa...

  • MasAir
    MasAir
    Aerotransportes Mas de Carga, S.A. de C.V., operating as MasAir, is a cargo airline based in Mexico City, Mexico. It operates scheduled cargo services in Mexico and to the USA, Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia...

  • Polar Air Cargo
    Polar Air Cargo
    For the Russian aviation company see: Polar AirlinesPolar Air Cargo Worldwide, Inc. is an American cargo airline based in Purchase, Harrison, New York, USA. It operates scheduled all-cargo services to North America, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East...

  • Qatar Airways Cargo
  • Singapore Airlines Cargo
    Singapore Airlines Cargo
    Singapore Airlines Cargo is a cargo airline based in Singapore. It is a subsidiary of Singapore Airlines and was incorporated in 2001. SIA Cargo operates 11 freighters and manages the bellyhold of all Singapore Airlines aircraft...

  • UPS Airlines
    UPS Airlines
    UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. . The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its home airport is located at Louisville International Airport...


  • Traffic and statistics

    Busiest International Routes from Atlanta (2009–2010)
    Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
    1 Cancún, Mexico
    Cancún International Airport
    Cancún International Airport is located in Cancún, Quintana Roo, on the Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. It is Mexico's second busiest airport, after Mexico City International Airport in Mexico City, but the biggest in Mexico and Latin America for International passengers...

    513,786 AirTran, Delta
    2 Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France 512,189 Air France, Delta
    3 Montego Bay, Jamaica 351,694 AirTran, Delta
    4 Toronto (Pearson), Canada
    Toronto Pearson International Airport
    Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

    321,111 Air Canada, Delta
    5 Amsterdam, Netherlands 307,242 Delta, KLM
    6 Nassau, Bahamas
    Lynden Pindling International Airport
    - Trivia :During World War II,it was known as Windsor Field used by the Royal Air Force Transferring Fighter and Bomber aircraft such as the B-17, B-24, and the P-40 from New Providence to Italian, North African and European Theatres of War and as a station for Consolidated Liberator I and North...

    290,992 AirTran, Delta
    7 Frankfurt, Germany
    Frankfurt Airport
    Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

    286,859 Delta, Lufthansa
    8 London (Heathrow), United Kingdom
    London Heathrow Airport
    London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

    278,666 British Airways, Delta
    9 Mexico City, Mexico
    Mexico City International Airport
    Benito Juárez International Airport , in Venustiano Carranza, one of the sixteen boroughs into which Mexico's Federal District is divided, is a commercial airport that serves Mexico City, the capital of Mexico...

    249,518 Delta
    10 Tokyo (Narita), Japan
    Narita International Airport
    is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is located east of Tokyo Station and east-southeast of Narita Station in the city of Narita, and the adjacent town of Shibayama....

    229,257 Delta


    Top domestic destinations (August 2010 – July 2011)
    Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
    1   Orlando, Florida
    Orlando International Airport
    Orlando International Airport is a major international airport located southeast of the central business district of Orlando. It is the second busiest airport in Florida, after Miami International Airport...

    1,287,000 AirTran, Delta
    2   New York (LaGuardia), New York
    LaGuardia Airport
    LaGuardia Airport is an airport located in the northern part of Queens County on Long Island in the City of New York. The airport is located on the waterfront of Flushing Bay and Bowery Bay, and borders the neighborhoods of Astoria, Jackson Heights and East Elmhurst. The airport was originally...

    1,151,000 AirTran, American, Delta
    3   Fort Lauderdale, Florida
    Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport
    Fort Lauderdale – Hollywood International Airport is an international commercial airport located in unincorporated Broward County, Florida, three miles southwest of the central business district of Fort Lauderdale...

    1,147,000 AirTran, Delta, Spirit
    4   Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 1,084,000 AirTran, American, Delta
    5   Los Angeles, California
    Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport is the primary airport serving the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second-most populated metropolitan area in the United States. It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually...

    944,000 AirTran, Delta
    6   Tampa, Florida
    Tampa International Airport
    Tampa International Airport is a major public airport located six nautical miles west of the central business district of Tampa, in Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. This airport is publicly owned by Hillsborough County Aviation Authority...

    910,000 AirTran, Delta
    7   Washington (National), D.C.
    Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
    Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is a public airport located south of downtown Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia. It is the commercial airport nearest to Washington, D.C. For many decades, it was called Washington National Airport, but this airport was renamed in 1998 to...

    818,000 AirTran, Delta
    8   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia International Airport
    Philadelphia International Airport is a major airport in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, and is the largest airport in the Delaware Valley region and in Pennsylvania...

    796,000 AirTran, Delta, US Airways
    9   Charlotte, North Carolina
    Charlotte/Douglas International Airport
    Charlotte Douglas International Airport is a joint civil-military public international airport located in Charlotte, North Carolina. Established in 1935 as Charlotte Municipal Airport, in 1954 the airport was renamed Douglas Municipal Airport after former Charlotte mayor Ben Elbert Douglas, Sr...

    752,000 AirTran, Delta, US Airways
    10   Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota 746,000 AirTran, Delta


    Traffic by calendar year
    Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Cargo
    (metric tons)
    1999 78,092,940 909,911 883,149
    2000 80,162,407 2.65% 915,454 865,991
    2001 75,858,500 5.37% 890,494 735,796
    2002 76,876,128 1.34% 889,966 734,083
    2003 79,087,928 2.88% 911,727 802,248
    2004 83,606,583 5.71% 964,858 862,230
    2005 85,907,423 2.75% 980,386 767,897
    2006 84,846,639 1.23% 976,447 746,502
    2007 89,379,287 5.34% 994,346 720,209
    2008 90,039,280 0.74% 978,824 655,277
    2009 88,001,381 2.23% 970,235 563,139
    2010 89,331,622 1.51% 950,119 659,129
    Source: Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Crashes en route

    • April 4, 1977 Southern Airways Flight 242
      Southern Airways Flight 242
      Southern Airways Flight 242 was a DC-9-31 jet, registered N1335U, that executed a forced landing on a highway in New Hope, Paulding County, Georgia, United States after suffering hail damage and losing thrust on both engines in a severe thunderstorm on April 4, 1977.At the time of the accident, the...

       (Huntsville to Atlanta, crashed en route in New Hope, Georgia
      New Hope, Georgia
      New Hope is an unincorporated community in Paulding County, Georgia. Once considered a rural destination, New Hope is now an exurb of Atlanta, located at the crossroads of Dallas-Acworth Highway and East Paulding Drive/Old Cartersville Road...

      )
    • September 6, 1985 Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105
      Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105
      Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105 a Douglas DC-9-14 crashed just after takeoff on September 6, 1985 from General Mitchell Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, en route to Hartsfield International in Atlanta. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and the post-crash fire...

       (Milwaukee to Atlanta, crashed on takeoff at the airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin)
    • August 21, 1995 Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529
      Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529
      Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529, registration N256AS, was an Embraer Brasilia aircraft that crashed near Carrollton, Georgia on August 21, 1995 while on a flight from the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport to Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport in Gulfport, Mississippi...

      , crashed near Carrollton, Georgia while on a flight from the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport to Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport in Gulfport, Mississippi.
    • May 11, 1996 ValuJet Flight 592
      ValuJet Flight 592
      ValuJet Flight 592 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight between Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, and William B. Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia...

       (Miami to Atlanta, crashed en route from Miami International Airport in the Florida Everglades)
    • August 27, 2006 Comair Flight 191 operating as Delta Connection Flight 5191 (Lexington to Atlanta, crashed on takeoff at the Blue Grass Airport) 49 fatalities were reported.

    Public safety

    On November 16, 2001, a man left the secure area to retrieve his camera bag, which he had left behind, and then tried to bypass the wait at the security checkpoint by running the wrong way down the escalators at the secure area's exit. As a result, the entire airport was evacuated, including all aircraft, and operations halted for three hours.

    The man said that he tried to bypass the security line because he would be late for a flight he was taking to see a Georgia Bulldogs football
    Georgia Bulldogs football
    The Georgia Bulldogs football team represents the University of Georgia in football. The Bulldogs are a member of the Southeastern Conference and are frequently a top-25 team. The University of Georgia has had a football team since 1892 and has an all-time record of 738–398–54...

     game. As part of his sentence, he was not allowed to attend any Bulldogs games for the 2002 season.

    From December 2006 to March 2007, there were 30 arrests for indecent exposure involving reported sex acts in airport restrooms. Several prominent persons were arrested, including an advisor for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Druid Hills, unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, in Greater Atlanta...

    , a Spelman College
    Spelman College
    Spelman College is a four-year liberal arts women's college located in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. The college is part of the Atlanta University Center academic consortium in Atlanta. Founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman was the first historically black female...

     professor, and the Chairman of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
    Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
    The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority or MARTA is the principal rapid-transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area and the ninth-largest in the United States. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting...

     board of directors.

    Lightning strike

    In 2009, a severe thunderstorm on the evening of April 23 caused a lightning strike directly to the control tower
    Control tower
    A control tower, or more specifically an Air Traffic Control Tower , is the name of the airport building from which the air traffic control unit controls the movement of aircraft on and around the airport. Control towers are also used to control the traffic for other forms of transportation such...

     at 8:45 (20:45) EDT. The airport was already in a ground stop due to dangerous wind shear
    Wind shear
    Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere...

    , and four minutes after the strike, the tower was evacuated after a smoke odor was detected. After returning at 9:10, a power outage at 9:20 caused further problems, including major flight delays and diversions due also to the lightning (at over 1000 strikes per hour) and large amounts of hail that continued in the vicinity. Partial power outages continued to affect the airport and the northern runway lighting for more than an hour afterward, leaving only three other runways to handle the backlog
    Backlog
    Backlog generally refers to an accumulation over time of work waiting to be done or orders to be fulfilled.Backlog may also refer to:*different kinds of backlogs exist for different time scales in Scrum...

    . An FAA official said that neither the new nor the old tower had been struck in at least 18 years. Several storm chasers east of the airport reported a wall cloud and descending funnel over the airport during the severe thunderstorm.

    In culture

    As the dominant airport in the Southern United States, and the nation's busiest in terms of passengers handled (mainly due to being Delta's flagship hub), there is an old joke in the South which states that, upon one's death, regardless of whether one goes to Heaven
    Heaven
    Heaven, the Heavens or Seven Heavens, is a common religious cosmological or metaphysical term for the physical or transcendent place from which heavenly beings originate, are enthroned or inhabit...

     or Hell
    Hell
    In many religious traditions, a hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations...

     one will connect in Atlanta to get there.

    Hartsfield is the setting for the song "Terminals" by Relient K
    Relient K
    Relient K is an American rock band formed in 1998 in Canton, Ohio by Matt Thiessen, Brian Pittman, and Matt Hoopes during the band's junior year in high school and their time at Malone University...

    .

    Scenes from the movies Due Date
    Due Date
    Due Date is a 2010 American comedy road film directed by Todd Phillips, co-written by Alan R. Cohen, Alan Freedland, and Adam Sztykiel, and starring Robert Downey, Jr. and Zach Galifianakis. The film was released on November 5, 2010...

     and Life As We Know It
    Life as We Know It (film)
    Life as We Know It is a 2010 romantic comedy-drama film directed by Greg Berlanti, starring Katherine Heigl and Josh Duhamel. It was released on October 8, 2010, after sneak previews in 811 theaters on October 2, 2010...

     were filmed and had scenes take place on location at Hartsfield Airport in 2010.

    In the Futurama
    Futurama
    Futurama is an American animated science fiction sitcom created by Matt Groening and developed by Groening and David X. Cohen for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series follows the adventures of a late 20th-century New York City pizza delivery boy, Philip J...

     episode, "The Deep South" it is revealed that in the future, Atlanta moved to the sea, where it becomes "a center for tourism and an even bigger Delta hub"

    Other notes

    Air traffic controllers for tower and ground control operations refer to the letter "D" using the word "Dixie
    Dixie
    Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States.- Origin of the name :According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the origins of this nickname remain obscure. According to A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles , by Mitford M...

    " instead of the ICAO phonetic term "Delta" to avoid confusion with Delta Air Lines aircraft (note the use of "DIXIE" for taxiway "D" in the FAA's airport diagram, listed in the external links below).

    The People Mover's recorded announcements list "Concourse D as in David," rather than "Delta" or "Dixie."

    See also

    • Atlanta's second airport
      Atlanta's second airport
      Atlanta's second airport is an idea being studied by the city of Atlanta, Georgia. In May 2007, the Federal Aviation Administration released the report, "Capacity Needs in the National Airspace System, 2007–2025" as part of its Future Airport Capacity Task...

    • Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic
    • Georgia World War II Army Airfields
      Georgia World War II Army Airfields
      During World War II, the United States Army Air Force established numerous airfields in Georgia for antisubmarine defense in the Gulf of Mexico and for training pilots and aircrews of USAAF fighters and bombers....

    • World's busiest airport
      World's busiest airport
      The definition of the world's busiest airport has been specified by the Airports Council International in Geneva, Switzerland. The ACI defines and measures the following three types of airport traffic:...

    • World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
      World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
      The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods . Numbers listed refer to loaded and unloaded freight in metric tonnes.-2010 final statistics:...

    • World's busiest airports by international passenger traffic
      World's busiest airports by international passenger traffic
      The following is a list of the world's busiest airports by international passenger traffic.London Heathrow has been the busiest since 2000-2010 year-to-date statistics:Airports Council International's year-to-date figures are as follows....

    • World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
      World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
      The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

    • World's busiest airports by traffic movements
      World's busiest airports by traffic movements
      The thirty world's busiest airports by aircraft movements are measured by total movements . One total movement is a landing or take off of an aircraft.- 2010 final statistics :-2009 final statistics:...


    External links

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