Haplogroup
Overview
In the study of molecular evolution
Molecular evolution
Molecular evolution is in part a process of evolution at the scale of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Molecular evolution emerged as a scientific field in the 1960s as researchers from molecular biology, evolutionary biology and population genetics sought to understand recent discoveries on the structure...

, a haplogroup (from the , haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotype
Haplotype
A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

s that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

 (SNP) mutation in both haplotypes. Because a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup from haplotypes. A SNP test confirms a haplogroup. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations, for example R1b1.
Encyclopedia
In the study of molecular evolution
Molecular evolution
Molecular evolution is in part a process of evolution at the scale of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Molecular evolution emerged as a scientific field in the 1960s as researchers from molecular biology, evolutionary biology and population genetics sought to understand recent discoveries on the structure...

, a haplogroup (from the , haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotype
Haplotype
A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

s that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

 (SNP) mutation in both haplotypes. Because a haplogroup consists of similar haplotypes, this is what makes it possible to predict a haplogroup from haplotypes. A SNP test confirms a haplogroup. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations, for example R1b1. Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups have different haplogroup designations. Haplogroups pertain to deep ancestral origins dating back thousands of years.

In human genetics
Human genetics
Human genetics describes the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics,...

, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups
In human genetics, a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome ....

 and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree...

, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Neither recombines
Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination is a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid is broken and then joined to a different one. Recombination can occur between similar molecules of DNA, as in homologous recombination, or dissimilar molecules, as in non-homologous end joining. Recombination is a common method...

, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material.

Haplogroup formation

Mitochondria are small organelle
Organelle
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer....

s that lie in the cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a small gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cell's internal sub-structures , except for the nucleus. All the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms are contained within the cytoplasm...

 of eukaryotic cells
Eukaryote
A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes may more formally be referred to as the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear...

, such as those of humans. Their primary purpose is to provide energy to the cell. Mitochondria are thought to be reduced descendants of symbiotic bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

 that were once free living. One indication that mitochondria were once free living is that each contains a circular DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

, called mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate...

 (mtDNA), whose structure is more similar to bacteria than eukaryotic organisms (see endosymbiotic theory
Endosymbiotic theory
The endosymbiotic theory concerns the mitochondria, plastids , and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells. According to this theory, certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts...

). The overwhelming majority of a human's DNA is contained in the chromosome
Chromosome
A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.Chromosomes...

s in the nucleus
Cell nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these...

 of the cell, but mtDNA is an exception.

An individual inherits their cytoplasm and the organelles it contains exclusively from their mother, as these are derived from the ovum
Ovum
An ovum is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization...

 (egg cell), sperm
Sperm
The term sperm is derived from the Greek word sperma and refers to the male reproductive cells. In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell...

 only carry chromosomal DNA due to the necessity of maintaining motility
Motility
Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to single-celled and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in...

. When a mutation
Mutation
In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic...

 arises in mtDNA molecule, the mutation is therefore passed in a direct female line of descent. These mutations are derived from copying mistakes, when the DNA is copied it is possible that a single mistake occurs in the DNA sequence
DNA sequence
The sequence or primary structure of a nucleic acid is the composition of atoms that make up the nucleic acid and the chemical bonds that bond those atoms. Because nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are unbranched polymers, this specification is equivalent to specifying the sequence of...

, these single mistakes are called single nucleotide polymorphism
Single nucleotide polymorphism
A single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes in an individual...

s (SNPs).

Human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 60 million base pairs...

s are male-specific sex chromosomes
XY sex-determination system
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects and some plants . In this system, females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome , and are called the homogametic sex. Males have two distinct sex chromosomes , and are called...

; nearly all humans that possess a Y chromosome will be morphologically
Morphology (biology)
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features....

 male. Y chromosomes are therefore passed from father to son; although Y chromosomes are situated in the cell nucleus, they only recombine
Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination is a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid is broken and then joined to a different one. Recombination can occur between similar molecules of DNA, as in homologous recombination, or dissimilar molecules, as in non-homologous end joining. Recombination is a common method...

 with the X chromosome at the ends of the Y chromosome; the vast majority of the Y chromosome (95%) does not recombine. When mutations (SNPs) arise in the Y chromosome, they are passed on directly from father to son in a direct male line of descent. The Y chromosome and mtDNA therefore share specific properties.

Other chromosomes, autosomes and X chromosomes in women, share their genetic material (called crossing over
Chromosomal crossover
Chromosomal crossover is an exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination, which occurs during prophase I of meiosis in a process called synapsis. Synapsis begins before the synaptonemal complex develops, and is not completed...

 leading to recombination) during meiosis
Meiosis
Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction. The cells produced by meiosis are gametes or spores. The animals' gametes are called sperm and egg cells....

 (a special type of cell division
Cell division
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells . Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort...

 that occurs for the purposes of sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction is the creation of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. There are two main processes during sexual reproduction; they are: meiosis, involving the halving of the number of chromosomes; and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametes and the...

). Effectively this means that the genetic material from these chromosomes gets mixed up in every generation, and so any new mutations are passed down randomly from parents to offspring.

The special feature that both Y chromosomes and mtDNA display is that mutations can accrue along a certain segment of both molecules and these mutations remain fixed in place on the DNA. Furthermore the historical sequence of these mutations can also be inferred. For example, if a set of ten Y chromosomes (derived from ten different men) contains a mutation, A, but only five of these chromosomes contain a second mutation, B, it must be the case that mutation B occurred after mutation A.

Furthermore all ten men who carry the chromosome with mutation A are the direct male line descendants of the same man who was the first person to carry this mutation. The first man to carry mutation B was also a direct male line descendant of this man, but is also the direct male line ancestor of all men carrying mutation B. Series of mutations such as this form molecular lineages. Furthermore each mutation defines a set of specific Y chromosomes called a haplogroup.

All men carrying mutation A form a single haplogroup, all men carrying mutation B are part of this haplogroup, but mutation B also defines a more recent haplogroup (which is a subgroup or subclade) of its own which men carrying only mutation A do not belong to. Both mtDNA and Y chromosomes are grouped into lineages and haplogroups; these are often presented as tree like diagrams.

Haplogroup population genetics

It is usually assumed that there is little natural selection
Natural selection
Natural selection is the nonrandom process by which biologic traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution....

 for or against a particular haplotype mutation
Mutation
In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic...

 which has survived to the present day, so apart from mutation rate
Mutation rate
In genetics, the mutation rate is the chance of a mutation occurring in an organism or gene in each generation...

s (which may vary from one marker to another) the main driver of population genetics
Population genetics
Population genetics is the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow. It also takes into account the factors of recombination, population subdivision and population...

 affecting the proportions of haplotypes in a population is genetic drift
Genetic drift
Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant in a population due to random sampling.The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces...

 — random fluctuation caused by the sampling randomness of which members of the population happen to pass their DNA on to members of the next generation of the appropriate sex.

This causes the prevalence of a particular marker in a population to continue to fluctuate, until it either hits 100%, or falls out of the population entirely. In a large population with efficient mixing the rate of genetic drift for common alleles is very low; however, in a very small interbreeding population the proportions can change much more quickly. The marked geographical variations and concentrations of particular haplotypes and groups of haplotypes therefore witness the distinctive effects of repeated population bottleneck
Population bottleneck
A population bottleneck is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing....

s or founder events
Founder effect
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. It was first fully outlined by Ernst Mayr in 1942, using existing theoretical work by those such as Sewall...

 followed by population separations and increases.

The lineages which can be traced back from the present will not reflect the full genetic variation of the older population: genetic drift means that some of the variants will have died out. The cost of full Y-DNA and mtDNA sequence tests has limited the availability of data; however, their cost has dropped dramatically in the last decade. Haplotype coalescence times and current geographical prevalences both carry considerable error uncertainties. This is especially troublesome for coalescence times, because most population geneticists still continue (albeit decreasing a little bit) to use the "Zhivotovski method", which is heavily criticised by DNA-genealogists for its falsehood.

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups

Human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 60 million base pairs...

 DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups are named from A to T, and are further subdivided using numbers and lower case letters. Y chromosome haplogroup designations are established by the Y Chromosome Consortium.
Y-chromosomal Adam
Y-chromosomal Adam
In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam is the theoretical most recent common ancestor from whom all living people are descended patrilineally . Many studies report that Y-chromosomal Adam lived as early as around 142,000 years ago and possibly as recently as 60,000 years ago...

 is the name given by researchers to the male who is the most recent common patrilineal (male-lineage) ancestor
Most recent common ancestor
In genetics, the most recent common ancestor of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended...

 of all living humans.

Major Y-chromosome haplogroups, and their geographical regions of occurrence (prior to
the recent European colonization), include:

Groups without mutation M168

  • Haplogroup A
    Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup A refers to a group of y-chromosome lineages that were among the first to branch off from the root of the human y-chromosome phylogeny...

     (M91) (Africa, especially the Khoisan
    Khoisan
    Khoisan is a unifying name for two ethnic groups of Southern Africa, who share physical and putative linguistic characteristics distinct from the Bantu majority of the region. Culturally, the Khoisan are divided into the foraging San and the pastoral Khoi...

    , Ethiopia
    Ethiopia
    Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

    ns, and Nilotes)

  • Haplogroup B
    Haplogroup B (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup B is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.-Distribution:Haplogroup B is localized to sub-Saharan Africa, especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. After Y-haplogroup A, it is the second oldest and one of the most diverse human Y-haplogroups...

     (M60) (Africa, especially the Pygmies and Hadzabe
    Hadzabe
    The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau. The Hadza number just under 1000...

    )

Groups with mutation M168

(mutation M168 occurred ~50,000 bp)
  • Haplogroup C
    Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255, and P260, which are all SNP mutations. It is a sibling clade of Haplogroup F, within the more ancient grouping of Haplogroup CF...

     (M130) (Oceania, North/Central/East Asia, North America and significant presence in India)
  • Haplogroup F (M89) Oceania, Europe, Asia, North- and South- America
  • YAP+ haplogroups
    • Haplogroup DE
      Haplogroup DE (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup DE is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is defined by the single nucleotide polymorphism mutations, or UEPs, M1, M145, M203, P144, P153, P165, P167, P183....

       (M1, M145, M203)
      • Haplogroup D
        Haplogroup D (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup D is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Both D and E lineages also exhibit the single-nucleotide polymorphism M168 which is present in all Y-chromosome haplogroups except A and B, as well as the YAP unique-event polymorphism, which is unique to Haplogroup...

         (M174) (Tibet, Japan, the Andaman Islands)
      • Haplogroup E
        Haplogroup E (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup E is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup E is one of the two main branches of the older Haplogroup DE, the other main branch being haplogroup D. The E clade is divided into two subclades: E1 and E2 .-Origins:Underhill et al. proposed that haplogroup E...

         (M96)
        • Haplogroup E1b1a (V38) West Africa and surrounding regions; formerly known as E3a
        • Haplogroup E1b1b (M215) East Africa, North Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, the Balkans; formerly known as E3b

Groups with mutation M89

(mutation M89 occurred ~45,000 bp)
  • Haplogroup F (P14, M213) (southern India, Sri Lanka, China, Korea)

  • Haplogroup G
    Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup G is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F . Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, northern and western Asia, northern Africa, the Middle East,...

     (M201) (present among many ethnic groups in Eurasia, usually at low frequency; most common in the Caucasus, the Iranian plateau
    Iranian plateau
    The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

    , and Anatolia; in Europe mainly in Greece, Italy, Iberia
    Iberian Peninsula
    The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

    , the Tyrol, Bohemia; extremely rare in Northern Europe)

  • Haplogroup H
    Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup H is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in South Asia. It is generally rare outside of the South Asia but is common among the Romani people, particularly the H-M82 subgroup.-Origins:...

     (M69) (India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Central Asia, and Arabia)

  • Haplogroup IJK
    Haplogroup IJK (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup IJK is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup IJK is a descendant branch of the macrohaplogroup F with haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K as its attested descendants....

     (L15, L16)

Groups with mutations L15 & L16

  • Haplogroup IJK
    Haplogroup IJK (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup IJK is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup IJK is a descendant branch of the macrohaplogroup F with haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K as its attested descendants....

     (L15, L16)
    • Haplogroup IJ
      Haplogroup IJ (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup IJK which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J...

       (S2, S22)
      • Haplogroup I
        Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK....

         (M170, P19, M258) (widespread in Europe, found infrequently in parts of the Middle East, and virtually absent elsewhere)
        • Haplogroup I1
          Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup I1 is a Y chromosome haplogroup occurring at greatest frequency in Scandinavia, associated with the mutations identified as M253, M307, P30, and P40. These are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms . It is a subclade of Haplogroup I. Before a reclassification in...

           (M253, M307, P30, P40) (Northern Europe)
        • Haplogroup I2
          Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup I2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Until 2008, it was known as Haplogroup I1b. Haplogroup I2 might have originated in Southeastern Europe some 15,000 - 17,000 years ago and developed into three main subgroups : I2*, I2a, and I2b.-Subclades:Note: The systematic subclade...

           (S31) (Central and Southeast Europe, Sardinia)
      • Haplogroup J
        Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup J is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men...

         (M304) (the Middle East, Turkey, Caucasus, Italy, Greece, the Balkans, North and Northeast Africa)
        • Haplogroup J* (Mainly found in Socotra
          Socotra
          Socotra , also spelt Soqotra, is a small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean. The largest island, also called Socotra, is about 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some east of the Horn of Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. The island is very isolated and through...

          , with a few observations in Pakistan
          Pakistan
          Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

          , Oman
          Oman
          Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

          , Greece
          Greece
          Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

          , Czechia, and among Turkic peoples
          Turkic peoples
          The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

          )
        • Haplogroup J1
          Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J1, also known as J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Y DNA haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J2. Men with this type of Y DNA share a common paternal ancestry, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to...

           (M267) (Mostly associated with Semitic peoples in the Middle East, Ethiopia, and North Africa, and with Northeast Caucasian
          Northeast Caucasian languages
          The Northeast Caucasian languages constitute a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, northern Azerbaijan, and in northeastern Georgia, as well as in diaspora populations in Russia, Turkey, and the Middle East...

           peoples in Dagestan
          Dagestan
          The Republic of Dagestan is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and the largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea...

          ; J1 with DYS388=13 is associated with eastern Anatolia)
        • Haplogroup J2
          Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12.-Origins:...

           (M172) (Mainly found in West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Southern Europe, and North Africa)
    • Haplogroup K
      Haplogroup K (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup K is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup IJK. Its major descendant haplogroups are Haplogroup LT and Haplogroup K...

       (M9, P128, P131, P132)

Groups with mutation M9

(mutation M9 occurred ~40,000 bp
Before Present
Before Present years is a time scale used in archaeology, geology, and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use AD 1950 as the origin of the age scale, reflecting the fact that radiocarbon...

)
  • Haplogroup K
    Haplogroup K (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup K is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup IJK. Its major descendant haplogroups are Haplogroup LT and Haplogroup K...

    • Haplogroup LT (L298/P326)
      • Haplogroup L
        Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup L is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup L is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea...

         (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) (South Asia, Central Asia, Southwestern Asia, the Mediterranean)
      • Haplogroup T
        Haplogroup T (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K2. It should not be confused with the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup T, of the same name....

         (M70, M184/USP9Y+3178, M193, M272) (North Africa, Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean, South Asia); formerly known as Haplogroup K2
    • Haplogroup K(xLT) (rs2033003/M526)

Groups with mutation M526
    • Haplogroup M
      Haplogroup M (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The Karafet's 2008 paper introduced a number of changes, compared to the previous...

       (P256) (New Guinea, Melanesia, eastern Indonesia)
    • Haplogroup NO
      Haplogroup NO (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup NO is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup NO is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup MNOPS and a phylogenetic sibling of Haplogroup M, Haplogroup P, and Haplogroup S.-Origins:...

       (M214)
      • Haplogroup N
        Haplogroup N (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup N is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, defined by the presence of the marker M231. The b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y-chromosome is a characteristic of Haplogroup N haplotypes. This deletion, however, appears to have occurred independently on four...

         (M231) (northernmost Eurasia, especially among the Uralic peoples)
      • Haplogroup O
        Haplogroup O (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup O is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O is a close cladistic brother group with Haplogroup N, and is one of several descendants of Haplogroup K ....

         (M175) (East Asia, Southeast Asia, the South Pacific, South Asia, Central Asia)
        • Haplogroup O1
          Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup O1 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O1 is a descendent branch of the greater Haplogroup O.The great majority of Y-chromosomes within Haplogroup O1 belong to its subgroup O1a .-Origins:...

           (MSY2.2)
        • Haplogroup O2
          Haplogroup O2 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup O2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup O2 is a descendent branch of the greater Haplogroup O.-Distribution:...

           (P31, M268)
        • Haplogroup O3
          Haplogroup O3 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup O3 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup O3 is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup O. Some researchers believe that it first appeared in China approximately 10,000 years ago, while others believe it to have had an origin in Southeast Asia approximately...

           (M122)
    • Haplogroup P
      Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup P is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of most Europeans and almost all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas...

       (M45, 92R7, M74/N12) (M45 occurred ~35,000 bp)
      • Haplogroup Q
        Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, Haplogroup Q is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup Q is one of the two branches of haplogroup P . Haplogroup Q is believed to have arisen in Central Asia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. It has had multiple origins proposed...

         (MEH2, M242, P36) (Occurred ~15,000-20,000 years ago. Found in Asia and the Americas)
        • Haplogroup Q1a3a1 (M3) (North America, Central America, and South America)
      • Haplogroup R
        Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)
        In human genetics, haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup very common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the Middle East and Africa...

         (M207)
        • Haplogroup R1
          Haplogroup R1 (Y-DNA)
          In human genetics, Haplogroup R1 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup R, associated with the M173 mutation. It is dominated in practice by two very common Eurasian clades, R1a and R1b, which together are found all over Eurasia except in Southeast Asia and East Asia...

           (M173)
          • Haplogroup R1a
            Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)
            Haplogroup R1a is the phylogenetic name of a major clade of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. In other words, it is a way of grouping a significant part of all modern men according to a shared male-line ancestor. It is common in many parts of Eurasia and is frequently discussed in human...

             (M17) (Central Asia, South Asia, and Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe)
          • Haplogroup R1b
            Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
            The point of origin of R1b is thought to lie in Eurasia, most likely in Western Asia. T. Karafet et al. estimated the age of R1, the parent of R1b, as 18,500 years before present....

             (M343) (Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, Central Africa)
        • Haplogroup R2
          Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA)
          - Paragroup R2a* :Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers...

           (M124) (South Asia, Caucasus, Central Asia)
    • Haplogroup S
      Haplogroup S (Y-DNA)
      In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K5.-Distribution:Haplogroup S is commonly found among populations of the highlands of Papua New Guinea...

       (M230, P202, P204) (New Guinea, Melanesia, eastern Indonesia)

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups

Human mtDNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate...

 haplogroups are lettered:
A
Haplogroup A (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000-50,000 years before present...

,
B
Haplogroup B (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup B is believed to have arisen in Asia some 50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup R....

,
C
Haplogroup C (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 60,000 years before present. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.-Distribution:Haplogroup C is found in...

,
CZ
Haplogroup CZ (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup CZ is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup CZ is a descendant of haplogroup M and is a parent to haplogroups C and Z. Haplogroup CZ is divided into subclades C and Z.-Distribution:...

,
D
Haplogroup D (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup D is believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years before present. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M.-Distribution:...

,
E
Haplogroup E (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup E is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for the Malay Archipelago. It is a subgroup of haplogroup M9.-Origin:...

,
F
Haplogroup F (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for the Far East.Haplogroup F is centered in Asia and appears in eastern China and Japan. It is not found in the Americas...

,
G
Haplogroup G (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup G is a descendant of haplogroup M. Haplogroup G is divided into subclades G1 and G2a, which represent the Koryaks and Itelmen.-Distribution:...

,
H
Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

,
HV
Haplogroup HV (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup HV is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup HV derives from the Haplogroup R0...

,
I
Haplogroup I (mtDNA)
-Origin:Its ancestral haplogroup was N1. Its closest relative is N1e. Haplogroup I is believed to have arisen somewhere in Eurasia some 30,000 years before present, and been one of the first haplogroups to move into Europe.-Distribution:...

,
J
Haplogroup J (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup J derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to Haplogroup T. In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Jasmine...

,
pre-JT
Haplogroup pre-JT (mtDNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup pre-JT is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:It is a descendant of Haplgroup R. It is characterised by genetic marker at 4216. It also called R2'JT. Pre-JT has two direct descendents; Haplogroup JT and Haplogroup R2.- See also :*Genealogical DNA test*Genetic...

,
JT
Haplogroup JT (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup JT is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:A descendant of the macro-haplogroup R, Haplogroup JT is the ancestral haplogroup to mitochondrial haplogroups J and T.-Tree:...

,
K
Haplogroup K (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, defined by HVR1 mutations 16224C and 16311C.-Origin:It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8, and it has an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP....

,
L0
Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)
-Distribution:It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73%. Some of the higher frequencies are: Namibia 79%, South Africa 83% and Botswana 100%....

,
L1
Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup common in Central and West Africa.-Origin:Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago...

,
L2
Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical of Africa. Its subclade L2a is a somewhat frequent and widespread mtDNA cluster in Africa, as well as in the African diaspora Americans . et al.-Origin:L2 is a common African lineage. It is believed to...

,
L3
Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup L3 has played a pivotal role in the history of the human species...

,
L4
Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.It is a small African haplogroup.-Distribution:L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa...

,
L5
Haplogroup L5 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It was previously known as L1e.-Distribution:It is a small African haplogroup from East Africa. The highest frequency is in Mbuti Pygmies at 15%...

,
L6
Haplogroup L6 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L6 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is a small African haplogroup.-Tree:This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup M subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human...

,
M
Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

,
N
Haplogroup N (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

,
P
Haplogroup P (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Distribution:Today, P is found in the Australian continent, especially in Papuan, Melanesian and Australian Aborigines.-Tree:...

,
Q
Haplogroup Q (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup Q is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for Oceania. It is a subgroup of haplogroup M29'Q.-Distribution:...

,
R
Haplogroup R (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup R is a very extended mitochondrial DNA haplogroup and is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.Haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N...

,
R0
Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup R0 is a mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup R0 derives from the macro-haplogroup R...

,
S
Haplogroup S (mtDNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is a descendant of macrohaplogroup N.-Tree:This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup S subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial...

,
T
Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Known Origins:Mitochondrial Haplogroup T derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to haplogroup J...

,
U
Haplogroup U (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup U descends from a woman in the Haplogroup R branch of the phylogenetic tree, who lived around 55,000 years ago...

,
V
Haplogroup V (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup V is believed to have originated around the Western Mediterranean region, approximately 13,600 years before present- possibly on Iberia...

,
W
Haplogroup W (mtDNA)
-Distribution:Haplogroup W appears in Europe, West and South Asia.It is everywhere found as minority clade, with the highest concentration being in Northern Pakistan...

,
X
Haplogroup X (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It has a widespread global distribution but no major regions of distinct localization.-Origin:...

,
Y
Haplogroup Y (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Y is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Distribution:Haplogroup Y has been found in approximately 66% of Nivkhs and approximately 20% of Ainus. However, this haplogroup also has been found in approximately 2% of Koreans, and in South Siberian and...

, and
Z
Haplogroup Z (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Z is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup Z is believed to have arisen in Central Asia, and is a descendant of haplogroup CZ.-Distribution:...

. The most up-to-date version of the mtDNA tree is maintained by Mannis van Oven on the PhyloTree website.
Mitochondrial Eve
Mitochondrial Eve
In the field of human genetics, Mitochondrial Eve refers to the matrilineal "MRCA" . In other words, she was the woman from whom all living humans today descend, on their mother's side, and through the mothers of those mothers and so on, back until all lines converge on one person...

 is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor
Most recent common ancestor
In genetics, the most recent common ancestor of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended...

 of all living humans.

Defining populations

Haplogroups can be used to define genetic
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

 populations and are often geographically oriented. For example, the following are common divisions for mtDNA haplogroups:
  • African: L0
    Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)
    -Distribution:It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73%. Some of the higher frequencies are: Namibia 79%, South Africa 83% and Botswana 100%....

    , L1
    Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup common in Central and West Africa.-Origin:Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago...

    , L2
    Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical of Africa. Its subclade L2a is a somewhat frequent and widespread mtDNA cluster in Africa, as well as in the African diaspora Americans . et al.-Origin:L2 is a common African lineage. It is believed to...

    , L3
    Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup L3 has played a pivotal role in the history of the human species...

    , L4
    Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.It is a small African haplogroup.-Distribution:L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa...

    , L5
    Haplogroup L5 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It was previously known as L1e.-Distribution:It is a small African haplogroup from East Africa. The highest frequency is in Mbuti Pygmies at 15%...

    , L6
    Haplogroup L6 (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L6 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is a small African haplogroup.-Tree:This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup M subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human...

  • West Eurasian: H
    Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

    , T
    Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Known Origins:Mitochondrial Haplogroup T derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to haplogroup J...

    , U
    Haplogroup U (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup U descends from a woman in the Haplogroup R branch of the phylogenetic tree, who lived around 55,000 years ago...

    , V
    Haplogroup V (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup V is believed to have originated around the Western Mediterranean region, approximately 13,600 years before present- possibly on Iberia...

    , X
    Haplogroup X (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It has a widespread global distribution but no major regions of distinct localization.-Origin:...

    , K
    Haplogroup K (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, defined by HVR1 mutations 16224C and 16311C.-Origin:It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8, and it has an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP....

    , I
    Haplogroup I (mtDNA)
    -Origin:Its ancestral haplogroup was N1. Its closest relative is N1e. Haplogroup I is believed to have arisen somewhere in Eurasia some 30,000 years before present, and been one of the first haplogroups to move into Europe.-Distribution:...

    , J
    Haplogroup J (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.Haplogroup J derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to Haplogroup T. In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Jasmine...

    , W
    Haplogroup W (mtDNA)
    -Distribution:Haplogroup W appears in Europe, West and South Asia.It is everywhere found as minority clade, with the highest concentration being in Northern Pakistan...

     (all listed West Eurasian haplogroups are derived from macro-haplogroup N
    Haplogroup N (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

    )
  • East Eurasian: A
    Haplogroup A (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000-50,000 years before present...

    , B
    Haplogroup B (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup B is believed to have arisen in Asia some 50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup R....

    , C
    Haplogroup C (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 60,000 years before present. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.-Distribution:Haplogroup C is found in...

    , D
    Haplogroup D (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup D is believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years before present. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M.-Distribution:...

    , E
    Haplogroup E (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup E is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for the Malay Archipelago. It is a subgroup of haplogroup M9.-Origin:...

    , F
    Haplogroup F (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for the Far East.Haplogroup F is centered in Asia and appears in eastern China and Japan. It is not found in the Americas...

    , G
    Haplogroup G (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup G is a descendant of haplogroup M. Haplogroup G is divided into subclades G1 and G2a, which represent the Koryaks and Itelmen.-Distribution:...

    , Y
    Haplogroup Y (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Y is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Distribution:Haplogroup Y has been found in approximately 66% of Nivkhs and approximately 20% of Ainus. However, this haplogroup also has been found in approximately 2% of Koreans, and in South Siberian and...

     (note: C, D, E, and G belong to macro-haplogroup M
    Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3....

    )
  • Native American: A
    Haplogroup A (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000-50,000 years before present...

    , B
    Haplogroup B (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup B is believed to have arisen in Asia some 50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup R....

    , C
    Haplogroup C (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup C is believed to have arisen somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal some 60,000 years before present. It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.-Distribution:Haplogroup C is found in...

    , D
    Haplogroup D (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup D is believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years before present. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M.-Distribution:...

    , X
    Haplogroup X (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It has a widespread global distribution but no major regions of distinct localization.-Origin:...

  • Australo-Melanesian
    Australasia
    Australasia is a region of Oceania comprising Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. The term was coined by Charles de Brosses in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes...

    : P
    Haplogroup P (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Distribution:Today, P is found in the Australian continent, especially in Papuan, Melanesian and Australian Aborigines.-Tree:...

    , Q
    Haplogroup Q (mtDNA)
    In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup Q is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typical for Oceania. It is a subgroup of haplogroup M29'Q.-Distribution:...

    , S
    Haplogroup S (mtDNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. It is a descendant of macrohaplogroup N.-Tree:This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup S subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial...



The mitochondrial haplogroups are divided into
3 main groups, which are designated by the 3 sequential letters L, M, N.
Humanity first split within the L group between L0 and L1-6. L1-6 gave rise to other L groups, one of which, L3, split into the M and N group. The M group comprises the first wave of human migration out of Africa, following an eastward route along southern coastal areas.

Descendent populations belonging to haplogroup M are found throughout East Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Melanesia, though almost none have been found in Europe. The N group may represent another migration out of Africa, heading northward instead of eastward. Shortly after the migration, the large R group split off from the N.

Haplogroup R consists of two subgroups defined on the basis of their geographical distributions, one found in southeastern Asia and Oceania and the other containing almost all of the modern European populations. Haplogroup N(xR), i.e. mtDNA that belongs to the N group but not to its R subgroup, is typical of Australian aboriginal populations, while also being present at low frequencies among many populations of Eurasia and the Americas.

The L type consists of nearly all Africans.

The M type consists of:

M1- Ethiopian, Somali and Indian populations. Likely due to much gene flow between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman), separated only by a narrow strait between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.

CZ- Many Siberians; branch C- Some Amerindian; branch Z- Many Saami, some Korean, some North Chinese, some Central Asian populations.

D- Some Amerindians, many Siberians and northern East Asians

E- Malay, Borneo, Philippines, Taiwan aborigines, Papua New Guinea

G- Many Northeast Siberians, northern East Asians, and Central Asians

Q- Melanesian, Polynesian, New Guinean populations

The N type consists of:

A- Found in some Amerindians, Japanese, and Koreans

I- 10% frequency in Northern, Eastern Europe

S- Some Australian aborigines

W- Some Eastern Europeans, South Asians, and southern East Asians

X- Some Amerindians, Southern Siberians, Southwest Asians, and Southern Europeans

Y- Most Nivkhs and many Ainus; 1% in Southern Siberia

R- Large group found within the N type.Populations contained therein can be divided geographically into West Eurasia and East Eurasia. Almost all European populations and a large number of Middle-Eastern population today are contained within this branch. A smaller percentage is contained in other N type groups (See above). Below are subclades of R:

B- Some Chinese, Tibetans, Mongolians, Central Asians, Koreans, Amerindians, South Siberians, Japanese, Austronesians

F- Mainly found in southeastern Asia, especially Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

; 8.3% in Hvar Island in Croatia.

R0- Found in Arabia and among Ethiopians and Somalis; branch HV (branch H; branch V)- Europe, Western Asia, North Africa;

Pre-JT- Arose in the Levant (modern Lebanon area), found in 25% frequency in Bedouin poupulations; branch JT (branch J; branch T)- North, Eastern Europe, Indus, Mediterranean

U- High frequency in Scandinavia, Baltic countries, Mediterranean

Overlap between y-haplogroups and mt-haplogroups

The ranges of specific y-haplogroups and specific mt-haplogroups overlap, indicating
populations that have a specific combination of a y-haplogroup and an mt-haplogroup.
Y mutations and mt mutations do not necessarily occur at a similar time, and
differential rates of sexual selection between the two genders combined with founder effect
Founder effect
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. It was first fully outlined by Ernst Mayr in 1942, using existing theoretical work by those such as Sewall...

 and genetic drift
Genetic drift
Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant in a population due to random sampling.The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces...

 can alter the haplogroup composition of a population, so the overlaps are only rough.

The very rough overlaps between Y-DNA haplogroups and mtDNA haplogroups are as follows:
Y-DNA haplogroup(s) mtDNA haplogroup(s) Geographical area and/or peoples
A L0 Eastern and Southern Africa
B L1, L4 Eastern and Middle Africa
E L2, L3 Africa wide
D, O, N, C3 CZ/C/Z, D, G (M types); A, N9/Y (N types); B, F (R types) East Asia, Siberia
K, M (M9-positive, M45-negative) B, P (R types); N; Q (M type) as well as various Oceanian-specific M subclades Oceania
R, I, T, J, E (V13, M81, and M123 types) R0, HV/H/V, JT/J/T, U/K (R types) Europe, West Asia, North Africa, Horn of Africa
Q, C3 A, X (N types); C, D (M types) Easternmost Siberia, the Americas

See also

  • International HapMap Project
    International HapMap Project
    The International HapMap Project is an organization that aims to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. HapMap is a key resource for researchers to find genetic variants affecting health, disease and responses to drugs and...

  • Molecular evolution
    Molecular evolution
    Molecular evolution is in part a process of evolution at the scale of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Molecular evolution emerged as a scientific field in the 1960s as researchers from molecular biology, evolutionary biology and population genetics sought to understand recent discoveries on the structure...

  • Molecular systematics
  • Molecular phylogeny
    Molecular phylogeny
    Molecular phylogenetics is the analysis of hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree...

  • Haplotype
    Haplotype
    A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together...

  • Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.-History:...

  • Genealogical DNA test
    Genealogical DNA test
    A genealogical DNA test examines the nucleotides at specific locations on a person's DNA for genetic genealogy purposes. The test results are not meant to have any informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders ; they are intended only to give genealogical...

  • Genetics
    Genetics
    Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

  • List of genetic genealogy topics
  • List of haplogroups of historical and famous figures
  • * (haplogroup)
    * (haplogroup)
    Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. In human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, paragroups are typically represented by an asterisk placed after the main haplogroup...


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Y chromosome DNA haplogroups


Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups

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