Hamilton, Ontario
Overview
 


Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. Conceived by George Hamilton
George Hamilton (politician)
George Hamilton was a Canadian merchant and politician, who founded the city of Hamilton, Ontario.Hamiliton was born on October 1788 in Queenston Heights...

 when he purchased the Durand
James Durand
James Durand was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada.He was born in Abergavenny, Wales in 1775 and came to Upper Canada in 1802 to deal with delinquent accounts on behalf of a group of London merchants. Having seized the Bridgewater Works at Chippawa, Durand purchased the operation...

 farm shortly after the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 known as the Golden Horseshoe
Golden Horseshoe
The Golden Horseshoe is a densely populated and industrialized region centred around the Greater Toronto Area at the western end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Georgian Bay. Most of it is also part of the Quebec City...

. On January 1, 2001, the new City of Hamilton was formed through the amalgamation of the former city and the other constituent lower-tier municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth with the upper-tier regional government.
Encyclopedia


Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 of Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. Conceived by George Hamilton
George Hamilton (politician)
George Hamilton was a Canadian merchant and politician, who founded the city of Hamilton, Ontario.Hamiliton was born on October 1788 in Queenston Heights...

 when he purchased the Durand
James Durand
James Durand was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada.He was born in Abergavenny, Wales in 1775 and came to Upper Canada in 1802 to deal with delinquent accounts on behalf of a group of London merchants. Having seized the Bridgewater Works at Chippawa, Durand purchased the operation...

 farm shortly after the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 known as the Golden Horseshoe
Golden Horseshoe
The Golden Horseshoe is a densely populated and industrialized region centred around the Greater Toronto Area at the western end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Georgian Bay. Most of it is also part of the Quebec City...

. On January 1, 2001, the new City of Hamilton was formed through the amalgamation of the former city and the other constituent lower-tier municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth with the upper-tier regional government. Residents of the old city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario.

Hamilton is home to the shared Royal Botanical Gardens
Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario
Royal Botanical Gardens is headquartered in Burlington and also include lands in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the major tourist attractions between Niagara Falls and Toronto, as well as a significant local and regional horticultural, education, conservation and scientific resource...

, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is a Canadian aviation museum located at the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport near Hamilton, Ontario. The museum has 36 military jets, propeller-driven aircraft and helicopters on display....

, the Bruce Trail
Bruce Trail
The Bruce Trail is a hiking trail in southern and central Ontario, Canada.-General:The trail follows the edge of the Niagara Escarpment, one of the thirteen UNESCO World Biosphere Reserves in Canada, for almost...

, McMaster University
McMaster University
McMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...

 and Mohawk College
Mohawk College
Mohawk College is a public College of Applied Arts and Technology located in the Golden Horseshoe of Ontario, Canada. Mohawk has three main campuses: the Fennell Campus located in Hamilton, the Brantford Campus located in Brantford and the STARRT Institute located in Stoney Creek, as well as the...

. The Canadian Football Hall of Fame
Canadian Football Hall of Fame
The Canadian Football Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit corporation, located in Hamilton, Ontario, that celebrates great achievements in Canadian football. It is an open to the public institution. It includes displays about the Canadian Football League, Canadian university football and Canadian...

 can be found downtown right beside Hamilton City Hall
Hamilton City Hall
Hamilton City Hall is located in downtown Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is an 8-storey building , located at the corner of Main Street West and Bay Street South, across the street from the Ronald V. Joyce Centre for the Performing Arts and the Hamilton Art Gallery. It was officially opened on...

 and across town to the east, the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

's Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Hamilton Tiger-Cats
The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Wildcats. The Tiger-Cats play their home games at Ivor Wynne Stadium...

 play at Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium is a Canadian football stadium located at the corner of Balsam and Beechwood Avenues, two blocks west of Gage Avenue North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...

.

Partly because of its diverse environment, numerous TV and film productions have been filmed in Hamilton, regulated by the Hamilton Film and Television Office. A growing arts and culture sector garnered media attention in a 2006 Globe and Mail news article, entitled "Go West, Young Artist," which focused on the growing art scene in Hamilton. The article highlighted local art galleries, recording studios and independent film production.

History

In pre-colonial
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

 times, the Neutral Indians
Neutral Nation
The Neutrals, also known as the Attawandaron, were an Iroquoian nation of North American native people who lived near the shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.-Territory:...

 used much of the land but were gradually driven out by the Five (later Six) Nations
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 (Iroquois) who were allied with the British
Canada under British Imperial Control (1764-1867)
Territories, colonies and provinces that would become part of modern Canada were under control of the English, and later British, Empire from the sixteenth century, when France also had claims in the area. However, the most populous areas of Canada in the St...

 against the Huron and their French allies. A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road
Mohawk Road (Hamilton, Ontario)
Mohawk Road, is an Upper City arterial road in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is a two-way street throughout that starts just West of Highway 403 & Meadowlands and travels eastward linking up with the Lincoln M. Alexander Parkway. Mohawk Road east of Highway 403 resumes again in front of Iroquoia...

, which originally included King street in the lower city.
In 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists
The name United Empire Loyalists is an honorific given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War and prior to the Treaty of Paris...

 settled in Upper Canada
Upper Canada
The Province of Upper Canada was a political division in British Canada established in 1791 by the British Empire to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees from the United States of America after the American Revolution...

 (what is now southern Ontario), chiefly in Niagara
Regional Municipality of Niagara, Ontario
The Regional Municipality of Niagara , also known as the Niagara Region, or, colloquially, "Regional Niagara", is a regional municipality comprising twelve municipalities of Southern Ontario, Canada....

, around the Bay of Quinte
Bay of Quinte
The Bay of Quinte is a long, narrow bay shaped like the letter "Z" on the northern shore of Lake Ontario in the province of Ontario, Canada. It is just west of the head of the Saint Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence...

, and along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

 and Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

. They were soon followed by many more Americans, some of them not so much ardent loyalists but attracted nonetheless by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 loyal to Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario.

The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton
George Hamilton (politician)
George Hamilton was a Canadian merchant and politician, who founded the city of Hamilton, Ontario.Hamiliton was born on October 1788 in Queenston Heights...

 (a son of a Queenston entrepreneur and founder, Robert Hamilton), when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand
James Durand
James Durand was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada.He was born in Abergavenny, Wales in 1775 and came to Upper Canada in 1802 to deal with delinquent accounts on behalf of a group of London merchants. Having seized the Bridgewater Works at Chippawa, Durand purchased the operation...

, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was created by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was the elected legislature for the province of Upper Canada and functioned as the province's lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada...

, shortly after the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

. Nathaniel Hughson
Nathaniel Hughson
Nathaniel Hughson, born: 16 July 1755 at New York. died: 1 November 1837 at Hamilton, Ontario. Farmer and hotel owner, Loyalist who moved to Canada following the American Revolution, one of the city founders of Hamilton, Ontario. Married to Rebecca Land...

, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which later became the site of the town. As he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York
York, Upper Canada
York was the name of Old Toronto between 1793 and 1834. It was the second capital of Upper Canada.- History :The town was established in 1793 by Governor John Graves Simcoe, with a new 'Fort York' on the site of the last French 'Fort Toronto'...

 during a session of the Legislative Assembly and a new Gore District was established of which the Hamilton town site was a member.

Initially, this town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832 when a cut-stone design was completed on one of the two squares created in 1816, Prince's Square. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official City status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

, 9 Victoria Chapter 73.

As the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879 (later purchased by Dufferin Masonic Lodge in 1893), a public library in 1890, and the Right House department store in 1893. The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

, and the second telephone exchange in all of North America all were established in the city between 1877–78.
Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway
Hamilton Street Railway
The Hamilton Street Railway Company is the Transit Division of the City of Hamilton, Public Works Department in Ontario, Canada. The name is a legacy of the days when the majority of public transit vehicles were streetcars; the present-day Hamilton Street Railway is in fact a bus operator...

 strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies, Stelco
Stelco
US Steel Canada is a steel company based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.-History:Several existing smaller steelworks combined and were incorporated as the Steel Company of Canada in 1910. Charles S...

 and Dofasco
Dofasco
Dofasco is a steel company based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, which is also home to longtime Canadian rival Stelco. Dofasco is currently a standalone subsidiary of ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer. Previously ordered by the U.S...

, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively, and Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble
Procter & Gamble is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio and manufactures a wide range of consumer goods....

 and the Beech-Nut Packing Company
Beech-Nut
Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation is a baby food company that is currently owned by the Swiss branded consumer-goods firm Hero Group.- History :...

 opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922, respectively, their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s, with the 1929 construction of the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, the move of McMaster University
McMaster University
McMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...

 from Toronto to Hamilton, the opening of the second Canadian Tire
Canadian Tire
Canadian Tire Corporation, Limited is one of Canada's 60 largest publicly traded companies. The firm operates an inter-related network of businesses engaged in retailing hardgoods, apparel and petroleum as well as financial and automotive services, employing more than 58,000 people across Canada...

 store in Canada in 1934, an airport in 1940, a Studebaker
Studebaker Canada Ltd.
Studebaker of Canada Ltd. was the name given to Studebaker Corporation's Canadian manufacturing arm.While Studebaker produced cars in Canada prior to World War II, Studebaker's first modern automobile factory was established at Hamilton, Ontario in 1947, in an anti-aircraft gun plant purchased from...

 assembly line in 1948, the Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway
Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway
The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway, originally called the Burlington Bay Skyway, is a pair of high-level freeway bridges located in Hamilton and Burlington, Ontario, Canada...

 in 1958, and the first Tim Hortons
Tim Hortons
Tim Hortons Inc. is a Canadian fast casual restaurant known for its coffee and doughnuts. It is also Canada's largest fast food service with over 3000 stores nationwide. It was founded in 1964 in Hamilton, Ontario, by Canadian hockey player Tim Horton and Jim Charade, after an initial venture in...

 store in 1964. Since then, many of the large industries have moved or shut down operations and the economy has shifted more toward the service sector, such as transportation, education, and health services.

On January 1, 2001, the new city of Hamilton was formed from the forced amalgamation of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth and its six municipalities: Ancaster
Ancaster, Ontario
Ancaster is a picturesque and historic community located on the Niagara escarpment, within the greater area of the city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. This former town was founded officially in 1793 and was one of the oldest European communities established in present day Ontario along with Windsor...

, Dundas
Dundas, Ontario
Dundas is a formerly independent town and now constituent community in the city of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada. It's nickname is the Valley Town. The population has been stable for decades at about twenty thousand, largely because it has not annexed rural land from the protected Dundas Valley...

, Flamborough
Flamborough, Ontario
Flamborough is a former town near, and a current community in, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada....

, Glanbrook, and Stoney Creek
Stoney Creek, Ontario
Stoney Creek is a community in Ontario, Canada.Note: This article will only deal with matters up to its amalgamation with Hamilton.-Geography and population:...

. Before amalgamation, the "old" City of Hamilton had 331,121 Hamiltonians divided into 100 neighbourhoods. The new amalgamated city has 490,268 people in over 100 old neighbourhoods, and surrounding communities.

Geography

Hamilton is located in Southern Ontario
Southern Ontario
Southern Ontario is a region of the province of Ontario, Canada that lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. Depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, its surface area would cover between 14 to 15% of the province. It is the southernmost region of...

 on the western end of the Niagara Peninsula
Niagara Peninsula
The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Southern Ontario, Canada lying between the south shore of Lake Ontario and the north shore of Lake Erie. It stretches from the Niagara River in the east to Hamilton, Ontario in the west. The population of the peninsula is roughly 1,000,000 people...

 and wraps around the westernmost part of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

; most of the city, including the downtown section, is on the south shore. Hamilton is situated in the geographic centre of the Golden Horseshoe
Golden Horseshoe
The Golden Horseshoe is a densely populated and industrialized region centred around the Greater Toronto Area at the western end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Georgian Bay. Most of it is also part of the Quebec City...

 and is roughly the midway point between Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 and Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

. Its major physical features are Hamilton Harbour, marking the northern limit of the city, and the Niagara Escarpment
Niagara Escarpment
The Niagara Escarpment is a long escarpment, or cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs westward from New York State, through Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois...

 running through the middle of the city across its entire breadth, bisecting the city into 'upper' and 'lower' parts.

According to all records from local historians, this district was called "Attiwandaronia" by the native Neutral people
Neutral Nation
The Neutrals, also known as the Attawandaron, were an Iroquoian nation of North American native people who lived near the shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.-Territory:...

. The first aboriginals to settle in the Hamilton area called the bay Macassa, meaning beautiful waters. Hamilton is one of 11 cities showcased in the book, "Green City: People, Nature & Urban Places" by Quebec author Mary Soderstrom, which examines the city as an example of an industrial powerhouse co-existing with nature. Soderstrom credits Thomas McQuesten
Thomas McQuesten
Thomas Baker McQuesten was a Canadian athlete, militiaman, lawyer, politician and government appointee who lived in Hamilton, Ontario....

 and family in the 1930s who "became champions of parks, greenspace and roads" in Hamilton.

Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay, known more commonly as Hamilton Harbour, lies on the western tip of Lake Ontario, bounded on the northwest by the City of Burlington, on the south by the City of Hamilton, and on the east by Hamilton Beach and Burlington Beach...

 is a natural harbour with a large sandbar called the Beachstrip. This sandbar was deposited during a period of higher lake levels during the last ice age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

, and extends southeast through the central lower city to the escarpment. Hamilton's deep sea port is accessed by ship canal through the beach strip into the harbour and is traversed by two bridges, the QEW's Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway
Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway
The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway, originally called the Burlington Bay Skyway, is a pair of high-level freeway bridges located in Hamilton and Burlington, Ontario, Canada...

 and the lower Canal Lift Bridge.





Between 1788 and 1793, the townships at the Head-of-the-Lake were surveyed and named. The area was first known as The Head-of-the-Lake for its location at the western end of Lake Ontario. John Ryckman, born in Barton township (where present day downtown Hamilton is), described the area in 1803 as he remembered it: "The city in 1803 was all forest. The shores of the bay were difficult to reach or see because they were hidden by a thick, almost impenetrable mass of trees and undergrowth...Bears ate pigs, so settlers warred on bears. Wolves gobbled sheep and geese, so they hunted and trapped wolves. They also held organized raids on rattlesnakes on the mountainside. There was plenty of game. Many a time have I seen (sic) a deer jump the fence into my back yard, and there were millions of pigeons which we clubbed as they flew low."
George Hamilton
George Hamilton (politician)
George Hamilton was a Canadian merchant and politician, who founded the city of Hamilton, Ontario.Hamiliton was born on October 1788 in Queenston Heights...

, a settler and local politician, established a town site in the northern portion of Barton Township in 1815. He kept several east–west roads which were originally Indian trails, but the north–south streets were on a regular grid pattern. Streets were designated "East" or "West" if they crossed James Street
James Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
James Street is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It starts off at the base of the Niagara Escarpment from James Mountain Road, a mountain-access road in the city, originally was a one-way street going south throughout but now has sections of it that are two-way...

 or Highway 6. Streets were designated "North" or "South" if they crossed King Street or Highway 8. The overall design of the townsite, likely conceived in 1816, was commonplace. George Hamilton employed a grid street pattern used in most towns in Upper Canada
Upper Canada
The Province of Upper Canada was a political division in British Canada established in 1791 by the British Empire to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees from the United States of America after the American Revolution...

 and throughout the American frontier. The eighty original lots had frontages of fifty feet; each lot faced a broad street and backed onto a twelve foot lane. It took at least a decade for all of the original lots to be sold, but the construction of the Burlington Canal in 1823, and a new court-house in 1827, encouraged Hamilton to add more blocks around 1828–9. At this time, he included a market square in an effort to draw commercial activity onto his lands, but the natural growth of the town was to the north of Hamilton's plot.

The Hamilton Conservation Authority
Hamilton Conservation Authority
The Hamilton Conservation Authority maintains the greenspace, trails, parks and some attractions in the Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.The Hamilton Conservation Authority has managed the natural environment in partnership with the City of Hamilton and the Province of Ontario to help ensure a safe and...

 owns, leases or manages about
4500 hectares (11,119.7 acre) of land with the City operating 1077 hectares (2,661 acre) of parkland at 310 locations. Many of the parks are located along the Niagara Escarpment, which runs from Tobermory
Tobermory, Ontario
Tobermory is a small community located at the northern tip of the Bruce Peninsula in the municipality of Northern Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, Canada. It is 300 km northwest of Toronto...

 at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula
Bruce Peninsula
The Bruce Peninsula is a peninsula in Ontario, Canada that lies between Georgian Bay and the main basin of Lake Huron. The peninsula extends roughly northwestwards from the rest of Southern Ontario, pointing towards Manitoulin Island, with which it forms the widest strait joining Georgian Bay to...

 in the north, to Queenston at the Niagara River
Niagara River
The Niagara River flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the Province of Ontario in Canada and New York State in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the name of the river...

 in the south, and provides views of the cities and towns at the western end of Lake Ontario. The hiking path Bruce Trail
Bruce Trail
The Bruce Trail is a hiking trail in southern and central Ontario, Canada.-General:The trail follows the edge of the Niagara Escarpment, one of the thirteen UNESCO World Biosphere Reserves in Canada, for almost...

 runs the length of the escarpment. Hamilton is home to more than 100 waterfalls and cascades, most of which are on or near the Bruce Trail as it winds through the Niagara Escarpment.

Climate

Hamilton's climate is humid-continental, characterized by changeable weather patterns. However, its climate is moderate compared with most of Canada. Hamilton's location on an embayment at the southwestern corner of Lake Ontario with an escarpment dividing upper and lower parts of the city results in noticeable disparities in weather over short distances. With a July average of exactly 22 °C (71.6 °F), the lower city is located in a pocket of the Dfa climate zone found at the southwestern end of Lake Ontario (between Hamilton and Toronto and eastward into the Niagara Region) , while the upper reaches of the city fall into the Dfb climate zone.

The airport's open, rural location and higher altitude (240m vs. 85m ASL downtown) results in lower temperatures and higher snowfall amounts than the more sheltered and lower, built-up areas of the city. One exception is on early spring afternoons, when colder than air lake temperatures keep shoreline areas significantly cooler, under the presence of an east or north-east onshore flow.

Demographics

According to the 2006 Canadian Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, more than 20 percent of the local population was not born in Canada
Immigration to Canada
Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside permanently in the country. The majority of these individuals become Canadian citizens. After 1947, domestic immigration law and policy went through major changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, 1976, and the...

. This is the third highest such proportion in Canada after Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 at 49%, and Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 at 39%. Between 2001 and 2006, the foreign-born population increased by 7.7% while the total population of the Hamilton census metropolitan area (CMA) grew by 4.3%. The share of Canada's recent immigrants who settle in Hamilton has remained unchanged since 2001 at 1.9%. Hamilton was home to 20,800 immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006, half of whom were born in Asia and the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, while nearly one-quarter (23%) were from Europe. Hamilton also had a high proportion of people with Italian, English
English Canadian
An English Canadian is a Canadian of English ancestry; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadian. Canada is an officially bilingual state, with English and French official language communities. Immigrant cultural groups ostensibly integrate into one or both of these communities, but...

, Scottish
Scottish Canadian
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada. As the third-largest ethnic group in Canada and among the first to settle in Canada, Scottish people have made a large impact on Canadian culture since colonial times...

, German and Irish
Irish Canadian
Irish Canadian are immigrants and descendants of immigrants who originated in Ireland. 1.2 million Irish immigrants arrived, 1825 to 1970, at least half of those in the period from 1831-1850. By 1867, they were the second largest ethnic group , and comprised 24% of Canada's population...

 ancestry. Nearly three in ten residents reported English as their sole ethnic origin or as one of their ancestral origins. As well, nearly one in five reported Scottish ancestry either alone or in combination with another ethnic origin.

The top countries of birth for the newcomers living in Hamilton in the 1990s were: former Yugoslavia, Poland, India
Indo-Canadians
Indo-Canadians are Canadians whose origins trace back to India. The terms East Indian and South Asian are used to distinguish people of ancestral origin from India, from the First Nations peoples of Canada who are often referred to as Indian, and from the people of the Caribbean, who are sometimes...

, China
Chinese Canadian
Chinese Canadians are Canadians of Chinese descent. They constitute the second-largest visible minority group in Canada, after South Asian Canadians...

, the Philippines
Filipino Canadian
Filipino Canadians are Canadians of Filipino ancestry. Filipino-Canadians are the fourth-largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos.Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. To date, there are currently around 400,000 Filipino Canadians in Canada, most of them...

, and Iraq
Iraqi Canadian
Iraqi Canadians come from a country of great ethno-linguistic and religious diversity. An estimated 36,000 Iraqi expatriates reside in Canada. Several thousand Canadians are of Iraqi descent.-History:...

. The city proper of Hamilton was home to 67,845 visible minorities in 2006, representing 13.6% of its population, up from 10.9% in 2001. Visible minorities comprised 22.8% of Ontario's population, primarily due to high proportions in Toronto. The population is 84.8% White
White people
White people is a term which usually refers to human beings characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin...

, 3.0% South Asian/East Indian
Indian people
Indian people or Indisians constitute the Asian nation and pan-ethnic group native to India, which forms the south of Asia, containing 17.31% of the world's population. The Indian nationality is in essence made up of regional nationalities, reflecting the rich and complex history of India...

, 2.8% Black
Black Canadian
'Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. The term specifically refers to Canadians with Sub-Saharan African ancestry. The majority of Black Canadians are of Caribbean origin...

, 1.9% Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, 1.5% Aboriginal
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

, 1.2% Southeast Asian, 1.1% Latin American
Latin Americans
Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans don't take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with...

, 1.1% Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

, 0.8% Filipino
Filipino Canadian
Filipino Canadians are Canadians of Filipino ancestry. Filipino-Canadians are the fourth-largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos.Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. To date, there are currently around 400,000 Filipino Canadians in Canada, most of them...

, and 1.8% Other.

Children aged 14 years and under accounted for 17.8% of the population while those 65 years of age and older constituted 14.9%, resulting in an average age of 39.6 years.

The most described religion
Religion in Canada
Religion in Canada encompasses a wide range of groups. The preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms references "God", and the monarch carries the title of "Defender of the Faith". However, Canada has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism is an important part of...

 in Hamilton is Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 although other religions brought by immigrants are also growing. The 2001 census indicates that 77.6% of the population adheres to a Christian denomination, Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 constituting 37.1% of the population, while Catholics
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 number 35.5% (significantly lower than the national average) with Christ the King Cathedral as the seat of the Diocese of Hamilton
Roman Catholic Diocese of Hamilton, Ontario
The Diocese of Hamilton was created on February 29, 1856 by a division of the Archdiocese of Toronto. It remains a suffragan of that archdiocese. The Diocese of Hamilton comprises the counties and regions of Brant, Bruce, Grey, Halton, Waterloo, Wellington, Wentworth, as well as four Townships in...

. The remaining 5.0% consists of Orthodox and independent Christian churches. The largest non-Christian religion is Islam
Islam in Canada
According to Canada's 2001 census, there were 579,740 Muslims in Canada, just under 2% of the population. In 2006, the Muslim population was estimated to be 0.8 million or about 2.6%. In 2010, the Pew Research Center estimates there were about 0.9 million Muslims in Canada. About 65% were Sunni,...

 with 12,880 adherents or 2.0% of the total population. Other religions, including Judaism, Buddhism
Buddhism in Canada
There is a small, rapidly growing Buddhist community in Canada. As of the 2001 count, 300,346 Canadians identified their religion as Buddhist ....

, Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 and Hinduism
Hinduism in Canada
Hindus in Canada generally come from one of three groups. The first is primarily made up of Indian immigrants who began arriving in British Columbia about 100 years ago and continue to immigrate today. The second major group of Hindus immigrated from Sri Lanka, going back to the 1940s, when a few...

, constitute less than one percent each. Those with no religious affiliation accounted for 115,510 (17.6%) in 2001.

Environics Analytics, a geodemographic marketing firm that created 66 different "clusters" of people complete with profiles of how they live, what they think and what they consume, sees a future Hamilton with younger upscale Hamiltonians—who are tech savvy and university educated—choosing to live in the downtown and surrounding areas rather than just visiting intermittently. More two and three storey townhouses and apartments will be built on downtown lots; small condos will be built on vacant spaces in areas such as Dundas
Dundas, Ontario
Dundas is a formerly independent town and now constituent community in the city of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada. It's nickname is the Valley Town. The population has been stable for decades at about twenty thousand, largely because it has not annexed rural land from the protected Dundas Valley...

 and Westdale
Westdale, Ontario
Westdale is a residential neighbourhood in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is centred on the Westdale Village shopping district and located near McMaster University. Westdale has been the heart of the Jewish community of Hamilton for many years...

 to accommodate newly retired seniors; and more retail and commercial zones will be created. The city is also expected to grow by more than 28,000 people and 18,000 households by the year 2012.

EWLINE
>
Reported ethnic origins, 2006
Ethnic origin Population PercentNote that a person may report more than one ethnic origin.
English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

 
138,125 27.9
Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 
107,780 21.7
Scottish
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

 
98,375 19.8
Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

 
80,740 16.2
Italian
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

 
58,800 11.8
German  47,960 9.6
>
Reported ethnic origins, 2006
Ethnic origin Population Percent
French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 
42,070 8.5
Polish  27,775 5.6
Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

 
25,720 5.2
Ukrainian  18,730 3.8
Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 
14,115 2.8
North American Indian
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

 
11,970 2.4



Economy

The most important economic activity in Ontario is manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, and the Toronto–Hamilton region is the most highly industrialized section of the country. The area from Oshawa, Ontario
Oshawa, Ontario
Oshawa is a city in Ontario, Canada, on the Lake Ontario shoreline. It lies in Southern Ontario approximately 60 kilometres east of downtown Toronto. It is commonly viewed as the eastern anchor of both the Greater Toronto Area and the Golden Horseshoe. It is now commonly referred to as the most...

 around the west end of Lake Ontario to Niagara Falls, with Hamilton at its centre, is known as the Golden Horseshoe and has a population of approximately 8.1 million people. The phrase was first used by Westinghouse
Westinghouse Electric (1886)
Westinghouse Electric was an American manufacturing company. It was founded in 1886 as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became CBS Corporation in 1997...

 President, Herbert H. Rogge, in a speech to the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce, on January 12, 1954. "Hamilton in 50 years will be the forward cleat in a golden horseshoe of industrial development from Oshawa to the Niagara River...150 miles long and 50 miles (80.5 km) wide...It will run from Niagara Falls on the south to about Oshawa on the north and take in numerous cities and towns already there, including Hamilton and Toronto."

With sixty percent of Canada's steel being produced in Hamilton by Stelco
Stelco
US Steel Canada is a steel company based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.-History:Several existing smaller steelworks combined and were incorporated as the Steel Company of Canada in 1910. Charles S...

 and Dofasco
Dofasco
Dofasco is a steel company based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, which is also home to longtime Canadian rival Stelco. Dofasco is currently a standalone subsidiary of ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer. Previously ordered by the U.S...

, the city has become known as the Steel Capital of Canada. After nearly declaring bankruptcy, Stelco returned to profitability in 2004 and on August 26, 2007 United States Steel Corporation acquired Stelco for C$38.50 in cash per share, owning more than 76 percent of Stelco's outstanding shares. Dofasco, in 1999, was the most profitable steel producer in North America and in 2000, the most profitable in Canada. It currently has approximately 7,300 employees at its Hamilton plant and produces over four million ton
Ton
The ton is a unit of measure. It has a long history and has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years. It is used principally as a unit of weight, and as a unit of volume. It can also be used as a measure of energy, for truck classification, or as a colloquial term.It is derived from...

s of steel annually, representing about 30% of Canada's flat rolled sheet steel shipments. Dofasco is one of North America's most profitable steel companies, and Dofasco was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index in 2006 for the seventh year in a row. Dofasco produces steel products for the automotive, construction, energy, manufacturing, pipe and tube, appliance, packaging and steel distribution industries. Dofasco is currently a stand alone subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal, the world's largest steel producer. Previously ordered by the U.S. Department of Justice to divest itself of the Canadian company, Arcelor Mittal has now been allowed to retain Dofasco provided it sells several of its American assets instead.

Originally, in the 1940s, the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport was used as a wartime air force training station. Today TradePort International Corporation manages and operates the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport. Under TradePort management, passenger traffic at the Hamilton terminal has increased from 90,000 in 1996 to approximately 900,000 in 2002. The airport's mid-term target for growth in its passenger service is five million air travelers annually. The air cargo sector of the airport has 24-7 operational capability and strategic geographic location, allowing its capacity to increase by 50% since 1996; 91,000 metric tonnes (100,000 tons
Short ton
The short ton is a unit of mass equal to . In the United States it is often called simply ton without distinguishing it from the metric ton or the long ton ; rather, the other two are specifically noted. There are, however, some U.S...

) of cargo passed through the airport in 2002. Courier companies with operations at the airport include United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service, Inc. , typically referred to by the acronym UPS, is a package delivery company. Headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States, UPS delivers more than 15 million packages a day to 6.1 million customers in more than 220 countries and territories around the...

 and Cargojet Canada. In 2003, the city began developing a 30-year growth management strategy which called, in part, for a massive aerotropolis
Aerotropolis
An aerotropolis is an urban form whose layout, infrastructure, and economy is centered on an airport, offering its businesses speedy connectivity to suppliers, customers, and enterprise partners worldwide. Many of these businesses are much more dependent on distant suppliers or customers than to...

 industrial park centred around Hamilton Airport. The aerotropolis proposal, now known as the Airport Employment Growth District, is touted as a solution to the city's shortage of employment lands. Hamilton turned over operation of the airport to TradePort International Corp. in 1996. In 2007, YVR Airport Services (YVRAS), which runs the Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver. In 2010 it was the second busiest airport in Canada by aircraft movements and passengers , behind Toronto Pearson International Airport, with non-stop flights daily to...

, took over 100 per cent ownership of TradePort in a $13-million deal. The airport is also home to the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is a Canadian aviation museum located at the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport near Hamilton, Ontario. The museum has 36 military jets, propeller-driven aircraft and helicopters on display....

.

A report by Hemson Consulting identified an opportunity to develop 1000 hectares (2,471.1 acre) of greenfields (the size of the Royal Botanical Gardens) that could generate an estimated 90,000 jobs by 2031. A proposed aerotropolis
Aerotropolis
An aerotropolis is an urban form whose layout, infrastructure, and economy is centered on an airport, offering its businesses speedy connectivity to suppliers, customers, and enterprise partners worldwide. Many of these businesses are much more dependent on distant suppliers or customers than to...

 industrial park at Highway 6 and 403, has been debated at City Hall for years. Opponents feel the city needs to do more investigation about the cost to taxpayers before embarking on the project.

Government

Citizens of Hamilton are represented by three tiers of government. The federal representation consists of five members of parliament serving in the Parliament of Canada for the federal ridings of Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale
Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale
Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004....

, Hamilton Centre
Hamilton Centre
Hamilton Centre is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004.It was created in 2003 from parts of Hamilton East, Hamilton West and Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Aldershot ridings....

, Hamilton East—Stoney Creek
Hamilton East—Stoney Creek
Hamilton East—Stoney Creek is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004.The riding was formed in 2003 from parts of the former ridings of Hamilton East and Stoney Creek....

, Hamilton Mountain
Hamilton Mountain
Hamilton Mountain is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968. The riding is located in the Hamilton, Ontario region....

, and Niagara West—Glanbrook
Niagara West—Glanbrook
Niagara West—Glanbrook is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004.The riding was created in 2003 from parts of Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Aldershot,...

. At the provincial tier, there are five elected members who serve in the Legislature of Ontario for the provincial ridings of Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale
Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (provincial electoral district)
Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale is a provincial electoral district in southwestern Ontario, Canada. It was created for the 2007 provincial election...

, Hamilton Centre
Hamilton Centre
Hamilton Centre is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004.It was created in 2003 from parts of Hamilton East, Hamilton West and Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Aldershot ridings....

, Hamilton East—Stoney Creek
Hamilton East—Stoney Creek
Hamilton East—Stoney Creek is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004.The riding was formed in 2003 from parts of the former ridings of Hamilton East and Stoney Creek....

, Hamilton Mountain
Hamilton Mountain
Hamilton Mountain is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968. The riding is located in the Hamilton, Ontario region....

, and Niagara West—Glanbrook
Niagara West—Glanbrook (provincial electoral district)
Niagara West—Glanbrook is a provincial electoral district in south eastern Ontario, Canada. It elects one member to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario....

. The municipal tier consists of one mayor, elected city wide, and 15 city councillors, elected individually by each of the 15 ward divisions, to serve on the Hamilton City Council. Additionally, at the municipal tier, each ward elects a school board trustee for each of the school boards serving in their respective area.
Municipal elections in Hamilton occur every four years, the last one falling on October 25, 2010. The next election will occur on October 27, 2014.

The Hamilton City Council is granted authority to govern by the province through the Municipal Act of Ontario. The Province of Ontario has supervisory privilege over the municipality and the power to redefine, restrict or expand the powers of all municipalities in Ontario. Further, the province provides oversight of Hamilton City Council through the Ontario Municipal Board
Ontario Municipal Board
The Ontario Municipal Board is an independent administrative board, operated as an adjudicative tribunal, in the province of Ontario, Canada...

.

The Criminal Code of Canada is the chief piece of legislation defining criminal conduct and penalty. The Hamilton Police Service
Hamilton Police Service (Ontario)
The Hamilton Police Service, formerly The Hamilton Wentworth Regional Police, is the local police service for the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. This agency is the primary service charged with the duty of enforcing the Criminal Code of Canada in the City of Hamilton. The organization became a...

 is chiefly responsible for the enforcement of federal and provincial law. Although the Hamilton Police Service has authority to enforce, bylaws passed by the Hamilton City Council are mainly enforced by Provincial Offences Officers employed by the City of Hamilton.

There is a strong military presence in Hamilton, with the John Weir Foote Armoury
John Weir Foote
John Weir Foote, VC , CD was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces...

 located in the downtown on James Street North, housing the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry as well as the 11th Field Hamilton-Wentworth Battery and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada. The Hamilton Reserve Barracks, located on Pier Nine, houses the naval reserve
Canadian Forces Primary Reserve
The Primary Reserve is a reserve force of the Canadian Forces. It is the largest of the four sub-components of the CF reserves; those being the Primary Reserve, the Supplementary Reserve, the Canadian Rangers, and the Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service .The reserve force is...

 division HMCS Star
HMCS Star
HMCS Star is a unit of the Canadian Forces Naval Reserve located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada....

, 23 Service Battalion and the 23 Field Ambulance.

Education

Hamilton is home to several post-secondary institutions that have created numerous direct and indirect jobs in education and research. McMaster University
McMaster University
McMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...

 moved to the city in 1930 and today has over 22,000 enrolled students, of whom almost two-thirds come from outside the immediate Hamilton region. Brock University
Brock University
Brock University is a comprehensive university located in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. Brock offers undergraduate, graduate and doctoral degree programs that include co-op and other experiential learning opportunities to an enrolment of over 17,000 full-time students.The enabling legislation is...

 of St. Catharines, Ontario
St. Catharines, Ontario
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, Canada, with 97.11 square kilometres of land...

 has a satellite campus used primarily for teacher education located in Hamilton. Colleges in Hamilton include:
  • McMaster Divinity College
    McMaster Divinity College
    McMaster Divinity College, also known as MacDiv, is a Christian seminary in Hamilton, Ontario. It is affiliated with the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, although in practice it is interdenominational, and could be said to more closely align with the broader Evangelical tradition...

    , a Christian seminary
    Seminary
    A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is an institution of secondary or post-secondary education for educating students in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry...

     affiliated with the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec
    Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec
    Canadian Baptists of Ontario and Quebec is the oldest union of Baptist churches in central Canada.In 1880 a "Baptist Union of Canada" was formed. Since the churches were located chiefly in the central provinces, the name was changed in 1888 to "Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec"...

     since 1957. McMaster Divinity College is located on the McMaster University campus, and is affiliated with the University. The Divinity College was created as part of the process of passing governance of the University as a whole from the BCOQ to a privately chartered, publicly funded arrangement.
  • Mohawk College
    Mohawk College
    Mohawk College is a public College of Applied Arts and Technology located in the Golden Horseshoe of Ontario, Canada. Mohawk has three main campuses: the Fennell Campus located in Hamilton, the Brantford Campus located in Brantford and the STARRT Institute located in Stoney Creek, as well as the...

    , a college of applied arts and technology since 1967 with 10,000 full time, 40,000 part time, and 3,000 apprentice students.
  • Columbia International College
    Columbia International College
    Columbia International College is the largest private boarding preparatory school in Canada, with an enrollment of more than 1,700 students from over 70 countries in the world. The school is located in Hamilton, Ontario, in the residential neighborhood of Westdale, near McMaster University and...

     is Canada's largest private boarding university-preparatory school, with over 1,300 students from over 60 countries.
  • Redeemer University College
    Redeemer University College
    Redeemer University College is an undergraduate Christian Liberal Arts and Science University located in Ancaster, Ontario, Canada. Founded in 1982, Redeemer stands in the Reformed Tradition and offers Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Education, and Bachelor of Science degrees.-History:The college...

    , a private Christian liberal arts and science university opened in 1982, with about 800 students currently.

Public education for students from kindergarten through high school is administered by three school boards. The Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board
Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board
Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board is the public school board in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, which was formed January 1, 1997 via the amalgamation of the Hamilton and Wentworth County school boards. HWDSB teaches approximately 50,000 students in its 114 neighbourhood schools...

 manages 114 public schools, while the Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board
Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board
The Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board is the Roman Catholic school board for the city of Hamilton, Ontario, which includes the former Wentworth County. It operates 60 schools: 53 elementary, and 7 secondary schools.-Secondary schools:...

 operates 55 schools in the greater Hamilton area. The Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest
Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest
The Conseil scolaire Viamonde manages the French-language Public Schools in the central south-western region of Ontario. The area in which this school board operates covers 68,180 km2 of Ontario...

 operates one elementary and one secondary school (École secondaire Georges-P.-Vanier
École secondaire Georges-P.-Vanier
École secondaire Georges-P.-Vanier is a French first language high school located in the Westdale Village district in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It serves the french language population of...

), and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud
Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud
Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud is the Roman Catholic separate, French language school board for the South-Central region of Ontario. It is headquartered in North York, Toronto, Ontario, Canada...

 operates two elementary schools and one secondary school. Calvin Christian School and Timothy Christian are private Christian elementary schools. Hamilton District Christian High School (HDCH), Rehoboth Christian High School and Guido de Bres Christian High School
Guido de Bres Christian High School
Guido de Brès Christian High School is a Christian high school in Hamilton, Ontario based on the Reformed faith. It is a privately funded school run by the Guido de Brès Canadian Reformed School Society which was formed in 1974. The school is named after Guido de Brès, a Reformer who died as a...

 are private Christian high schools in the area. Hillfield Strathallan College
Hillfield Strathallan College
Hillfield Strathallan College is a Canadian private, co-educational day school in Hamilton, Ontario. The academic program runs from Junior Kindergarten or Montessori, until Grade 12. The current headmaster is Mr...

 is located on the West Hamilton mountain and is a CAIS
Canadian Association of Independent Schools
Canadian Association of Independent Schools is an association for independent schools that operate within Canada or offer a curriculum leading to a Canadian diploma in a location outside of the country. Member schools are non-profit institutions with volunteer Boards of Governors who are...

 member, non-profit school for children from early Montessori ages through grade twelve.

The Dundas Valley School of Art is an independent art school which has serviced the Hamilton region since 1964. Students range in age from 4 years old to senior citizens and enrollment as of February 2007 was close to 4,000. In 1998, a new full time diploma programme was launched as a joint venture with McMaster University. The faculty and staff are highly regarded regional artists.

The Hamilton Conservatory for the Arts is home to many of the area's talented young actors, dancers, musicians, singers and visual artists. The school is equipped with a keyboard studio, spacious dance studios, art and sculpting studios, gallery space and a 300 seat recital hall. HCA offers over 90 programs for ages 3–93, creating a “united nations” of arts under one roof.

The Hamilton Literacy Council
Hamilton Literacy Council
Hamilton Literacy Council, is a non-profit organization that provides basic training in reading, writing, and math to English-speaking adults in Hamilton, Ontario. The service is free, private, and one-to-one...

 is a non-profit organization that provides basic (grade 1 - 5 equivalent) training in reading, writing, and math to English-speaking adults. The council's service is free, private, and one-to-one. It started to assist adults with their literacy skills in 1973.

Hamilton is home to two think tanks, the Centre for Cultural Renewal and Cardus, which deals with social architecture, culture, urbanology, economics and education and also publishes the LexView Policy Journal and Comment Magazine.

Culture

Hamilton has built on its historical and social background with attractions including the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum
The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is a Canadian aviation museum located at the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport near Hamilton, Ontario. The museum has 36 military jets, propeller-driven aircraft and helicopters on display....

, the HMCS Haida National Historic Site (Canada's most famous warship and the last remaining Tribal Class in the world), Dundurn Castle
Dundurn Castle
Dundurn Castle is a historic neoclassical mansion on York Boulevard in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The house took three years and $175,000.00 to build, and was completed in 1835....

 (the residence of a Prime Minister of Upper Canada
Upper Canada
The Province of Upper Canada was a political division in British Canada established in 1791 by the British Empire to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees from the United States of America after the American Revolution...

), the Royal Botanical Gardens
Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario
Royal Botanical Gardens is headquartered in Burlington and also include lands in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the major tourist attractions between Niagara Falls and Toronto, as well as a significant local and regional horticultural, education, conservation and scientific resource...

, the Canadian Football Hall of Fame
Canadian Football Hall of Fame
The Canadian Football Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit corporation, located in Hamilton, Ontario, that celebrates great achievements in Canadian football. It is an open to the public institution. It includes displays about the Canadian Football League, Canadian university football and Canadian...

, the African Lion Safari
African Lion Safari
African Lion Safari is a family-owned safari park situated in Flamborough, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, about west of Toronto. The mailing address is in Cambridge, Ontario. It includes more than 1,000 animals, representing over 100 species of mammals and birds from across the globe...

 park, the Cathedral of Christ the King, and the Workers Arts and Heritage Centre.

Founded in 1914, the Art Gallery of Hamilton
Art Gallery of Hamilton
Art Gallery of Hamilton, is located in the heart of downtown Hamilton, Ontario on King Street West and is one of Canada’s oldest galleries with a collection of over 9,000 works of art.-History:...

 is Ontario's third largest public art gallery. The Gallery has over 9,000 works in its permanent collection that focus on three areas: 19th-century European, Historical Canadian and Contemporary Canadian.

The McMaster Museum of Art, founded on campus in 1967, houses McMaster University’s collection of more than 6,000 works of art, including exhibitions on the historical and contemporary work and the Herman Levy collection of Impressionist painting.

Growth in the arts and culture sector has garnered high level media attention for Hamilton. A Globe and Mail article in 2006, entitled "Go West, Young Artist," focused on the growing art scene in Hamilton. The Factory: Hamilton Media Arts Centre, opened up a new home on James Street North in 2006. Art galleries are springing up on many streets across the City: James Street
James Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
James Street is a Lower City arterial road in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It starts off at the base of the Niagara Escarpment from James Mountain Road, a mountain-access road in the city, originally was a one-way street going south throughout but now has sections of it that are two-way...

, Locke Street
Locke Street (Hamilton, Ontario)
Locke Street, is a Lower City collector road in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It starts off at Aberdeen Avenue as a two-way street going through the Locke Street shopping district up to Main Street where it then becomes a one-way street until it crosses King Street and becomes two-way again going...

 and King Street, to name a few. This, coupled with growth in the downtown condo market which is drawing people back to the core, is having an impact on the cultural fabric of the city. The opening of the Downtown Arts Centre on Rebecca Street has spurred further creative activities in the core. The Community Centre for Media Arts (CCMA) continues to operate in downtown Hamilton. The CCMA works with marginalized populations and combines new media services such as website development, graphic design, video, and information technology, with arts education and skills development programming.

The 2009 film Defendor
Defendor
Defendor is a 2009 Canadian superhero comedy-drama film written and directed by Peter Stebbings, and starring Woody Harrelson, Kat Dennings, Elias Koteas and Sandra Oh. The story tells of a mentally ill man who adopts the persona of a superhero named Defendor on a quest to find his arch enemy,...

, starring Woody Harrelson
Woody Harrelson
Woodrow Tracy "Woody" Harrelson is an American actor.Harrelson's breakthrough role came in the television sitcom Cheers as bartender Woody Boyd...

 as a vigilante superhero, is implied to take place in Hamilton, referred to by its nickname of "Hammer Town" several times throughout the film. It was filmed in Hamilton and Toronto.

Sports

Professional teams
Club League Venue Established Championships
Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Hamilton Tiger-Cats
The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Wildcats. The Tiger-Cats play their home games at Ivor Wynne Stadium...

Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium is a Canadian football stadium located at the corner of Balsam and Beechwood Avenues, two blocks west of Gage Avenue North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...

1950 15
Hamilton Bulldogs
Hamilton Bulldogs
The Hamilton Bulldogs are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. They play in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, at Copps Coliseum, nicknamed 'The Dog Pound'. They are the AHL affiliate of the NHL's Montreal Canadiens...

American Hockey League
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

Copps Coliseum
Copps Coliseum
Copps Coliseum is a sports and entertainment arena, on the corner of Bay Street North and York Boulevard, in Hamilton, Ontario. Depending on event, the Copps Coliseum has a capacity of up to 19,000.It is named after the former Hamilton mayor, Victor K...

1996 1
Amateur and junior clubs
Club League Venue Established Championships
Hamilton Avalanche
Hamilton Avalanche
Hamilton FC Rage is a Canadian women’s soccer team, founded in 2006. The team is a member of the W-League, the second tier of women’s soccer in the United States and Canada...

W-League
W-League
The USL W-League is a national women's soccer league in the United States on the 2nd level of women's soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, alongside the Women's Premier Soccer League and below Women's Professional Soccer....

 of the United Soccer Leagues
United Soccer Leagues
The United Soccer Leagues is the organizer of several soccer leagues with teams in the United States, Canada and the Caribbean. It includes men's and women's leagues, both professional and amateur. Leagues currently organized are the USL Pro, the USL Premier Development League, the W-League, and...

Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium is a stadium in Hamilton, Ontario. The stadium was built in 1968, and seats 5,000 people. The stadium currently hosts association football teams Hamilton Croatia, a Canadian Soccer League club, and the Hamilton Avalanche, a club that plays in the W-League of the United Soccer...

2006 0
Hamilton Croatia
Hamilton Croatia
Hamilton Croatia is a Croatian Canadian amateur soccer team founded in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in 1957. It is supported by the Croatian Sports and Community Centre of Hamilton Inc...

Canadian Soccer League
Canadian Soccer League
The Canadian Soccer League is the top soccer league in Canada and is controlled by the Canadian Soccer Association. It was formerly known as the Canadian Professional Soccer League , and was officially re-branded on May 17, 2006...

Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium is a stadium in Hamilton, Ontario. The stadium was built in 1968, and seats 5,000 people. The stadium currently hosts association football teams Hamilton Croatia, a Canadian Soccer League club, and the Hamilton Avalanche, a club that plays in the W-League of the United Soccer...

1957 1
Hamilton FC Rage Premier Development League Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium
Brian Timmis Stadium is a stadium in Hamilton, Ontario. The stadium was built in 1968, and seats 5,000 people. The stadium currently hosts association football teams Hamilton Croatia, a Canadian Soccer League club, and the Hamilton Avalanche, a club that plays in the W-League of the United Soccer...

2010 0
Hamilton Red Wings
Hamilton Red Wings Jr. A
The Hamilton Red Wings are a Junior "A" ice hockey team from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. They are a part of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League...

Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey
Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League
The Ontario Junior Hockey League is a Junior A ice hockey league under the supervision of the Ontario Hockey Association and the Canadian Junior Hockey League. The league dates back to 1954 as the Central Junior B Hockey League. In 1993, the Central Junior B Hockey League was promoted to the...

Dave Andreychuk Mountain Arena 1973 1
Hamilton Hornets R.F.C. Niagara Rugby Union Mohawk Sports Park
Mohawk Sports Park
Mohawk Sports Park, is a large park on the east mountain of Hamilton, Ontario, 1100 Mohawk Road East, with a number of sporting facilities including Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium and the Mohawk 4 Ice Centre, . Also known as Commonwealth Park and Upper King's Forest Park....

1954 0
Hamilton Wildcats
Hamilton Wildcats
Formed in 1990, the Hamilton Wildcats are a member club of the Ontario Australian Football League . Currently the Wildcats boast a playing membership of some 32 players who are drawn to the unique game of Australian rules football from many regions of southern Ontario, Canada...

Australian Rules Football League Mohawk Sports Park
Mohawk Sports Park
Mohawk Sports Park, is a large park on the east mountain of Hamilton, Ontario, 1100 Mohawk Road East, with a number of sporting facilities including Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium and the Mohawk 4 Ice Centre, . Also known as Commonwealth Park and Upper King's Forest Park....

1997 0
Hamilton Thunderbirds
Hamilton Thunderbirds
The Hamilton Thunderbirds are an independent, minor league baseball team of the semi-pro Intercounty Baseball League based in Hamilton, Ontario. They play their home games at Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium....

Inter County Baseball League Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium
Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium
Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium is a stadium on Upper Kenilworth Avenue in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Located in Mohawk Sports Park, it is primarily used for baseball and was once the home of the minor league Hamilton Redbirds of the New York - Penn League...

2005 0


Hamilton was the host of Canada's first major international athletic event, the first Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

 (then called the British Empire Games) in 1930
1930 British Empire Games
The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later become known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from August 16–23, 1930....

. Hamilton bid unsuccessfully for the Commonwealth Games in 2010
2010 Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events, making it the largest Commonwealth Games till date...

, losing out to New Delhi
2010 Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events, making it the largest Commonwealth Games till date...

 in India. On November 7, 2009, in Guadalajara, Mexico it was announced that Toronto will host the 2015 Pan Am Games after beating out two rival South American cities, Lima, Peru and Bogota, Colombia. The city of Hamilton will be co-hosting the Games with Toronto. Hamilton Mayor Fred Eisenberger
Fred Eisenberger
Fred Eisenberger is a Canadian politician. He is a former mayor of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, having been elected to the position on November 13, 2006. The margin of victory over incumbent Larry Di Ianni was a mere 452 votes in one of the closest races in Hamilton's history...

 said "the Pan Am Games will provide a 'unique opportunity for Hamilton to renew major sport facilities giving Hamiltonians a multi-purpose stadium
Stadium
A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

, a 50 metre swimming pool
Swimming pool
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or water-based recreation. There are many standard sizes; the largest is the Olympic-size swimming pool...

, and an international-calibre velodrome
Velodrome
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights...

 to enjoy for generations to come.'"

The Around the Bay Road Race
Around the Bay Road Race
Around the Bay Road Race, is the oldest long distance road race in North America, held in Hamilton, Ontario since 1894, nearly three years before the Boston Marathon, though is not marathon length...

 circumnavigates Hamilton Harbour or Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay, known more commonly as Hamilton Harbour, lies on the western tip of Lake Ontario, bounded on the northwest by the City of Burlington, on the south by the City of Hamilton, and on the east by Hamilton Beach and Burlington Beach...

. Although it is not a marathon distance, it is the longest continuously held long distance foot race in North America. The local newspaper also hosts the amateur Spectator Indoor Games.

Hamilton has representation in two professional sports leagues, the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

 and the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

. Its major sports complexes include Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium
Ivor Wynne Stadium is a Canadian football stadium located at the corner of Balsam and Beechwood Avenues, two blocks west of Gage Avenue North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...

 and Copps Coliseum
Copps Coliseum
Copps Coliseum is a sports and entertainment arena, on the corner of Bay Street North and York Boulevard, in Hamilton, Ontario. Depending on event, the Copps Coliseum has a capacity of up to 19,000.It is named after the former Hamilton mayor, Victor K...

; Hamilton is also home to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame
Canadian Football Hall of Fame
The Canadian Football Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit corporation, located in Hamilton, Ontario, that celebrates great achievements in Canadian football. It is an open to the public institution. It includes displays about the Canadian Football League, Canadian university football and Canadian...

 museum. The museum hosts an annual induction event in a week long celebration that includes school visits, a golf tournament, a formal induction dinner and concludes with the Hall of Fame game involving the local CFL
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

 Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Hamilton Tiger-Cats
The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Wildcats. The Tiger-Cats play their home games at Ivor Wynne Stadium...

 at Ivor Wynne Stadium.

In addition to team sports, Hamilton is also home to an auto race track, Flamboro Speedway
Flamboro Speedway
Flamboro Speedway is a 1/3-mile semi-banked asphalt oval auto racing track in Hamilton , Ontario. The track was established in 1961....

 and Canada's fastest half-mile harness horse racing track, Flamboro Downs
Flamboro Downs
Flamboro Downs is Canada's fastest half-mile harness horse racing track, based in Hamilton , Ontario since April, 1975. It is also home to Flamboro Slots, which has a total of 750 slot machines....

. Another auto race track, Cayuga International Speedway, is located near Hamilton in the Haldimand County
Haldimand County
Haldimand is a rural city-status single-tier municipality on the Niagara Peninsula in Southern Ontario, Canada, on the north shore of Lake Erie, and on the Grand River. Municipal offices are located in Cayuga....

 community of Nelles Corners, situated between Hagersville
Hagersville, Ontario
Hagersville is a community in Haldimand County, Ontario which gained international notoriety in 1990 for a gigantic uncontrolled tire fire which spewed toxic smoke for seventeen days...

 and Cayuga
Cayuga, Ontario
Cayuga is an unincorporated community and county seat in the province of Ontario, Canada located at the intersection of Highway 3 and Munsee Street and along the Grand River in Haldimand County. Cayuga is about a 20 minute drive from Lake Erie and 30 minutes south of Hamilton and 115 minutes south...

.

Hamilton hosted an NHL team in the 1920s called the Hamilton Tigers. The team folded after a players' strike
Strike action
Strike action, also called labour strike, on strike, greve , or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became...

 in 1925. Research in Motion
Research In Motion
Research In Motion Limited or RIM is a Canadian multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada that designs, manufactures and markets wireless solutions for the worldwide mobile communications market...

 CEO Jim Balsillie
Jim Balsillie
James Laurence "Jim" Balsillie is a Canadian businessman and co-CEO of the Canadian company Research In Motion. He is a member of the Trilateral Commission, a private political organization...

 has shown interest in bringing another NHL team to southern Ontario. The NHL's Phoenix Coyotes
Phoenix Coyotes
The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

 filed for bankruptcy in 2009 and have included within their Chapter 11 reorganization a plan to sell the team to Balsillie and move the team and its operations to Hamilton, Ontario. In late September, however, the bankruptcy judge did not rule in favor of Balsillie. The City plans to continue their fight for an NHL team.

Notable people

  • Eugene Levy
    Eugene Levy
    Eugene Levy, CM is a Canadian actor, comedian, television director, producer, musician, and writer. He is known for his work in Canadian television series, American movies, and television movies. He is the only actor to have appeared in all eight of the American Pie films, as Noah Levenstein...

    , CM
    Order of Canada
    The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is, within the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, the second highest honour for merit...

     - Actor
    Actor
    An actor is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity...

    , comedian
    Comedian
    A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting a fool, as in slapstick, or employing prop comedy...

    , television director
    Television director
    A television director directs the activities involved in making a television program and is part of a television crew.-Duties:The duties of a television director vary depending on whether the production is live or recorded to video tape or video server .In both types of productions, the...

    , producer
    Television producer
    The primary role of a television Producer is to allow all aspects of video production, ranging from show idea development and cast hiring to shoot supervision and fact-checking...

    , musician
    Musician
    A musician is an artist who plays a musical instrument. It may or may not be the person's profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music.Also....* A person who makes music a profession....

    , and writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    .
  • Karen Kain
    Karen Kain
    Karen Alexandria Kain, CC is a retired Canadian ballet dancer, and currently the Artistic Director of the National Ballet of Canada.-Early Training:...

    , CC
    Order of Canada
    The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is, within the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, the second highest honour for merit...

     - Retired ballet
    Ballet
    Ballet is a type of performance dance, that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with...

     dancer, and currently the Artistic Director of the National Ballet of Canada
    National Ballet of Canada
    The National Ballet of Canada is Canada's largest ballet troupe. It was founded by Celia Franca in 1951 and is based in Toronto, Ontario. Based upon the unity of Canadian trained dancers in the tradition and style of England's Royal Ballet, The National is regarded as one of the premier classical...

    .
  • Martin Short
    Martin Short
    Martin Hayter Short, CM is a Canadian actor, comedian, writer, singer and producer. He is best-known for his comedy work, particularly on the TV programs SCTV and Saturday Night Live...

    , CM
    Order of Canada
    The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is, within the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, the second highest honour for merit...

     - Actor, comedian, writer, singer and producer.
  • Neil Peart
    Neil Peart
    Neil Ellwood Peart , OC, is a Canadian musician and author. He is the drummer for the rock band Rush.Peart grew up in Port Dalhousie, Ontario . During adolescence, he floated from regional band to regional band in pursuit of a career as a full-time drummer...

    , OC
    Order of Canada
    The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is, within the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, the second highest honour for merit...

     - Musician and author. He is the drummer for the rock band Rush
    Rush (band)
    Rush is a Canadian rock band formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario. The band is composed of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart...

    .
  • Toller Cranston
    Toller Cranston
    Toller Shalitoe Montague Cranston, CM is a Canadian figure skater and painter. He is the 1971-1976 Canadian national champion, the 1974 World bronze medalist, and the 1976 Olympic bronze medalist....

    , CM
    Order of Canada
    The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is, within the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, the second highest honour for merit...

     - Figure skater
    Figure skating
    Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

     and painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

    .

Sister cities

Hamilton is a sister city with Flint, Michigan
Flint, Michigan
Flint is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and is located along the Flint River, northwest of Detroit. The U.S. Census Bureau reports the 2010 population to be placed at 102,434, making Flint the seventh largest city in Michigan. It is the county seat of Genesee County which lies in the...

, and its young amateur athletes compete in the Canusa Games, held alternatively in the two cities since 1958. Flint and Hamilton hold the distinction of having the oldest continuous sister-city relationship between a U.S. and Canadian city, since 1957.

Sister cities with Hamilton include:
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Pittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. Regionally, it anchors the largest urban area of Appalachia and the Ohio River Valley, and nationally, it is the 22nd-largest urban area in the United States...

     (U.S)
  • Flint, Michigan
    Flint, Michigan
    Flint is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and is located along the Flint River, northwest of Detroit. The U.S. Census Bureau reports the 2010 population to be placed at 102,434, making Flint the seventh largest city in Michigan. It is the county seat of Genesee County which lies in the...

     (U.S.)
  • Fukuyama
    Fukuyama, Hiroshima
    is a city located on the Ashida River in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.As of January 31, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 465,238 and a population density of 898.02 persons per km². The total area is 461.23 km². After Hiroshima City, it is the largest city in Hiroshima Prefecture...

     (Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    )
  • Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan , also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east...

    , Anhui
    Anhui
    Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

     (PRC
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    )
  • Mangalore
    Mangalore
    Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about west of the state capital, Bangalore. Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district in south western...

     (India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    )
  • Monterrey
    Monterrey
    Monterrey , is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the...

     (Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

    )

  • Racalmuto
    Racalmuto
    Racalmuto is a comune in the Province of Agrigento in the Italian Autonomous Region of Sicily, located about 90 km southeast of Palermo and about 15 km northeast of Agrigento.Racalmuto borders the following municipalities: Bompensiere, Canicattì, Castrofilippo, Favara,...

    , Sicily
    Sicily
    Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

     (Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    )
  • Sarasota, Florida
    Sarasota, Florida
    Sarasota is a city located in Sarasota County on the southwestern coast of the U.S. state of Florida. It is south of the Tampa Bay Area and north of Fort Myers...

     (U.S.)
  • Shawinigan, Quebec
    Shawinigan, Quebec
    Shawinigan is a city located on the Saint-Maurice River in the Mauricie area in Quebec, Canada. It has a population of approximately 51,904 people ....

  • Valle Peligna
    Valle Peligna
    The Valle Peligna, also known as Conca di Sulmona, is a plateau in central Abruzzo, southern Italy, included in the province of L'Aquila. It has a surface of some 100 km²....

    , Abruzzo
    Abruzzo
    Abruzzo is a region in Italy, its western border lying less than due east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea to the east...

     (Italy)

Other city relationships:
  • Porto Alegre
    Porto Alegre
    Porto Alegre is the tenth most populous municipality in Brazil, with 1,409,939 inhabitants, and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area . It is also the capital city of the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian...

    , (Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    )

See also

  • Metrolinx
  • Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area
    Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area
    The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is composed of the metropolitan areas of the Canadian cities of Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario. The GTHA includes the census metropolitan areas of Toronto, Hamilton and Oshawa....

  • Hamilton ravine system
    Hamilton Ravine System
    The Hamilton ravine system is one of the most distinctive features of the geography of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. It is a network of deep ravines that form a large urban forest that runs throughout much of the city. For the most part designated as parkland, the ravines are somewhat...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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