Green Party of Canada
Overview
 
The Green Party of Canada (French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

: Parti vert du Canada) is a Canadian federal political party
Political party
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions...

 founded in 1983
1983 in Canada
-Incumbents:*Monarch - Elizabeth II*Governor General - Edward Schreyer*Prime Minister - Pierre Trudeau*Premier of Alberta - Peter Lougheed*Premier of British Columbia - Bill Bennett*Premier of Manitoba - Howard Pawley*Premier of New Brunswick - Richard Hatfield...

 with 10,000–12,000 registered members as of October 2008. The Greens advance a broad multi-issue political platform that reflects its core values of ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and non-violence. It has been led by Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

 since August 26, 2006.

The party broke 1% of the popular vote in the 2004 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2004
The Canadian federal election, 2004 , was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, but was able to form a minority government after the elections...

, when it received 4.3% and qualified for federal funding.
Encyclopedia
The Green Party of Canada (French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

: Parti vert du Canada) is a Canadian federal political party
Political party
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions...

 founded in 1983
1983 in Canada
-Incumbents:*Monarch - Elizabeth II*Governor General - Edward Schreyer*Prime Minister - Pierre Trudeau*Premier of Alberta - Peter Lougheed*Premier of British Columbia - Bill Bennett*Premier of Manitoba - Howard Pawley*Premier of New Brunswick - Richard Hatfield...

 with 10,000–12,000 registered members as of October 2008. The Greens advance a broad multi-issue political platform that reflects its core values of ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and non-violence. It has been led by Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

 since August 26, 2006.

The party broke 1% of the popular vote in the 2004 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2004
The Canadian federal election, 2004 , was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, but was able to form a minority government after the elections...

, when it received 4.3% and qualified for federal funding. Its support has ranged between 3.1% and 14% since the 2006 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

. In the 2008 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

, the Green Party of Canada was invited to the debates for the first time and achieved a high mark of 6.8% of the popular vote. With just under a million votes, it was the only federally-funded party to receive more votes than in 2006, but it still failed to win any seats. In the 2011 federal election the Green Party of Canada saw its share of the popular vote drop to below 4% for the first time in eleven years.

On August 30, 2008, independent MP Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson was the Canadian Member of Parliament in the 39th Canadian parliament for West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country electoral district. He was elected on January 23, 2006 in the 2006 federal election as the Liberal candidate...

 joined the Green Party and became its first Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

. He was defeated in the 2008 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

, which was called before he had a chance to officially sit in the House of Commons as a Green MP.

On May 2, 2011, Green Party leader Elizabeth May became the first elected Green Party MP to sit in the House of Commons. She won the riding of Saanich—Gulf Islands
Saanich—Gulf Islands
Saanich—Gulf Islands is a federal electoral district in British Columbia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988...

 in coastal British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

. In winning her seat, May also became of the few Greens world wide to be elected in a Federal, single-seat election.

Principles and policies

The Greens have always had leftist and centrist factions that have been ascendant at different times in the party's history. Many Greens also claim that this traditional left-right political spectrum
Left-Right politics
The left–right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. The perspective of Left vs. Right is a binary interpretation of complex questions...

 analysis does not accurately capture the pragmatic ecological orientation of an evolving Green Party. The ecumenical approach (expressing affinities with all Canadian political tendencies and making cases to voters on all parts of the left-right spectrum) has been advocated by those who believe their success can also be measured by the degree to which other parties adopt Green Party policies. By this measure of success, the adoption of a revenue-neutral Carbon tax
Carbon tax
A carbon tax is an environmental tax levied on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing. Carbon is present in every hydrocarbon fuel and is released as carbon dioxide when they are burnt. In contrast, non-combustion energy sources—wind, sunlight, hydropower, and nuclear—do not...

 at the British Columbia government level, general support for "Cap & Trade" greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

 emission reduction programs, and, the promotion of the Green (Tax) Shift by the federal Liberal Party under former leader Stéphane Dion, indicate that Green Party policies are gaining traction in Canada.

An emphasis on a green tax shift in the 2004 platform, which favoured partially reducing income and corporate taxes (while increasing taxes on polluters and energy consumers), created questions as to whether the Green Party was still on the left
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 of the political spectrum, or was taking a more eco-capitalist approach by reducing progressive taxation in favour of regressive taxation. Green Party policy writers have challenged this interpretation by claiming that any unintended "regressive" tax consequences from the application of a Green Tax Shift would be intentionally offset by changes in individual tax rates and categories as well as an 'eco-tax" refund for those who pay no tax.

Under Elizabeth May's leadership, the Green Party has begun to receive more mainstream media attention on other party policy not directly related to the environment — for example, supporting labour rights and poppy legalization in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

.

Principles

The Green Party of Canada is founded on six key principles that were adopted at the 2002 convention of the Global Greens
Global Greens
The Global Greens is a global network of Green parties and political movements. It was founded in 2001 in Canberra, Australia at the First Global Greens Congress, where the Global Green Charter was approved. The Second Global Greens Congress was held in 2008 in Sao Paolo, Brazil...

. These principles are:
  • ecological wisdom
  • non-violence
  • social justice
    Social justice
    Social justice generally refers to the idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being. The term and modern concept of "social justice" was coined by...

  • sustainability
    Sustainability
    Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

  • participatory democracy
    Participatory democracy
    Participatory Democracy, also known as Deliberative Democracy, Direct Democracy and Real Democracy , is a process where political decisions are made directly by regular people...

  • respect for diversity

Current policies

In 2011, the Green Party of Canada's policies include:
  • Reduced payroll
    Payroll tax
    Payroll tax generally refers to two different kinds of similar taxes. The first kind is a tax that employers are required to withhold from employees' wages, also known as withholding tax, pay-as-you-earn tax , or pay-as-you-go tax...

     and income taxes
  • Increased taxes on polluters
  • Income splitting for families
  • A national childcare plan
  • Support for family farms
  • Government transparency
  • Proportional representation
  • Regulation and taxation of cannabis
  • Cutting subsidies for industries that pollute
  • Subsidy for public transit and environmentally friendly technology
  • Transfers to municipalities for infrastructure
  • Access to information
  • Maintain a competitive corporate tax rate
  • Mandatory labeling of all genetically engineered (GE) foods and food ingredients
  • Maintain the ban on GE wheat and oppose GE alfalfa.
  • Federal animal welfare reform
  • Establishment of a National Pharmacare programme
  • Closing foreign tax loopholes
  • Significant shift to investment in renewable energy
  • Expansion of the ecoEnergy retrofit program
  • Reduce employee and employer contributions to EI and CPP by 1/3
  • Ending the logging tax credit
  • Scaling military spending back to 2005 levels, and reorient toward peacekeeping

Leadership

Long-time environmental activist and lawyer Elizabeth May won the leadership of the federal Green party at a convention in Ottawa on August 26, 2006. May won with 2,145 votes, or 65.3 per cent of the valid ballots cast defeating two other candidates. The second-place finisher David Chernushenko, an environmental consultant, owner of Green & Gold Inc. and two time candidate, collected 1,096 votes or 33.3 per cent of the total, while Jim Fannon
Jim Fannon
Jim Fannon , is a Canadian politician, radio talk show host, entrepreneur, and real estate agent in St. Catharines. He campaigned for the leadership of the Green Party of Canada in 2006....

, real estate agent at RE/MAX
RE/MAX
RE/MAX International is an international real estate company. It was founded in 1973 by David and Gail Liniger in Denver, Colorado, and is still owned by its founders. RE/MAX is an acronym for Real Estate MAXimum....

 Garden City Realty, four time candidate and founder of Nature's Hemp finished a distant third, collecting just 29 votes or 0.88 per cent of the vote. ("None of the above" finished last with 13 votes or 0.44 per cent of the final vote.)

On November 21, 2006, May appointed outgoing Green Party of British Columbia
Green Party of British Columbia
The Green Party of British Columbia is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. It is led by former Esquimalt municipal councillor, university professor and businessperson Jane Sterk, she was elected by the party in 2007. Penticton realtor and columnist Julius Bloomfield serves as the deputy...

 leader Adriane Carr
Adriane Carr
Adriane Carr is a Canadian academic, activist and politician with the Green Party in British Columbia and Canada. She is also a Councillor-elect on Vancouver City Council. She was a founding member and the Green Party of British Columbia's first leader from 1983 to 1985, whereafter the party...

 and Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 television host Claude Genest
Claude Genest
Claude William Genest is a former Canadian journalist, actor, and TV host. He ran as the Green Party of Canada candidate in the riding of Westmount-Ville-Marie during the 2008 federal election.-Biography:...

 as Deputy Leader
Deputy Leader
A deputy leader in the Westminster system is the second-in-command of a political party, behind the party leader. Deputy leaders often become deputy prime minister when their parties are elected to government. In opposition, deputy leaders often lead Question Time sessions when the party leader is...

s of the Party. David Chernushenko, who ran against Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

 for the party leadership, was the Senior Deputy to the Leader for the first year after Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

 was elected leader.

Previous leader Jim Harris
Jim Harris (politician)
James R. M. "Jim" Harris is a Canadian author, environmentalist, and politician. He was leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006, when he was succeeded by Elizabeth May.-Early life and Green activism:...

 was first elected to the office with over 80% of the vote and the support of the leaders of all of the provincial level Green parties. He was re-elected on the first ballot by 56% of the membership in a leadership challenge vote in August 2004. Tom Manley
Tom Manley
Tom Manley is a politician in Ontario, Canada. He was one of three co-Deputy Leaders of the Green Party of Canada until 2005, and was considered a leading candidate to be its next leader. On Friday, September 23, 2005, Manley resigned from the Green Party to join the Liberal Party of Canada...

 placed second with over 30% of the vote. A few months after the 2004 convention, Tom Manley was appointed Deputy Leader. On September 23, 2005, Manley left the party to join the Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

.

Party leaders

  • Trevor Hancock
    Trevor Hancock
    Dr. Trevor Hancock was the first leader of the Green Party of Canada. Under him, the party ran 60 candidates in the 1984 federal election. He is a public health physician, and consults with the World Health Organization. Together with Dr. Leonard Duhl, he created the Healthy Cities project that...

     (1983–1984)
  • Seymour Trieger
    Seymour Trieger
    -References:* at The Canadian Encyclopedia...

     (1984–1988)
  • Kathryn Cholette
    Kathryn Cholette
    Kathryn Cholette is a Canadian environmentalist and left-green, who served as leader of the Green Party of Canada from 1988 to 1990. Just prior to the end of her term as leader, Cholette publicly resigned her post in an article entitled "Why I Left the Green Party"...

     (1988–1990)
  • Chris Lea
    Chris Lea
    Chris Lea is a designer, politician and political activist in Canada. He was the leader of the Green Party of Canada from 1990 to 1996. He is, to date, the party's longest-serving leader. Lea is notable for being the first openly gay political party leader in Canadian history.Lea lives in Toronto...

     (1990–1996)
  • Wendy Priesnitz
    Wendy Priesnitz
    Wendy Priesnitz is a Canadian alternative education and environmental advocate. She was leader of the Green Party of Canada from July 1996 to January 1997, when she abruptly resigned....

     (1996–1997)
  • Harry Garfinkle
    Harry Garfinkle
    Harry Garfinkle is a Green politician in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. He also is Professor Emeritus, Department of Educational Foundations, University of Alberta, but retired from teaching in 1988 to focus on politics....

     (1997) (interim
    Interim leader
    An interim leader, in Canadian politics, is a party leader appointed by the party's legislative caucus or the party's executive to temporarily act as leader when a gap occurs between the resignation or death of a party leader and the election of a formal successor...

    )
  • Joan Russow
    Joan Russow
    Joan Elizabeth Russow is a Canadian peace activist and former national leader of the Green Party of Canada from 1997 to 2001.-Early career:...

     (1997–2001)
  • Chris Bradshaw
    Chris Bradshaw
    Christopher John Bradshaw is a Canadian politician and business person. He served as interim leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2001 to 2003, and has sought public office as a candidate of the Green Party of Canada and the Green Party of Ontario.Bradshaw has a Bachelor of Arts degree in...

     (2001–2003) (interim
    Interim leader
    An interim leader, in Canadian politics, is a party leader appointed by the party's legislative caucus or the party's executive to temporarily act as leader when a gap occurs between the resignation or death of a party leader and the election of a formal successor...

    )
  • Jim Harris
    Jim Harris (politician)
    James R. M. "Jim" Harris is a Canadian author, environmentalist, and politician. He was leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006, when he was succeeded by Elizabeth May.-Early life and Green activism:...

     (2003–2006)
  • Elizabeth May
    Elizabeth May
    Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

     (2006–present)


History

About one month before the 1980 federal election, eleven candidates, mostly from ridings in the Atlantic provinces, issued a joint press release declaring that they were running on a common platform. It called for a transition to a non-nuclear, conserver society. Although they ran as independents, they unofficially used the name "Small Party" as part of their declaration of unity - a reference to the "small is beautiful
Small Is Beautiful
Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered is a collection of essays by British economist E. F. Schumacher. The phrase "Small Is Beautiful" came from a phrase by his teacher Leopold Kohr...

" philosophy of E. F. Schumacher
E. F. Schumacher
Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher was an internationally influential economic thinker, statistician and economist in Britain, serving as Chief Economic Advisor to the UK National Coal Board for two decades. His ideas became popularized in much of the English-speaking world during the 1970s...

. This was the most substantial early attempt to answer the call for an ecologically-oriented Canadian political party. A key organizer (and one of the candidates) was Elizabeth May, who is now leader of the Greens.

The Green Party of Canada was founded at a conference held at Carleton University in Ottawa in 1983. Under its first leader, Dr. Trevor Hancock
Trevor Hancock
Dr. Trevor Hancock was the first leader of the Green Party of Canada. Under him, the party ran 60 candidates in the 1984 federal election. He is a public health physician, and consults with the World Health Organization. Together with Dr. Leonard Duhl, he created the Healthy Cities project that...

, the party ran 60 candidates in the 1984 Canadian federal election.

The Green Party of Canada is independent of other green parties around the world. However, all Green parties share the same philosophy. Its provincial counterparts in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, support green economics, progressive social planning, and responsible and accountable governance.

The Quebec wing hosted the 1990 Canadian Greens conference in Montreal. But soon after that, Canada's constitutional problems interfered, and many Quebec candidates abandoned the Greens in favour of a Quebec sovereigntist party, the Bloc Québécois
Bloc Québécois
The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to the protection of Quebec's interests in the House of Commons of Canada, and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was originally a party made of Quebec nationalists who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative...

. There were only six Green candidates from Quebec in the 1993 election. In the spring of 1996, although the hopes of electing a representative to the BC legislature proved premature, Andy Shadrack in the interior of the province received over 11% of the vote. Overall, the party's proportion of the popular vote surged to a new high. Shadrack was also the most popular Green candidate in the 1997 federal election, scoring over 6% of the popular vote in West Kootenay-Okanagan.

Joan Russow years

British Columbia's Joan Russow
Joan Russow
Joan Elizabeth Russow is a Canadian peace activist and former national leader of the Green Party of Canada from 1997 to 2001.-Early career:...

 became leader of the Green Party of Canada on April 13, 1997. Russow won 52% of the ballots cast in the 1997 leadership race, surpassing Ontario's Jim Harris
Jim Harris (politician)
James R. M. "Jim" Harris is a Canadian author, environmentalist, and politician. He was leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006, when he was succeeded by Elizabeth May.-Early life and Green activism:...

 (39%) and Rachelle Small (8%). Immediately upon attaining the leadership, Russow was plunged into a federal general election. Russow's campaign in 1997 set a number of important precedents. 1997 federal election
Canadian federal election, 1997
The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government...

 was the first campaign in which the Greens conducted a national leader's tour, presented a national platform and a bilingual campaign. Previous campaigns, due in part to the party's few resources and, in part, to the party's constitutional straitjacket, had been characterized by policy and spokespeople operating, at best, province-by-province and, at worst, riding-by-riding. In her own riding of Victoria
Victoria (electoral district)
Victoria is a federal electoral district in British Columbia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1872 to 1904 and since 1925....

, Russow received just shy of 3000 votes and 6% of the popular vote.

Since its inception, the party has been developing as an organization, expanding its membership and improving its showing at the polls. In the 2000 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2000
The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000, to elect 301 Members of Parliament of the Canadian House of Commons of the 37th Parliament of Canada....

, the party fielded 111 candidates, up from 78 in 1997.

Candidates were not run in Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

, as a result of ongoing divisions over Joan Russow's refusal to endorse the Green candidate in an earlier St. John's West by-election. (The candidate in question supported the seal hunt and mining development, as most locals did.) This caused much uncertainty and friction between Newfoundland's Terra Nova Green Party Association and the Green Party leader as the party gradually adapted to the realities of functioning as a true national party rather than a disorganized federation of local activists.

The conflicts left Russow isolated and alienated from most members of the party. Volunteer efforts were substantially absorbed in provincial campaigns between 2001 and 2003, and the federal party became dormant between elections, as was typical in the past. Chris Bradshaw
Chris Bradshaw
Christopher John Bradshaw is a Canadian politician and business person. He served as interim leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2001 to 2003, and has sought public office as a candidate of the Green Party of Canada and the Green Party of Ontario.Bradshaw has a Bachelor of Arts degree in...

 served the party as interim leader from 2001 to February 2003.

Breakthrough under Jim Harris

In February 2003, Jim Harris
Jim Harris (politician)
James R. M. "Jim" Harris is a Canadian author, environmentalist, and politician. He was leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006, when he was succeeded by Elizabeth May.-Early life and Green activism:...

, in his second bid for the leadership, defeated John Grogan
John Grogan (Canadian politician)
John Grogan is a Canadian politician and teacher.Grogan has lived and worked in the Robson Valley, B.C. for the past 30 years. He has held a variety of jobs—for the railway, in a sawmill, as a teacher and as a small businessperson...

 of Valemount
Valemount, British Columbia
Valemount is a village of 1,018 people in east central British Columbia, Canada. It is situated between the Rocky, Monashee, and Cariboo Mountains. It is the nearest community to the west of Jasper National Park, and is also the nearest community to Mount Robson Provincial Park, which features...

, British Columbia, and Jason Crummey
Jason Crummey
Jason Crummey is a Newfoundland author and writer.Jason Crummey was born in Old Perlican. He is a grandson of P.W. Crummey who sat at the Newfoundland National Convention.Crummey graduated from Gonzaga High School and Memorial University of Newfoundland....

. Crummey was originally from Newfoundland and involved with Newfoundland and Labrador Terra Nova Greens.

During the 2004 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2004
The Canadian federal election, 2004 , was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, but was able to form a minority government after the elections...

 the Green Party of Canada became the fourth federal political party ever to run candidates in all the ridings. When the ballots were counted, the Green Party secured 4.3 percent of the popular vote, thereby surpassing the 2 percent threshold required for party financing under new Elections Canada
Elections Canada
Elections Canada is an independent, non-partisan agency reporting directly to the Parliament of Canada. Its ongoing responsibility is to ensure that Canadians can exercise their choices in federal elections and referenda through an open and impartial process...

 rules.

Momentum continued to build around the Green Party of Canada and in the 2006 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

 the Green Party again ran 308 candidates and increased its share of the popular vote to 4.5 percent, once again securing federal financing as a result.

The party's 2006 election campaign
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

 was disrupted by allegations made by Matthew Pollesell, the party's former assistant national organizer, that Harris had not filed a proper accounting of money spent during his 2004 leadership campaign, as required by law. Pollesell issued a request that Elections Canada investigate. Pollesell and another former party member, Gretchen Schwarz, were subsequently warned by the party's legal counsel to retract allegations they had made or face a possible legal action. Dana Miller, who served in the party's shadow cabinet with responsibility for human-rights issues, made public her earlier complaints that the party has violated election law and its own constitution and has also asked for an Elections Canada investigation. Miller had been expelled from the party after filing a complaint within the party in April.

Elizabeth May years

A leadership vote
Leadership convention
In Canadian politics, a leadership convention is held by a political party when the party needs to choose a leader due to a vacancy or a challenge to the incumbent leader.- Overview :...

 was held at the party's August 2006 convention. On April 24, 2006, Jim Harris
Jim Harris (politician)
James R. M. "Jim" Harris is a Canadian author, environmentalist, and politician. He was leader of the Green Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006, when he was succeeded by Elizabeth May.-Early life and Green activism:...

 announced his intention not to stand for re-election as party leader. Three candidates officially entered the leadership race: David Chernushenko, Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

, and Jim Fannon
Jim Fannon
Jim Fannon , is a Canadian politician, radio talk show host, entrepreneur, and real estate agent in St. Catharines. He campaigned for the leadership of the Green Party of Canada in 2006....

. May won the leadership with 65% of the vote on the first ballot.

On October 22, 2006, Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

 announced she would run in the federal by-election to be held on November 27, 2006, in London North Centre
London North Centre
London North Centre is an electoral district in the province of Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1997....

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. She finished second behind the Liberal candidate but garnered 26% of the popular vote.

On August 30, 2008, Vancouver area MP Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson was the Canadian Member of Parliament in the 39th Canadian parliament for West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country electoral district. He was elected on January 23, 2006 in the 2006 federal election as the Liberal candidate...

 became the first-ever Green Member of Parliament, after sitting for nearly a year of the 39th Canadian Parliament
39th Canadian Parliament
The 39th Canadian Parliament was in session from April 3, 2006 until September 7, 2008. The membership was set by the 2006 federal election on January 23, 2006, and it has changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections...

 as an Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

. He had been a Liberal
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

 MP, but stepped down voluntarily from the caucus earlier in the parliament after anonymous allegations of campaign finance irregularities, most of which he was later cleared after a 9-month investigation by Elections Canada
Elections Canada
Elections Canada is an independent, non-partisan agency reporting directly to the Parliament of Canada. Its ongoing responsibility is to ensure that Canadians can exercise their choices in federal elections and referenda through an open and impartial process...

. Wilson had joined the Green Party during Parliament's summer recess and never sat in the House of Commons as a Green MP.

After initial opposition from three of the four major political parties, May was invited to the leaders' debates. In the 2008 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

, the party increased its share of the popular vote by 2.33% (to 6.80%), being the only federally-funded party to increase its total vote tally over 2006, attracting nearly 280,000 new votes. However, the party failed to elect a candidate. Some prominent Green Party members blamed the public discussion of strategic voting and the media's misrepresentation of Ms. May's comments during the election campaign for the failure of some promising candidates to reach Election Canada's 10% reimbursement threshold, as well as reducing the party's federal funding based on popular vote.

On August 11, 2010, 74% percent of Green party members voted to hold a leadership review after the next election, instead of in August 2010, which was when May's four year term as leader was set to end.

In the 2011 Canadian Federal Election, May was the first Green Party candidate to win a seat in the House of Commons.

Federal election results

Election # of candidates nominated # of seats won # of total votes % of popular vote
1984
Canadian federal election, 1984
The Canadian federal election of 1984 was held on September 4 of that year to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 33rd Parliament of Canada...

60 0 26,921 0.21%
1988
Canadian federal election, 1988
The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 34th Parliament of Canada. It was an election largely fought on a single issue: the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement ....

68 0 47,228 0.36%
1993
Canadian federal election, 1993
The Canadian federal election of 1993 was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time...

79 0 32,979 0.24%
1997
Canadian federal election, 1997
The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government...

79 0 55,583 0.43%
2000
Canadian federal election, 2000
The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000, to elect 301 Members of Parliament of the Canadian House of Commons of the 37th Parliament of Canada....

111 0 104,402 0.81%
2004
Canadian federal election, 2004
The Canadian federal election, 2004 , was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, but was able to form a minority government after the elections...

308 0 582,247 4.32%
2006
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

308 0 665,940 4.48%
2008
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

303 0 941,097 6.80%
2011 304 1 576,221 3.91%

Source: History of Federal elections since 1867

Electoral status

The Green Party has fielded candidates in all of the nation's ridings
Electoral district (Canada)
An electoral district in Canada, also known as a constituency or a riding, is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based...

 in two federal elections.

As of May 2, 2011, only Elizabeth May has been elected to the Canadian Parliament, but this needs some clarification. When Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson
Blair Wilson was the Canadian Member of Parliament in the 39th Canadian parliament for West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country electoral district. He was elected on January 23, 2006 in the 2006 federal election as the Liberal candidate...

, the existing MP for West Vancouver-Sunshine Coast-Sea to Sky Country joined the Green Party on August 30, 2008, he became their first MP. However as Wilson became a Green Member while Parliament was on summer recess, and the 2008 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

 was called on September 7, 2008 before the House reconvened, he never actually sat in the House as a Green MP.

Members of the party have achieved municipal offices, though most were elected as individuals and not on Green Party slates or labels in local non-partisan municipal elections. However, some people have been elected with a Green Party affiliation identified directly on the ballot. The first two were elected in the November 1999 municipal elections:
  • Art Vanden Berg, elected as a City Councillor in Victoria, British Columbia, and
  • Roslyn Cassells, elected to the Vancouver Parks Board on the same day.


Current Greens in office include:
  • Mayor Ken Melamed of Whistler, BC
    Whistler, British Columbia
    Whistler is a Canadian resort town in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada, approximately north of Vancouver...

  • Councillor Philippe Lucas in the City of Victoria
    Victoria, British Columbia
    Victoria is the capital city of British Columbia, Canada and is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of about 78,000 within the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria, which has a population of 360,063, the 15th most populous Canadian...

  • Park Board Commissioner Stuart Mackinnon in the City of Vancouver
  • Councillor Rick Goldring in Burlington
    Burlington, Ontario
    Burlington , is a city located in Halton Region at the western end of Lake Ontario. Burlington is part of the Greater Toronto Area, and is also included in the Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area. Physically, Burlington lies between the north shore of Lake Ontario and the Niagara Escarpment...

    , Ontario
    Ontario
    Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

  • Councillor Angela Reid
    Angela Reid
    Angela Reid is an elected City Councillor in the City of Kelowna and the former Deputy Leader for the Green Party of British Columbia, a position she held from 2007 to 2009. Angela was elected to the Green Party of Canada Federal Council in 2006, where she served for two years, and is the CEO of...

     in Kelowna, BC
    Kelowna, British Columbia
    Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley, in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. Its name derives from a Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear"...



Andrea Reimer
Andrea Reimer
Andrea Reimer is a Canadian politician, currently serving on Vancouver, British Columbia'sCity Council. She was first elected in 2002 to the Vancouver School Board as a Green Party candidate. She was defeated as a Green Party candidate in her re-election campaign in 2005 and then joined the Vision...

 was originally elected as a trustee on the Vancouver School Board in 2002 as a Green, but currently sits on Vancouver City Council
Vancouver City Council
Vancouver City Council is the governing body of the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.The city is governed by the Vancouver Charter, not the Community Charter and the Local Government Act which are used for other municipal governments...

 as a member of the municipal Vision Vancouver
Vision Vancouver
Vision Vancouver is one of three parties represented on Vancouver City Council in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Vision was formed in the months leading up to the 2005 municipal election.-Formation:...

 party. Former Councillor Elio Di Iorio was narrowly defeated in his 2006 reelection bid in Richmond Hill
Richmond Hill, Ontario
Richmond Hill is a town located in Southern Ontario, Canada in the central portion of York Region, Ontario. It is part of the Greater Toronto Area, being located about halfway between Toronto and Lake Simcoe...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and former Councillor Rob Strang did not run for reelection in Orangeville
Orangeville, Ontario
Orangeville is a town in south-central Ontario, Canada, and the seat of Dufferin County.-History:Before European settlers, Orangeville was thought to be a native hunting ground...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. The late Richard Thomas served as reeve of Armour Township, Ontario
Armour, Ontario
Armour is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario.Located in the Parry Sound District, the township surrounds but does not include the village of Burk's Falls...

 from 2003 until his death in 2006.

Exclusion from debates

In the 2004 election, the consortium of Canadian television networks did not invite Jim Harris to the televised leaders debate
Canadian leaders debates
Canadian leaders debates are leaders debates televised during federal elections in Canada, made up of two debates, one in French and one in English, usually held on back-to-back nights. The first time these debates were held was during the 1968 election...

s. The primary reason given for this was the party's lack of representation in the House of Commons. There were unsuccessful legal actions by the party, a petition by its supporters to have it included, and statements by non-supporters such as Ed Broadbent
Ed Broadbent
John Edward "Ed" Broadbent, is a Canadian social democratic politician and political scientist. He was leader of the federal New Democratic Party from 1975 to 1989. In the 2004 federal election, he returned to Parliament for one additional term as the Member of Parliament for Ottawa Centre.-Life...

 who believed it should be included. The Green Party was also not included in the leaders' debates for the 2006 election
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

. The same reason was given.

On September 8, 2008, the consortium announced that they would once again exclude the Greens from the French and English debates for the 2008 election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

. The party had secured a seat in the House at this point (Blair Wilson), satisfying the necessary criteria used in all previous debates dating to at least 1993. While Wilson was not elected as a Green MP, nor had he even sat in the House as one, the situation paralleled that of the Bloc Québécois in 1993. All of the Bloc's members had been elected as either Conservatives or Liberals or, in Gilles Duceppe
Gilles Duceppe
Gilles Duceppe is a Canadian politician, and proponent of the Québec sovereignty movement. He was a Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons for over 20 years and was the leader of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois for almost 15 years. He is the son of a well-known Quebec actor, Jean...

's case, as an independent, before the group formally registered as a political party. The Bloc was nevertheless included in the 1993 debates.

However, the consortium said that three parties (later identified as the Conservatives, NDP, and one other party) had threatened to boycott the debate if the Green Party was included, and that it had decided it was better to proceed with the four larger parties "in the interest of Canadians". Liberal leader Stéphane Dion supported May's inclusion in the debates but said he would also pull out if Harper withdrew. Bloc leader Gilles Duceppe said that while his party was against the Greens' inclusion, he would attend the debate whether or not they were included. The Green Party said it would sue to force the consortium to allow it to participate. This was not necessary, however, because of the networks' reversal two days later. Many people protested and threatened to boycott Layton and Harper by staging protests, as well as phoning in and e-mailing the networks and the opposing parties, prompting both parties to recant their position.

In the 2011 Canadian federal election, the consortium of broadcasters playing host to the political debates (consisting of CBC
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster...

, CTV
CTV television network
CTV Television Network is a Canadian English language television network and is owned by Bell Media. It is Canada's largest privately-owned network, and has consistently placed as Canada's top-rated network in total viewers and in key demographics since 2002, after several years trailing the rival...

, Global
Global Television Network
Global Television Network is an English language privately owned television network in Canada, owned by Calgary-based Shaw Communications, as part of its Shaw Media division...

, Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language television network. It is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, known in French as Société Radio-Canada. Headquarters are at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal, which is also home to the network's flagship station, CBFT-DT...

 and TVA
TVA (TV network)
TVA is a privately owned French language television network in Canada. The network is currently owned by Groupe TVA Inc. , a publicly traded subsidiary of Quebecor Media...

) announced it would only invite the leaders of the four recognized parties in the House of Commons, namely the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Bloc Québécois and the NDP. Therefore the Green Party would be excluded. This resulted in a response from Elizabeth May
Elizabeth May
Elizabeth Evans May, OC, MP is an American-born Canadian Member of Parliament, environmentalist, writer, activist, lawyer, and the leader of the Green Party of Canada. She was the executive director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. She became a Canadian citizen in 1978.May's...

.

Internet innovation

While the organizing and election planning was centralized, policy development was to be decentralized. In February 2004, the Green Party of Canada Living Platform was initiated by the Party's former Head of Platform and Research, Michael Pilling. Using wiki technology, the goal of the Living Platform was to open the party's participatory democracy
Participatory democracy
Participatory Democracy, also known as Deliberative Democracy, Direct Democracy and Real Democracy , is a process where political decisions are made directly by regular people...

 to the public to help validate its policies against broad public input. It also made it easy for candidates to share their answers to public interest group questionnaires, find the best answers to policy questions, and for even rural and remote users, and Canadians abroad, to contribute to Party policy intelligence.

To this end, the Green Party used the Living Platform to develop election platforms for 2004 and 2005 were developed, thus making the Green Party of Canada the first political party to use a wiki for such a purpose.

Membership exclusions

In 1998, the party adopted a rule that forbids membership in any other federal political party. This was intended to prevent the party from being taken over.

In the past, some Green Party members have been comfortable openly working with members of other political parties. For instance, GPC members Peter Bevan-Baker and Mike Nickerson worked with Liberal MP Joe Jordan to develop the Canada Well-Being Measurement Act that called upon the government to implement Genuine Progress Indicator
Genuine Progress Indicator
The genuine progress indicator is an alternative metric system which is an addition to the national system of accounts that has been suggested to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product as a metric of economic growth...

s (GPI). While the act was introduced into the House of Commons
Canadian House of Commons
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members known as Members of Parliament...

 as a private members bill, it never became law. A small number of Greens who advocate the more cooperative approach to legislation object to the new rule not to hold cross-memberships, a tool they occasionally employed.

May-Dion electoral co-operation

With Stéphane Dion
Stéphane Dion
Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP is a Canadian politician who has been the Member of Parliament for the riding of Saint-Laurent–Cartierville in Montreal since 1996. He was the leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and the Leader of the Opposition in the Canadian House of Commons from 2006 to 2008...

 winning the Liberal leadership on a largely environmentalist platform, and both the Liberals and Greens having a shared interest in both defeating the Conservatives, whose environmental policies have come under criticism from members of both parties, some political observers questioned if an alliance of some sort between the two parties might take place.

When Green Party leader Elizabeth May made the announcement that she would run in Central Nova
Central Nova
Central Nova is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1968 to 1997 and since 2004. Its population in 2001 was 73,722....

, then held by Conservative cabinet minister Peter MacKay
Peter MacKay
Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, QC, MP is a lawyer and politician from Nova Scotia, Canada. He is the Member of Parliament for Central Nova and currently serves as Minister of National Defence in the Cabinet of Canada....

, local Liberals would "neither confirm nor deny" that they had had discussions with May over ways to unseat MacKay. On March 21, Dion said, "Madame May and I have conversations about how we may work together to be sure that this government will stop to do so much harm to our environment". The speculation was confirmed when Dion and May agreed not to run candidates in each other's ridings.

May earlier attempted to broker a deal with the NDP, by contacting Stephen Lewis
Stephen Lewis
Stephen Henry Lewis, is a Canadian politician, broadcaster and diplomat. He was the leader of the social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party for most of the 1970s. During many of the those years as leader, his father David Lewis was simultaneously the leader of the Federal New Democratic Party...

 to set up a meeting with party leader Jack Layton
Jack Layton
John Gilbert "Jack" Layton, PC was a Canadian social democratic politician and the Leader of the Official Opposition. He was the leader of the New Democratic Party from 2003 to 2011, and previously sat on Toronto City Council, serving at times during that period as acting mayor and deputy mayor of...

, who both rejected the notion outright. When the May-Dion deal was announced, it was criticized by the Conservatives and NDP.

Ultimately May failed in her bid to get elected in Central Nova, losing to McKay by 18,240 votes (46.6%) to 12,620 (32.24%) in the 2008 federal election
Canadian federal election, 2008
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008 to elect members to the Canadian House of Commons of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008...

. The New Democratic Party candidate, Louise Lorifice, placed third with 7,659 votes (19.56%).

Green Party role in 2008-2009 parliamentary dispute

In December 2008, during the 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute
2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute
The 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute was a political dispute during the 40th Canadian Parliament. It was triggered by the expressed intention of the opposition parties to defeat the Conservative minority government on a motion of non-confidence six weeks after the federal election on...

, May announced the Green Party would support, from outside parliament, the proposed coalition between the Liberals and the NDP (with the parliamentary support of the Bloc Québécois), which was then attempting to displace the incumbent Conservative government. Liberal leader Stéphane Dion indicated that the Green Party would be given input, but not a veto, over coalition policy and also left open the possibility of May being appointed to the Senate if Dion were to become prime minister. Ultimately, however, the coalition fell apart after Prime Minister Stephen Harper, in order to delay an impending non-confidence vote, advised the Governor General
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

 to prorogue parliament. Liberal leader Dion resigned and was replaced by Michael Ignatieff
Michael Ignatieff
Michael Grant Ignatieff is a Canadian author, academic and former politician. He was the leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and Leader of the Official Opposition from 2008 until 2011...

 and, when parliament resumed in January 2009, the Liberal Party decided to support the Conservative government's new proposed budget. While parliament was prorogued, Harper also announced his intention to fill all current and upcoming Senate vacancies with Conservative appointees.

Provincial & territorial parties

Eight provinces and one territory have an active Green Party.

  • Green Party of British Columbia
    Green Party of British Columbia
    The Green Party of British Columbia is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. It is led by former Esquimalt municipal councillor, university professor and businessperson Jane Sterk, she was elected by the party in 2007. Penticton realtor and columnist Julius Bloomfield serves as the deputy...

  • Green Party of Manitoba
    Green Party of Manitoba
    The Green Party of Manitoba is a provincial political party in Manitoba, Canada, founded on November 11, 1998. The party is legally autonomous from the Green Party of Canada, though for several years many of its members also belonged to the Green Party of Canada in Manitoba, a federal...

  • Green Party of New Brunswick
    Green Party of New Brunswick
    The Green Party of New Brunswick was formed in November 2008 to run in provincial elections. It is a registered Green political party in New Brunswick, Canada.,...

  • Green Party of Nova Scotia
    Green Party of Nova Scotia
    The Green Party of Nova Scotia is a green political party in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It received official party status in the province in April, 2006...

  • Green Party of Ontario
    Green Party of Ontario
    The Green Party of Ontario is a political party in Ontario, Canada. The party is led by Mike Schreiner. It has never held any seats in the Ontario Legislative Assembly; however, the party did see significant gains in the 2007 provincial election, earning 8% of the popular vote with some candidates...



  • Green Party of Prince Edward Island
    Green Party of Prince Edward Island
    The Green Party of Prince Edward Island is a registered provincial political party in Prince Edward Island, Canada led by Sharon Labchuk. The party was registered in 2005 and ran candidates in both the 2007 and 2011 elections.-History:...

  • Green Party of Quebec
    Green Party of Quebec
    The Parti vert du Québec/Green Party of Quebec or PVQ is a Quebec political party whose platform is the promotion of green values. It has not elected any members to the National Assembly of Quebec...

  • Green Party of Saskatchewan
    Green Party of Saskatchewan
    The Green Party of Saskatchewan is a left-leaning Green political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.It was founded in 1998 as the New Green Alliance by environmental and social justice activists frustrated by the social democratic Saskatchewan New Democratic Party's move to the right...

  • Yukon Green Party
    Yukon Green Party
    Yukon Green Party is a territorial green political party in Yukon, Canada. It was inspired by the Green Party of Canada. Its leader is Kristina Calhoun, a stay at home mom, who has lived in Yukon since 2006. The party started out at a meeting in November 2010, and was officially registered in...


There is currently no provincial Green Party per se in Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

. An association called the Terra Nova Greens (TNG) were created in 1996. It became the Green Party of Canada's "Official Unit" for Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1998, the TNG ran a full slate of candidates for the national executive but none were elected. In 2000 TNG again ran a slate of candidates who were not elected. TNG also fielded independent candidates in three different provincial general elections. They remained the federal party's "Official Unit" until 2007, but most supporters cut ties to the national party in 2006 (or earlier) over its opposition to the traditional Newfoundland seal hunting
Seal hunting
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals. The hunt is currently practiced in five countries: Canada, where most of the world's seal hunting takes place, Namibia, the Danish region of Greenland, Norway and Russia...

. TNG was never a registered provincial political party. It was ultimately disbanded under the auspices of a Green Party of Canada paid-employee who was hired to organize the province.

The Green Party of Alberta
Green Party of Alberta
The Green Party of Alberta, also known as the Alberta Greens, was a provincial political party in the province of Alberta, Canada.The Alberta Greens were formed in 1986 and received official party status on April 6, 1990...

 was deregistered on July 16, 2009, following a severe internal dispute and the failure of the party to file its financial returns with Elections Alberta
Elections Alberta
Elections Alberta is the non-partisan organization which oversees general elections and by-elections for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. Elections Alberta also oversees Senatorial elections and plebiscites.-History:...

.

See also

  • Young Greens of Canada
    Young Greens of Canada
    The Young Greens of Canada is the youth arm of the Green Party of Canada and was formed at the 2006 leadership convention. The Young Greens are attempting to spread the Green message through the establishment of Green Party campus clubs at Canadian Universities. Currently 23 such Green political...

  • List of Green party leaders in Canada
  • Green Party of Canada leadership elections
    • Green Party of Canada leadership election, 2006

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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