Great Yarmouth
Overview
Great Yarmouth, often known to locals as Yarmouth, is a coastal town
Town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...

 in Norfolk
Norfolk
Norfolk is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The county...

, England. It is at the mouth of the River Yare
River Yare
The River Yare is a river in the English county of Norfolk. In its lower reaches the river connects with the navigable waterways of The Broads....

, 20 miles (32.2 km) east of Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

.

It has been a seaside resort
Seaside resort
A seaside resort is a resort, or resort town, located on the coast. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort.- Overview :...

 since 1760, and is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, dependent mainly on the herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

 fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline, and has now all but disappeared.
Encyclopedia
Great Yarmouth, often known to locals as Yarmouth, is a coastal town
Town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...

 in Norfolk
Norfolk
Norfolk is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The county...

, England. It is at the mouth of the River Yare
River Yare
The River Yare is a river in the English county of Norfolk. In its lower reaches the river connects with the navigable waterways of The Broads....

, 20 miles (32.2 km) east of Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

.

It has been a seaside resort
Seaside resort
A seaside resort is a resort, or resort town, located on the coast. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort.- Overview :...

 since 1760, and is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, dependent mainly on the herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

 fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline, and has now all but disappeared. The discovery of oil
North Sea oil
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid oil and natural gas, produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea.In the oil industry, the term "North Sea" often includes areas such as the Norwegian Sea and the area known as "West of Shetland", "the Atlantic Frontier" or "the...

 in the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, and today it services offshore natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 rigs. More recently, the development of renewable energy sources, especially offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm
Wind power in the United Kingdom
By mid-2011, the installed capacity of wind power in the United Kingdom was over 5.7 gigawatts and the UK is ranked as the world’s eighth largest producer of wind power. Wind power is expected to continue growing in the UK for the foreseeable future, RenewableUK estimates that more than...

 of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands
Scroby Sands wind farm
The Scroby Sands Wind Farm is a wind farm located on the Scroby Sands sandbank in the North Sea, off the coast of Great Yarmouth in eastern England, United Kingdom. It was commissioned in March 2004 by Powergen Renewables Offshore, a division of E.ON UK. It is expected to produce up to a maximum...

.

The town has a popular beach
Beach
A beach is a geological landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, lake or river. It usually consists of loose particles which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles or cobblestones...

 and two pier
Pier
A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, over water, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars...

s.

Geography and demography

The town itself is on a thin spit
Spit (landform)
A spit or sandspit is a deposition landform found off coasts. At one end, spits connect to land, and extend into the sea. A spit is a type of bar or beach that develops where a re-entrant occurs, such as at cove's headlands, by the process of longshore drift...

 sandwiched between the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 and River Yare. It is home to the historic rows and the main tourist sector on the seafront. The area is linked to Gorleston
Gorleston
Gorleston-On-Sea, also known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, forming part of the larger town of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book. The port then became a centre of fishing for...

, Cobholm and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47, A149
A149 road
The A149 is a major route in Norfolk, linking Kings Lynn to Great Yarmouth. It runs via the coast rather than on a more direct route such as the A47. The eastern section runs through The Broads.-Kings Lynn to Wells next the Sea:...

 and A12 by the Breydon Bridge.

The unparished urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 21.5 km² (8.3 sq mi) and according to the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.- Overview :...

 in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth (borough)
The Borough of Great Yarmouth is a local government district with borough status in Norfolk, England. It is named after its main town, Great Yarmouth.-History:...

. The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 66,788, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea
Caister-on-Sea
Caister-on-Sea, also known colloquially as Caister, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, close to the large town of Great Yarmouth. It is a seaside resort and busy holiday destination on the "Golden Mile", with its main attraction being its sandy "Georgian Beach". It is home to Great...

 (8,756) and Great Yarmouth (58,032). The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of around 92,500.

History

Great Yarmouth (Gernemwa, Yernemuth) lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum
Gariannonum
Gariannonum, or Gariannum, was a Saxon Shore fort in Norfolk, England. The Notitia Dignitatum, a Roman Army “order of battle” from about AD 400, lists nine forts of the Saxon Shore in south and east England, among which one was called Gariannonor...

 at the mouth of the River Yare. Its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports
The Confederation of Cinque Ports is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex. It was originally formed for military and trade purposes, but is now entirely ceremonial. It lies at the eastern end of the English Channel, where the crossing to the continent is narrowest...

, a permanent settlement was made, and the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I
Henry I of England
Henry I was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106...

 placed it under the rule of a reeve
Reeve (England)
Originally in Anglo-Saxon England the reeve was a senior official with local responsibilities under the Crown e.g. as the chief magistrate of a town or district...

.

The charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 of King John
John of England
John , also known as John Lackland , was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death...

 (1208), which gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, was amplified by several later charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston. A thirteenth century charter was granted by Henry III
Henry III of England
Henry III was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for 56 years from 1216 until his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Æthelred the Unready...

 (1207–1272) to the town of Great Yarmouth. The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton who is then to convey them to the King.

In 1552 Elizabeth
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

 granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction, confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Anne
Anne of Great Britain
Anne ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.Anne's Catholic father, James II and VII, was deposed during the...

 replaced the two bailiff
Bailiff
A bailiff is a governor or custodian ; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed...

s by a mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

. In the early 18th Century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe , born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain and along with others such as Richardson,...

's travel journals, in part as follows:
Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich; and at present, tho' not standing on so much ground, yet better built; much more compleat; for number of inhabitants, not much inferior; and for wealth, trade, and advantage of its situation, infinitely superior to Norwich.

It is plac'd on a peninsula between the River Yare and the sea; the two last lying parallel to one another, and the town in the middle: The river lies on the west-side of the town, and being grown very large and deep, by a conflux of all the rivers on this side the county, forms the haven; and the town facing to the west also, and open to the river, makes the finest key in England, if not in Europe, not inferior even to that of Marseilles itself.

The ships ride here so close, and as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the very wharf; so that one may walk from ship to ship as on a floating bridge, all along by the shore-side: The key reaching from the drawbridge almost to the south-gate, is so spacious and wide, that in some places 'tis near one hundred yards from the houses to the wharf. In this pleasant and agreeable range of houses are some very magnificent buildings, and among the rest, the custom-house and town-hall, and some merchants houses, which look like little palaces, rather than the dwelling-houses of private men.

The greatest defect of this beautiful town, seems to be, that tho' it is very rich and encreasing in wealth and trade, and consequently in people, there is not room to enlarge the town by building; which would be certainly done much more than it is, but that the river on the land-side prescribes them, except at the north end without the gate....


A grammar school
Grammar school
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and some other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching classical languages but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school.The original purpose of mediaeval...

 was founded in 1551, when the great hall of the old hospital, founded in the reign of Edward I
Edward I of England
Edward I , also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons...

 by Thomas Fastolfe, was appropriated to its use. It was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, and settled in new buildings in 1872.

From 1808 to 1814 the Admiralty in London could communicate with its ships in the port of Great Yarmouth by a shutter telegraph chain.

The town was the site of a bridge disaster and drowning tragedy on 2 May 1845 when a suspension bridge crowded with children collapsed under the weight killing 79. They had gathered to watch a clown in a barrel being pulled by geese down the river. As he passed under the bridge the weight shifted, causing the chains on the south side to snap, tipping over the bridge deck.

Great Yarmouth had an electric tramway system
Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways
Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways served the town of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk from 19 June 1902 until 14 December 1933.-Infrastructure:The tramway system comprised two separate sections divided by the River Yare....

 from 1902 to 1933.

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 Great Yarmouth suffered the first aerial bombardment in the UK, by Zeppelin
Zeppelin
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship pioneered by the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century. It was based on designs he had outlined in 1874 and detailed in 1893. His plans were reviewed by committee in 1894 and patented in the United States on 14 March 1899...

 L3 on 19 January 1915. That same year on 15 August, Ernest Martin Jehan
Ernest Martin Jehan
Ernest Martin Jehan DSC was an officer in the Royal Navy during the First World War. Jehan is best known for the sinking of a German submarine by he and his crew aboard the smack Inverlyon...

 became the first and only man to sink a steel submarine with a sail rigged Q-ship
Q-ship
Q-ships, also known as Q-boats, Decoy Vessels, Special Service Ships, or Mystery Ships, were heavily armed merchant ships with concealed weaponry, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks. This gave Q-ships the chance to open fire and sink them...

, this off the coast of Great Yarmouth. It was also bombarded by the German Navy
Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft
The Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft was a naval battle fought during the First World War between the German Empire and the British Empire in the North Sea....

 on 24 April 1916.
The town suffered Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 bombing during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 as Great Yarmouth was the last place to drop bombs before German bombers returned home but much is left of the old town, including the original 2000m protective mediaeval wall, of which two-thirds has survived. Of the 18 towers, 11 are left. On the South Quay, there is a 17th century Merchant's House, as well as Tudor
Tudor dynasty
The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised...

, Georgian
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

 and Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 buildings. Behind South Quay, there is a maze of alleys and lanes known as "The Rows"
Great Yarmouth Row Houses
Great Yarmouth Row Houses were wealthy merchant's residences located on South Quay in the town of Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk. Originally built as one family's dwelling, the properties were later sub-divided into tenements and became part of the town's distinctive 'Rows', a...

. Originally there were 145. Despite war damage, several have remained.

The northern section of the two-mile (3 km) A47
A47 road
The A47 is a trunk road in England originally linking Birmingham to Great Yarmouth. Most of the section between Birmingham and Nuneaton is now classified as the B4114.-Route:...

 Great Yarmouth Western Bypass opened in March 1986, and the southern section in May 1985. It is now the A12.

More recently flooding has been a problem, the town flooding four times in 2006. In September 2006 the town suffered its worst flooding in years. Torrential rain
Rain
Rain is liquid precipitation, as opposed to non-liquid kinds of precipitation such as snow, hail and sleet. Rain requires the presence of a thick layer of the atmosphere to have temperatures above the melting point of water near and above the Earth's surface...

 caused drains to block as well as an Anglian Water
Anglian Water
Anglian Water is a privatised water company that operates in the East of England. Named for East Anglia, apart from Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire it also covers Lincolnshire, Essex, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, a small part of north Nottinghamshire and Greater London...

 pumping station to break down and this resulted in flash flood
Flash flood
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas—washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a storm, hurricane, or tropical storm or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields...

ing around the town in which 90 properties were flooded up to 5 ft.

The town was badly affected by the North Sea flood of 1953
North Sea flood of 1953
The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm, that occurred on the night of Saturday 31 January 1953 and morning of 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland.A combination of a high spring tide and a severe European windstorm caused a...

. On 9 November 2007 the town braced itself for more flooding as a result of a tidal surge and high tide
High Tide
High Tide was a band formed in 1969 by Tony Hill , Simon House , Peter Pavli and Roger Hadden .-History:...

s but disaster was avoided and only a small area was under water.

New Ferry Route

Initially the idea of the outer harbour was sold to the public as a ferry terminal with 150,000 trucks passing through yearly and 10,000 jobs created. Before the deal was signed for the construction of the Outer Harbour Superfast Ferries disappeared from the scene and in a recent press release Managing Director Eddie Freeman of Great Yarmouth Port Company Ltd was reported as saying that he had never promised a ro-ro terminal. This seems to be reinforced by Peter Hardy of Great Yarmouth Borough Council who in the same article was reported as saying people should not get too hung up about a ro-ro terminal.[citation needed]

Sights

The Tollhouse, with dungeon
Dungeon
A dungeon is a room or cell in which prisoners are held, especially underground. Dungeons are generally associated with medieval castles, though their association with torture probably belongs more to the Renaissance period...

s, dates from the late 13th century and is said to be the oldest civic building in Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

. It backs on to the central library.

The Market
Market
A market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers...

 place is one of the largest in England, and has been operating since the 13th century. It is also home to the town's shopping sector and the famous Yarmouth chip stalls. The smaller area south of the market is used as a performance area for community events and for access to the town's shopping centre, Market Gates
Market Gates Shopping Centre
Market Gates is a shopping centre based in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. It was first opened in 1976.- The Centre :The shopping centre currently houses 45 stores over of gross leasable area. It comprises a mostly high street brands with a smaller number of independent retailers...

. In November 2008, a new section of Market Gates opened, including high street retailers such as Debenhams
Debenhams
Debenhams plc is a British retailer operating under a department store format in the UK, Ireland and Denmark, and franchise stores in other countries. The Company was founded in the eighteenth century as a single store in London and has now grown to around 160 shops...

, New Look and Starbucks
Starbucks
Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 17,009 stores in 55 countries, including over 11,000 in the United States, over 1,000 in Canada, over 700 in the United Kingdom, and...

.

Great Yarmouth railway station
Great Yarmouth railway station
Great Yarmouth railway station, formerly known as Yarmouth Vauxhall railway station, is in Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk. The station is the terminus of the Wherry Line 29 km from Norwich...

, which serves the town, is the terminus of the Wherry Lines
Wherry Lines
The Wherry Lines are railway lines in England, from Norwich to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. These lines pass through The Broads. The line is part of the Network Rail Strategic Route 7, SRS 07.11 and is classified as a rural line...

 from Norwich. Before the Beeching Axe
Beeching Axe
The Beeching Axe or the Beeching Cuts are informal names for the British Government's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways, the nationalised railway system in the United Kingdom. The name is that of the main author of The Reshaping of British Railways, Dr Richard...

 the town had a number of railway stations and a direct link to London down the east coast. The only remaining signs of these stations is the coach park where Beach Station once was and the A12 relief road which follows the route of the railway down into the embankment from Breydon Bridge.

Yarmouth has two pier
Pier
A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, over water, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars...

s, Britannia
Britannia
Britannia is an ancient term for Great Britain, and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain. However, by the...

 Pier and Wellington Pier
Wellington Pier
Wellington Pier is in the seaside Town of Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk.-History:The Pier was opened on the 31st October 1853 and the wooden structure had cost £6,776 to build. The pier was designed by P. Ashcroft. In its first year open the pier was a huge success and made an...

. The theatre building on the latter of the two was demolished in 2005 and is currently being rebuilt as a family entertainment centre. Britannia Pier is home to the Britannia Theatre which during the summer months features well known acts including; Jim Davidson
Jim Davidson (comedian)
Jim Davidson OBE is a British comedian, actor and television presenter. He has been made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to entertainment, particularly of British service personnel in conflict zones.- Biography :The son of a Glaswegian father, Davidson was born in...

, Basil Brush
Basil Brush
Basil Brush is a fictional anthropomorphic fox raconteur, best known for his appearances on daytime British children's television. He is primarily portrayed by a glove puppet, but has also been depicted in animated cartoon shorts and comic strips...

, Cannon and Ball
Cannon and Ball
Cannon and Ball are an English comedy double act consisting of Tommy Cannon and Bobby Ball. The duo met in the early 1960s while working as welders in Oldham, Lancashire...

, Chubby Brown, Chuckle Brothers
Chuckle Brothers
Barry Elliott and Paul Elliott , better known as the Chuckle Brothers, are British comedians. They are best known for their work on their BBC show ChuckleVision, which celebrated its 21st anniversary in March 2010 with a tour called An Audience with the Chuckle Brothers, which started in January...

 and The Searchers
The Searchers (band)
The Searchers are an English beat group, who emerged as part of the 1960s Merseybeat scene along with The Beatles, The Fourmost, The Merseybeats, The Swinging Blue Jeans, and Gerry & The Pacemakers....

. The theatre is one of a few end of the pier theatres left in England.

The Grade II listed Winter Gardens building sits next to the Wellington Pier. The cast iron
Cast iron
Cast iron is derived from pig iron, and while it usually refers to gray iron, it also identifies a large group of ferrous alloys which solidify with a eutectic. The color of a fractured surface can be used to identify an alloy. White cast iron is named after its white surface when fractured, due...

 framed glass structure was shipped by barge from Torquay
Torquay
Torquay is a town in the unitary authority area of Torbay and ceremonial county of Devon, England. It lies south of Exeter along the A380 on the north of Torbay, north-east of Plymouth and adjoins the neighbouring town of Paignton on the west of the bay. Torquay’s population of 63,998 during the...

 in 1903. It is said this was done without the loss of a single pane of glass. Over the years, it has been used as ballroom
Ballroom
A ballroom is a large room inside a building, the designated purpose of which is holding formal dances called balls. Traditionally, most balls were held in private residences; many mansions contain one or more ballrooms...

, roller skating
Roller skating
Roller skating is the traveling on smooth surfaces with roller skates. It is a form of recreation as well as a sport, and can also be a form of transportation. Skates generally come in two basic varieties: quad roller skates and inline skates or blades, though some have experimented with a...

 rink and beer garden
Beer garden
Beer garden is an open-air area where beer, other drinks and local food are served. The concept originates from and is most common in Southern Germany...

. In the 1990s it was converted into a nightclub
Nightclub
A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

 by comedian Jim Davidson. Today, The Winter Gardens are used as a family leisure venue, although its future is under threat owing to the cost of repairing the aging framework. During the winter of 2005 there were worries that building might collapse, and during high winds it was often closed.

Great Yarmouth's seafront, known as "The Golden Mile" attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year to its sandy beaches, Pleasure Beach, indoor attractions and amusement arcades. Great Yarmouth's Marine Parade has 12 Amusement Arcades located within 2 square miles (5.2 km²), including: Atlantis, The Flamingo, Circus Circus, The Golden Nugget, The Mint, Leisureland, The Majestic, The Silver Slipper, The Showboat, Magic City, Quicksilver and The Gold Rush, opened in 2007.

The South Denes area is home to the Grade I listed Norfolk Naval Pillar, known locally as Nelson's Monument or Nelson's Column. This tribute to Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson was completed in 1819, 24 years before the completion of Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton at a cost of £47,000. It is a column of the Corinthian...

 in London. The monument, designed by William Wilkins, shows Britannia
Britannia
Britannia is an ancient term for Great Britain, and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain. However, by the...

 standing atop a globe
Globe
A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of Earth or other spheroid celestial body such as a planet, star, or moon...

 holding an olive branch
Olive branch
The olive branch in Western culture, derived from the customs of Ancient Greece, symbolizes peace or victory and was worn by brides.-Ancient Greece and Rome:...

 in her right hand and a trident
Trident
A trident , also called a trishul or leister or gig, is a three-pronged spear. It is used for spear fishing and was also a military weapon. Tridents are featured widely in mythical, historical and modern culture. The major Hindu god, Shiva the Destroyer and the sea god Poseidon or Neptune are...

 in her left.There is a popular assumption in the town that the statue of Britannia was supposed to face out to sea but now faces inland due to a mistake during construction, although it is thought she is meant to face Nelson's birthplace at Burnham Thorpe
Burnham Thorpe
Burnham Thorpe is a small village and civil parish on the River Burn and near the coast of Norfolk in the United Kingdom. It is famous for being the birthplace of Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, victor at the Battle of Trafalgar and one of Britain's greatest heroes...

. The monument was originally planned to mark Nelson's victory at the Battle of the Nile
Battle of the Nile
The Battle of the Nile was a major naval battle fought between British and French fleets at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt from 1–3 August 1798...

, but fund-raising was not completed until after his death and it was instead dedicated to England's greatest Naval hero. It is currently surrounded by an industrial estate but plans are in place for the improvement of the area. The Norfolk Nelson Museum on South Quay houses the Ben Burgess collection of Nelson Memorabilia and is the only dedicated Nelson museum in Britain other than one in Monmouth
Monmouth
Monmouth is a town in southeast Wales and traditional county town of the historic county of Monmouthshire. It is situated close to the border with England, where the River Monnow meets the River Wye with bridges over both....

. Its several galleries look at Nelson's life and personality as well as what life was like for the men who sailed under him.
Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity and fame than had any previous author during his lifetime, and he remains popular, having been responsible for some of English literature's most iconic...

 used Yarmouth as a key location in his novel David Copperfield
David Copperfield (novel)
The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery , commonly referred to as David Copperfield, is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens, first published as a novel in 1850. Like most of his works, it originally appeared in serial...

. The author stayed at the Royal Hotel on the Marine parade while writing David Copperfield. Anna Sewell
Anna Sewell
Anna Sewell was an English novelist, best known as the author of the classic novel Black Beauty.-Biography:Anna Mary Sewell was born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England into a devoutly Quaker family...

 (1820–1878), the author of Black Beauty
Black Beauty
Black Beauty is an 1877 novel by English author Anna Sewell. It was composed in the last years of her life, during which she remained in her house as an invalid. The novel became an immediate bestseller, with Sewell dying just five months after its publication, long enough to see her first and only...

, was born in a 17th century house in Church Plain. The house is currently being used as a restaurant after being renovated in 2007.

The Time and Tide Museum
Time and Tide Museum
Time and Tide: The Museum of Great Yarmouth Life, located in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, United Kingdom, is set in one of the UK's best preserved Victorian herring curing works and is Norfolk's third largest museum. The museum is centred around Great Yarmouth's rich maritime and fishing heritage,...

 on Blackfriars Road which is managed by Norfolk Museums Service was nominated in the UK Museums Awards in 2005. It was built as part of the regeneration of the south of the town in 2003. Its location in an old herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

 smokery harks back to the town's status as a major fishing port. Sections of the historic town wall are located outside the museum.

The Maritime Heritage East partnership, based at the award winning Time and Tide Museum aims to raise the profile of maritime heritage and museum collections.

Wildlife

The Yarmouth area is home to a number of rare and unusual species. The area between the piers is home to one of the largest roosts of Mediterranean Gull
Mediterranean Gull
The Mediterranean Gull, Ichthyaetus melanocephalus, is a small gull which breeds almost entirely in Europe, mainly in the south east, especially around the Black Sea, and in central Turkey. There are colonies elsewhere in southern Europe, and this species has undergone a dramatic range expansion in...

s in the UK. Breydon Water
Breydon Water
Breydon Water is a massive stretch of sheltered estuary at Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, England. It is at gateway to the Norfolk Broads. It is the UK's largest protected wetland. It is 5 km long and more than 1.5 km wide in places...

, just behind the town, is a major wader and waterfowl site, with winter roosts of over 100,000 birds. This, and the surrounding Halvergate Marshes
Halvergate Marshes
The Halvergate Marshes are marshes situated south of the River Bure on the Norfolk Broads in Norfolk, England, United Kingdom.Halvergate Marshes were an estuary in Roman times. Around 400 years ago the land was drained and converted to grazing marsh...

 are specially protected, and the majority of the area is now owned by conservation organisations, principally the RSPB.

The North Denes area of the beach is an SSSI due to its dune plants, and is home to numbers of Skylark
Skylark
The Skylark is a small passerine bird species. This lark breeds across most of Europe and Asia and in the mountains of north Africa. It is mainly resident in the west of its range, but eastern populations are more migratory, moving further south in winter. Even in the milder west of its range,...

s and Meadow Pipit
Meadow Pipit
The Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis, is a small passerine bird which breeds in much of the northern half of Europe and also northwestern Asia, from southeastern Greenland and Iceland east to just east of the Ural Mountains in Russia, and south to central France and Romania; there is also an isolated...

s. It also hosts one of the largest Little Tern
Little Tern
The Little Tern, Sternula albifrons or Sterna albifrons, is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. It was formerly placed into the genus Sterna, which now is restricted to the large white terns . The former North American and Red Sea S. a...

 colonies in the Uk each summer, as well as a small colony of Greyling butterflies. Other butterflies found here include Small Copper
Small Copper
The Small Copper, American Copper, or the Common Copper is a butterfly of the Lycaenids or gossamer-winged butterfly family.- Description :thumb|left|Larva...

 and Common Blue
Common Blue
The Common Blue is a small butterfly in the family Lycaenidae, widespread over much of the Palaearctic. Recently, Polyommatus icarus was discovered in Mirabel, Quebec, Canada by Ara Sarafian, an amateur entomologist who observed the butterfly from 2005 to 2008...

.

The near-by cemetery is renowned as a temporary roost for spring and autumn migrants, and sometimes sees spectacular 'falls'. Redstart
Redstart
Redstarts are a group of small Old World birds. They were formerly classified in the thrush family , but are now known to be part of the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae...

 and Pied Flycatcher are often seen here during migration. It has also been the site for the first records of a number of rare insects, blown in from the continent.

Grey Seal
Grey Seal
The grey seal is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a large seal of the family Phocidae or "true seals". It is the only species classified in the genus Halichoerus...

 and Common Seal are frequently seen off-shore, as are sea-birds such as Gannet
Gannet
Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to the boobies.The gannets are large black and white birds with yellow heads. They have long pointed wings and long bills. Northern gannets are the largest seabirds in the North Atlantic, with a wingspan of up...

, Little Auk
Little Auk
The Little Auk, or Dovekie , is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle. It breeds on islands in the high Arctic. There are two subspecies: A. a. alle breeds in Greenland, Iceland, Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen, and A. a...

, Common Scoter
Common Scoter
The Common Scoter is a large sea duck, 43-54 cm in length, which breeds over the far north of Europe and Asia east to the Olenyok River. The American/E Siberian M. americana is sometimes considered a subspecies of M. nigra.It winters further south in temperate zones, on the coasts of Europe as...

, Razorbill
Razorbill
The Razorbill is colonial seabird that will only come to land in order to breed. It is the largest living member of the Auk family. This agile bird will choose only one partner for life and females will lay one egg per year. Razorbills will nest along coastal cliffs in enclosed or slightly exposed...

 and Guillemot
Guillemot
Guillemots is the common name for several species of seabird in the auk family . In British use, the term comprises two genera: Uria and Cepphus. In North America the Uria species are called "murres" and only the Cepphus species are called "guillemots"...

.

Sports and leisure

The main local football club is Great Yarmouth Town
Great Yarmouth Town F.C.
Great Yarmouth Town F.C. is an English football club based in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. The club are currently members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division and play at the Wellesley Recreation Ground, whose grandstand is believed to be the world's oldest football stand still in regular...

, also known as the Bloaters, who play in the Eastern Counties League
Eastern Counties Football League
The Eastern Counties Football League is an English football league at levels 9 and 10 of the English football league system. It currently contains clubs from Norfolk, Suffolk, northern Essex and eastern Cambridgeshire, and is a feeder to the regional divisions of the Isthmian League and Southern...

. Currently managed by Paul Tong, their ground is at Wellesley Recreation Ground (named after Sir Arthur Wellesley
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS , was an Irish-born British soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century...

). They have a strong East Anglian rivalry
East Anglian Derby
The East Anglian derby is a sobriquet used to describe football matches held between Ipswich Town and Norwich City. In recent years it has sometimes been described humorously as the Old Farm derby, a reference to the Old Firm derby played between Celtic and Rangers...

 with Gorleston
Gorleston F.C.
Gorleston F.C. is an English football club based in Gorleston, Norfolk. They are currently members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division and play at Emerald Park.The club is affiliated to the Norfolk County FA.-History:...

. The club has enjoyed limited success in the past. Local football clubs are served by the Great Yarmouth and District League
Great Yarmouth and District League
The Great Yarmouth and District League is a football competition based around Great Yarmouth in England. It was founded in 1907 and has a total of 2 divisions...

.

Yarmouth has a horse-racing track
Great Yarmouth Racecourse
Great Yarmouth Racecourse, also known simply as Yarmouth Racecourse, is a thoroughbred horse racing venue located in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England.The racecourse is a narrow, oblong track, 1 mile 5 furlongs in circumference.- External links :***...

 which features a chute allowing races of one mile (1.6 km) on the straight.

Speedway
Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

 racing was staged in Great Yarmouth before and after the Second World War. The meetings were staged at the greyhound stadium
Greyhound racing
Greyhound racing is the sport of racing greyhounds. The dogs chase a lure on a track until they arrive at the finish line. The one that arrives first is the winner....

 in Caister Road. The post war team were known as the Yarmouth Bloaters
Yarmouth Bloaters
The Yarmouth Bloaters are a defunct motorcycle speedway team who operated from the Yarmouth Stadium, Great Yarmouth from 1948 to 1962.-History:...

 (after the smoked fish
Bloater (herring)
Bloaters are a type of smoked herring. They are different from the kippers as they are smoked whole, with its innards intact which gives it its unique gamey flavour. The bloater is associated with Great Yarmouth, England; the kipper with Scotland and the Isle of Man...

). Banger and Stock car racing
Banger racing
Banger Racing is a tarmac or dirt track racing type of motorsport event popularised in both North America and Europe and especially United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium and the Netherlands in which drivers of old vehicles race against one another around a race track and the race is...

 is also staged at this stadium.

The main Leisure Centre
Leisure centre
A leisure centre in the UK and Canada is a purpose built building or site, usually owned and operated by the city, borough council or municipal district council, where people go to keep fit or relax through using the facilities.- Typical Facilities :...

 is the Marina Centre. Built in 1981 the centre has a large swimming pool
Swimming pool
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or water-based recreation. There are many standard sizes; the largest is the Olympic-size swimming pool...

, conference facilities
Conference hall
A conference hall or conference room is a room provided for singular events such as business conferences and meetings. It is commonly found at large hotels and convention centers though many other establishments, including even hospitals, have one. Sometimes other rooms are modified for large...

 and live entertainment including their famous Summer Pantomime
Pantomime
Pantomime — not to be confused with a mime artist, a theatrical performer of mime—is a musical-comedy theatrical production traditionally found in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, India, Ireland, Gibraltar and Malta, and is mostly performed during the...

s and Summer Variety Show
Variety show
A variety show, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is an entertainment made up of a variety of acts, especially musical performances and sketch comedy, and normally introduced by a compère or host. Other types of acts include magic, animal and circus acts, acrobatics, juggling...

s produced by local entertainers Hanton & Dean. The centre is run by the Great Yarmouth Sport and leisure Trust. The Trust was set up in April 2006 to run the building as a charitable non profit making organisation.

At the beginning of the 2008 summer season a worlds first Segway
Segway PT
The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing transportation machine invented by Dean Kamen. It is produced by Segway Inc. of New Hampshire, USA. The name "Segway" is a homophone of "segue" while "PT" denotes personal transporter....

 Grand Prix was opened at the Pleasure Beach
Great Yarmouth Pleasure Beach
Great Yarmouth Pleasure Beach is a historic free entry pleasure park located in the seaside resort town of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, on the English east coast. The park first opened in 1909 and has been operating ever since....

 gardens.

Pop Beach

In 2003 and 2004 T4
T4 (Channel 4)
T4 is a scheduling slot on Channel 4 from about 09:00 until 14:00 on Saturdays and 17:00 on Sundays. It also airs on weekdays in the school holidays. The slot has a separate station identification on screen graphic from Channel 4 and E4. The logo of T4 is noticeably the top right segment of the...

 hosted their T4 on the Beach
T4 on the Beach
T4 On The Beach is a British one day music event which is held on the beach at Weston-super-Mare and televised for Channel 4. The event began in 2003 as Pop Beach in Great Yarmouth, changing to the current title and venue in 2005....

 music festival in the town. It attracted around 20,000 people to the town but was moved to Weston-super-Mare
Weston-super-Mare
Weston-super-Mare is a seaside resort, town and civil parish in the unitary authority of North Somerset, which is within the ceremonial county of Somerset, England. It is located on the Bristol Channel coast, south west of Bristol, spanning the coast between the bounding high ground of Worlebury...

 in 2005.

Rail

Great Yarmouth is connected to Norwich
Norwich railway station
Norwich is a railway station serving the city of Norwich in the English county of Norfolk. The station is the northern terminus of the Great Eastern Main Line from London Liverpool Street. It is also the terminus of railway lines from Ely, Sheringham, Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft.-History:At one...

 by the Wherry Lines
Wherry Lines
The Wherry Lines are railway lines in England, from Norwich to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. These lines pass through The Broads. The line is part of the Network Rail Strategic Route 7, SRS 07.11 and is classified as a rural line...

 from Great Yarmouth railway station
Great Yarmouth railway station
Great Yarmouth railway station, formerly known as Yarmouth Vauxhall railway station, is in Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk. The station is the terminus of the Wherry Line 29 km from Norwich...

, it is served by an hourly service provided by National Express East Anglia via Acle
Acle railway station
Acle railway station is a railway station serving the town of Acle in the English county of Norfolk. The station was built in 1883 and is located on the Norwich-Great Yarmouth Wherry Line.-History:...

 or, less frequently, via Reedham
Reedham (Norfolk) railway station
Reedham railway station is a railway station serving the village of Reedham in the English county of Norfolk. The station is located on the Norwich-Lowestoft and Norwich-Great Yarmouth Wherry Lines....

. It is the only remaining station of the three once in the town.

The town was adversely affected by the Beeching Axe
Beeching Axe
The Beeching Axe or the Beeching Cuts are informal names for the British Government's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways, the nationalised railway system in the United Kingdom. The name is that of the main author of The Reshaping of British Railways, Dr Richard...

. There were previously four railway lines coming into the town; from the north the line came down the coast from Melton Constable
Melton Constable railway station
Melton Constable was a railway station on the Midland and Great Northern Railway which served the North Norfolk village of Melton Constable from 1882 to 1964...

 into the terminus at Beach station
Yarmouth Beach railway station
Yarmouth Beach railway station is a former railway station in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. It was opened in 1877 by the Great Yarmouth & Stalham Light Railway...

. From the south-west came the line from London via Beccles
Beccles railway station
Beccles is a railway station on the East Suffolk Line and serves the town of Beccles in Suffolk. There is generally a two hourly service to Lowestoft and Ipswich .-History:...

 and from the south the line from Lowestoft Central
Lowestoft railway station
Lowestoft railway station, formerly known as Lowestoft Central railway station, is a staffed railway station serving the town of Lowestoft in Suffolk. It is the terminus of the Wherry Line from Norwich and the East Suffolk Line from Ipswich. It is the easternmost station on the National Rail network...

 via Hopton
Hopton railway station
Hopton-on-Sea was a railway station serving the village of Hopton-on-Sea in Norfolk. It closed in 1970.For several years Hopton had a static Camping coach in a siding...

 and Gorleston; both of which terminated at South Town station
Yarmouth South Town railway station
Yarmouth South Town, sometimes known as Yarmouth Southtown, was a railway station in Great Yarmouth, England, that is now closed. It was one of three major stations in the town, the others being Yarmouth Vauxhall and Yarmouth Beach, of which only Yarmouth Vauxhall now remains.Yarmouth South Town...

. The only existing terminal is Vauxhall station
Great Yarmouth railway station
Great Yarmouth railway station, formerly known as Yarmouth Vauxhall railway station, is in Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk. The station is the terminus of the Wherry Line 29 km from Norwich...

 which is now simply referred to as 'Great Yarmouth station'. Whereas once the town had 17 stations within the borough
Great Yarmouth (borough)
The Borough of Great Yarmouth is a local government district with borough status in Norfolk, England. It is named after its main town, Great Yarmouth.-History:...

 limits it now only has one.

Bus

The bus station in Great Yarmouth is the major hub for local routes and is located under Market Gates Shopping Centre
Market Gates Shopping Centre
Market Gates is a shopping centre based in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. It was first opened in 1976.- The Centre :The shopping centre currently houses 45 stores over of gross leasable area. It comprises a mostly high street brands with a smaller number of independent retailers...

. The X1
First Eastern Counties route X1
First Eastern Counties route X1 is an express bus route run by First Eastern Counties. It runs from Lowestoft bus station in Suffolk to Peterborough railway station in Cambridgeshire. It is about 107 miles in length and only stops at major interchange points in urban areas...

 route operated by First Eastern Counties provides a long-distance link between Peterborough
Peterborough
Peterborough is a cathedral city and unitary authority area in the East of England, with an estimated population of in June 2007. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. Situated north of London, the city stands on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea...

 and Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Lowestoft is a town in the English county of Suffolk. The town is on the North Sea coast and is the most easterly point of the United Kingdom. It is north-east of London, north-east of Ipswich and south-east of Norwich...

 via Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

 and King's Lynn
King's Lynn
King's Lynn is a sea port and market town in the ceremonial county of Norfolk in the East of England. It is situated north of London and west of Norwich. The population of the town is 42,800....

. Other local bus services link the suburban areas of Martham
Martham
Martham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk and within the Broads National Park. It is situated some north-west of the town of Great Yarmouth and north-east of the city of Norwich....

, Hemsby
Hemsby
Hemsby is a village, civil parish and seaside resort in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated some north of the town of Great Yarmouth....

, Gorleston
Gorleston
Gorleston-On-Sea, also known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, forming part of the larger town of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book. The port then became a centre of fishing for...

, Bradwell
Bradwell
-People with surname Bradwell:*Tom Driberg, Baron Bradwell , British journalist and politician*Chris Bradwell , US athlete*James B. Bradwell , US lawyer and judge*Mike Bradwell , Canadian athlete...

 and Belton
Belton
Belton may refer to:* Belton, Texas* Belton, South Carolina* Belton, Missouri* Belton, Montana, known today as West Glacier, Montana* Belton, Ontario* Belton, North Lincolnshire* Belton, Lincolnshire** Belton House* Belton, Leicestershire...

/ These are mostly operated by First Eastern Counties and services to towns further afield such as Beccles
Beccles
Beccles is a market town and civil parish in the Waveney District of the English county of Suffolk. The town is shown on the milestone as from London via the A145 Blythburgh and A12 road, northeast of London as the crow flies, southeast of Norwich, and north northeast of the county town of...

, Southwold
Southwold
Southwold is a town on the North Sea coast, in the Waveney district of the English county of Suffolk. It is located on the North Sea coast at the mouth of the River Blyth within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The town is around south of Lowestoft and north-east...

, Acle
Acle
Acle is a small market town on the River Bure on The Norfolk Broads in Norfolk, located halfway between Norwich and Great Yarmouth. It has the only bridge across the River Bure between Wroxham and Great Yarmouth. There is a high school Acle is a small market town on the River Bure on The Norfolk...

 and Diss
Diss
Diss is a town in Norfolk, England close to the border with the neighbouring East Anglian county of Suffolk.The town lies in the valley of the River Waveney, around a mere that covers . The mere is up to deep, although there is another of mud, making it one of the deepest natural inland lakes...

 are mostly operated by Anglian Bus
Anglian Bus
Anglian Bus is a large independent bus operator based in Beccles in Suffolk, England. The company operates services over a wide area in both Norfolk and Suffolk, running a fleet of around 63 buses and coaches...

.

Port and River

The River Yare
River Yare
The River Yare is a river in the English county of Norfolk. In its lower reaches the river connects with the navigable waterways of The Broads....

 cuts off Great Yarmouth from other areas of the borough such as Gorleston
Gorleston
Gorleston-On-Sea, also known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, forming part of the larger town of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book. The port then became a centre of fishing for...

 and Southtown and so the town's two bridges have become major transport links. Originally Haven Bridge had been the only link over the river but in the late 1980s Breydon Bridge was built to take the A12 over Breydon Water
Breydon Water
Breydon Water is a massive stretch of sheltered estuary at Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, England. It is at gateway to the Norfolk Broads. It is the UK's largest protected wetland. It is 5 km long and more than 1.5 km wide in places...

 replacing the old railway bridge; the Breydon Viaduct
Breydon Viaduct
Breydon Viaduct was a railway bridge across the River Yare near Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England that was built by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway .-History:...

. both bridges can open to allow river traffic underneath which can result in traffic tailbacks. The phrase "the bridge was up" has become synonymous in the town with being late for appointments.

A ferry had been provided between the southerly tip of Great Yarmouth and Gorleston
Gorleston
Gorleston-On-Sea, also known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, forming part of the larger town of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book. The port then became a centre of fishing for...

, it provided a way of getting between the factories on South Denes and the mostly residential areas of Gorleston without taking a long detour over the bridge. However; due to increased running costs and the decline of industrial activity in the town it was closed in the early 1990s.

Since 2006, the restored pleasure steamer
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 the Southern Belle has provided regular river excursions from the town's Haven Bridge. Built in 1925 for the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe
Earl of Mount Edgcumbe
Earl of Mount Edgcumbe is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for George Edgcumbe, 3rd Baron Edgcumbe. The Edgcumbe family descends from Sir Piers Edgcumbe of Cotehele in Cornwall, who acquired the Mount Edgcumbe estate near Plymouth through marriage in the early 16th...

. Today, she is owned by the Great Yarmouth and Gorleston Steam Packet Company Limited.

Construction work on the Outer Harbour
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour is a port constructed on the east coast of England at Great Yarmouth. Construction work on the Outer Harbour began in June 2007...

 began in June 2007 and was completed by 2009, it is a deep-water harbour on the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

. Originally there were plans for a ro-ro ferry link with IJmuiden which has failed to materialise, similarly despite the installation of two large cranes in 2009 plans for a container terminal have also been scrapped.

Lifeboat station

There has been a lifeboat in Great Yarmouth since at least 1802. The early boats were privately operated until 1857 when the RNLI took over. The lifeboat station is located on Riverside Road (52.5754192°N 1.7320392°E) from where are operated the Trent class lifeboat Samarbeta and the B class (inshore) lifeboat Seahorse IV.

Road

The A12 terminates in the town as do the A143
A143 road
The A143 is a road that runs from Great Yarmouth in Norfolk to Haverhill in Suffolk.For much of the route the road is classified as a primary route. Over the years the road has been much improved with new by-passes opening at regular intervals...

 and the A47 roads. The relief road was built along the path of the old railway to carry the A12 onwards to Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Lowestoft is a town in the English county of Suffolk. The town is on the North Sea coast and is the most easterly point of the United Kingdom. It is north-east of London, north-east of Ipswich and south-east of Norwich...

 and London. Congestion is a major problem in the town and roundabout
Roundabout
A roundabout is the name for a road junction in which traffic moves in one direction around a central island. The word dates from the early 20th century. Roundabouts are common in many countries around the world...

s, junctions and bridges can become gridlocked at rush hour
Rush hour
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice a day—once in the morning and once in the evening, the times during when the most people commute...

.

Proposed third river crossing

Plans have been put forward for the construction of a third river crossing in Great Yarmouth which would link northern Gorleston
Gorleston
Gorleston-On-Sea, also known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk in the United Kingdom, forming part of the larger town of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book. The port then became a centre of fishing for...

 with the South Denes and the Outer Harbour
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour is a port constructed on the east coast of England at Great Yarmouth. Construction work on the Outer Harbour began in June 2007...

 avoiding the congested town centre. A public consultation took place in mid-2009 over the four possible proposals but as of late-2010 the plans are stalled by a lack of funding and the closure of the container terminal.

Air

The North Denes Heliport is located to the north of the town and currently operated by CHC Helicopter
CHC Helicopter
CHC Helicopter is one of the world’s largest helicopter services company specializing in: Transportation to offshore oil and gas platforms; Civilian search and rescue services; Helicopter maintenance repair and overhaul...

 but it is planned to close in 2011 with operations being moved to Norwich International Airport
Norwich International Airport
Norwich International Airport , also known as Norwich Airport, is an airport in the City of Norwich within Norfolk, England north of the city centre and on the edge of the city's suburbs....

.

First Responders

There is an East of England Ambulance Service First Responder group setup to cover the Great Yarmouth area. A First Responder scheme is made up of a group of volunteers who within the community in which they live or work, have been trained to attend emergency 999 calls by the NHS Ambulance Service. Responders are members of the community who are trained to use an Automated External Defibrillator
Automated external defibrillator
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

, Oxygen and other lifesaving equipment to assist ambulance crews. Community First Responders are not a substitute for the Ambulance Service. But, as they are based within Great Yarmouth, they are able to attend the scene of an emergency call in a very short time; often within the first few minutes and, in the majority of incidents, they will be first on scene. Community First Responders are able to administer vital, life saving first aid treatment before the arrival of an Ambulance crew. Their early intervention further increases the patient's chance of survival or may just provide the simple reassurance that the ambulance crew are on their way. Great Yarmouth First Responders themselves are not paid, being a First Responder is completely voluntary. However the Community First Responder schemes are not funded by the East of England Ambulance Service
East of England Ambulance Service
The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing National Health Service ambulance services in the counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk, in the East of England region.It is one of 12 Ambulance Trusts providing...

 and rely solely on help from the publics donations.

Notable residents

  • Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758–1805)
  • James Beeching
    James Beeching
    James Beeching was an English boat builder who invented a "self-righting lifeboat" and designed a type of fishing boat which became characteristic of the port of Great Yarmouth in the 19th century...

     (1788–1858) was a shipbuilder in the town, and his firm continued after his death well into the 20th century.
  • Oscar winning cinematographer Jack Cardiff
    Jack Cardiff
    Jack Cardiff, OBE, BSC was a British cinematographer, director and photographer.His career spanned the development of cinema, from silent film, through early experiments in Technicolor to filmmaking in the 21st century...

     (1914–2009)
  • English physician and writer Dr Thomas Girdlestone
    Thomas Girdlestone
    Thomas Girdlestone was an English physician and writer.-Education and career:After a classical education at Gresham's School, Holt, Girdlestone joined the army as a surgeon's mate, serving under Colonel Sir Charles Stuart, governor of Minorca, and in India...

     (1758–1822)
  • Captain George William Manby
    George William Manby
    Captain George William Manby FRS , was an English author and inventor. He designed an apparatus for saving life from shipwrecks and also the first modern form of fire extinguisher.-Life:Manby went to school at Downham Market...

     (1765–1854), inventor of marine lifesaving equipment
  • William Hovell
    William Hovell
    William Hilton Hovell was an English explorer of Australia.-Early life:Hovell was born in Yarmouth, Norfolk, England and went to sea as a boy, becoming a Royal Navy captain before settling in New South Wales, arriving in October 1813 aboard the Earl Spencer with his wife Esther née Arndell...

     (1786–1875), explorer of Australia was born in Great Yarmouth.
  • Sir James Paget
    James Paget
    Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet was a British surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours and Lectures on Surgical Pathology...

     (1814–99), Victorian Surgeon who had the James Paget Hospital
    James Paget Hospital
    The James Paget University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is located at Gorleston, Norfolk on the A12 road Lowestoft Road. It serves a population of around 220,000 people in the Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Waveney area. The hospital is named after Sir James Paget...

     named in his honour.
  • Anna Sewell
    Anna Sewell
    Anna Sewell was an English novelist, best known as the author of the classic novel Black Beauty.-Biography:Anna Mary Sewell was born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England into a devoutly Quaker family...

     (1820–78), author of Black Beauty
    Black Beauty
    Black Beauty is an 1877 novel by English author Anna Sewell. It was composed in the last years of her life, during which she remained in her house as an invalid. The novel became an immediate bestseller, with Sewell dying just five months after its publication, long enough to see her first and only...

  • Leading English Independent Minister William Bridge
    William Bridge
    William Bridge was a leading English Independent minister, preacher, and religious and political writer.-Life:A native of Cambridgeshire, the Rev. William Bridge was probably born in or around the year 1600. He studied at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, receiving an M.A...

     (c1600-70)
  • Alternative rock band Catherine Wheel
    Catherine Wheel
    Catherine Wheel were a four-piece alternative rock band from Great Yarmouth, England. The band was active from 1990 to 2000, experiencing fluctuating levels of commercial success, and embarking on many lengthy tours.-Biography:...

     were from Great Yarmouth
  • Rebecca Nurse
    Rebecca Nurse
    Rebecca Towne Nurse was executed for witchcraft by the government of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England in 1692, during the Salem witch trials. She was the wife of Francis Nurse, with several children and grandchildren, and a well-respected member of the community...

     ( 1621-1692 ) celebrated victim of the Salem Witch Trials
    Salem witch trials
    The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in the counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex in colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693...

    , was born in Great Yarmouth.

Twinning

Great Yarmouth is twinned with: Rambouillet
Rambouillet
Rambouillet is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.It is located in the suburbs of Paris southwest from the center...

, France

See also

  • Great Yarmouth Pleasure Beach
    Great Yarmouth Pleasure Beach
    Great Yarmouth Pleasure Beach is a historic free entry pleasure park located in the seaside resort town of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, on the English east coast. The park first opened in 1909 and has been operating ever since....

  • St Nicholas Church, Great Yarmouth
    St Nicholas Church, Great Yarmouth
    The Church of St Nicholas in Great Yarmouth, which is the largest parish church in England by floor-surface area, was founded in 1101 by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, and consecrated in 1119. It is cruciform, with a central tower, which perhaps preserves a part of the original...

  • Lydia Eva
    Lydia Eva (steam drifter)
    The Lydia Eva is the last surviving steam drifter of the herring fishing fleet based in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. The Great Yarmouth herring fleet had made the town the major herring port in the world in the early part of the 20th century.-External links:...

    the last surviving steam drifter of the Great Yarmouth herring fishing fleet

Further reading

  • Ferry, Kathryn (2009) "'The maker of modern Yarmouth': J. W. Cockrill", in: Ferry, Kathryn, ed. Powerhouses of Provincial Architecture, 1837-1914. London: Victorian Society; pp. 45-58

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK