Goznak
Overview
 
Goznak is a Unitary enterprise
Unitary enterprise
A unitary enterprise is a government-owned corporation in Russia and some other post-Soviet states. Unitary enterprises are business entities that have no ownership rights to the assets they use in their operations....

 in Russia, responsible for the production of coins and bank notes. Goznak was established on July 6, 1919, under the conditions of civil war, as an agency that administered the whole process cycle of bank note manufacturing. It incorporated several factories involved in different stages of the production cycle. Although the initial scope of Goznak had been the production of bank notes, the production of coins was added to its field of operations in 1941.
Encyclopedia
Goznak is a Unitary enterprise
Unitary enterprise
A unitary enterprise is a government-owned corporation in Russia and some other post-Soviet states. Unitary enterprises are business entities that have no ownership rights to the assets they use in their operations....

 in Russia, responsible for the production of coins and bank notes. Goznak was established on July 6, 1919, under the conditions of civil war, as an agency that administered the whole process cycle of bank note manufacturing. It incorporated several factories involved in different stages of the production cycle. Although the initial scope of Goznak had been the production of bank notes, the production of coins was added to its field of operations in 1941. Production of order
Order (decoration)
An order or order of merit is a visible honour, awarded by a government, dynastic house or international organization to an individual, usually in recognition of distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. The distinction between orders and decorations is somewhat vague, except that most...

s of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation was also administered by Goznak.

Goznak used to combine paper and printing facilities, which manufactured money
Money
Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, occasionally in the past,...

, government bond
Government bond
A government bond is a bond issued by a national government denominated in the country's own currency. Bonds are debt investments whereby an investor loans a certain amount of money, for a certain amount of time, with a certain interest rate, to a company or country...

s, check
Cheque
A cheque is a document/instrument See the negotiable cow—itself a fictional story—for discussions of cheques written on unusual surfaces. that orders a payment of money from a bank account...

s, letters of credit
Letter of credit
A standard, commercial letter of credit is a document issued mostly by a financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an irrevocable payment undertaking....

, savings-bank books (сберегательная книжка), lottery tickets, postage stamp
Postage stamp
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are made from special paper, with a national designation and denomination on the face, and a gum adhesive on the reverse side...

s, blanks of passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

s, birth certificate
Birth certificate
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth...

s, marriage license
Marriage license
A marriage license is a document issued, either by a church or state authority, authorizing a couple to marry. The procedure for obtaining a license varies between countries and has changed over time...

s, as well as publications of high artistic value, special and high-grade paper. Goznak also controls mints, which manufacture small change, orders, decorations, and commemorative medal
Medal
A medal, or medallion, is generally a circular object that has been sculpted, molded, cast, struck, stamped, or some way rendered with an insignia, portrait, or other artistic rendering. A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for athletic, military, scientific,...

s. It also manufactures credit card
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

s, banking cards, phone cards, and SIM
Subscriber Identity Module
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module is an integrated circuit that securely stores the International Mobile Subscriber Identity and the related key used to identify and authenticate subscriber on mobile telephony devices .A SIM is held on a removable SIM card, which...

 chips. Goznak not only prints Russian money, but also prints banknotes of foreign countries, including Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

. The longest-sitting chairman of Goznak is Ivan Dubasov
Ivan Dubasov
Ivan Ivanovich Dubasov was a Russian artist active in the Soviet Union. He was the head artist of the Goznak from 1932 to 1971 and was made an Honored Artist of the RSFSR in 1959. He developed sketches and designs for multiple Soviet banknotes, stamps, orders, medals, awards and decorations over...

.

History

During the reign of Peter the Great
Peter I of Russia
Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are Old Style. All other dates in this article are New Style. ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother, Ivan V...

, the Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

 established the Saint Petersburg Mint
Saint Petersburg Mint
Saint Petersburg Mint is one of the world's largest mints. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1724 on the territory of Peter and Paul Fortress, so it is one of the oldest industrial enterprises in Saint Petersburg....

 in 1724, which would centralize coinage in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and begin to produce different kinds of badges and medals used for decoration.

In 1815, after the currency crisis caused by the French invasion of Russia (1812), the government established the so-called Department of State Currency Production (Экспедиция заготовления государственных бумаг) under the authority of the Ministry of Finance; Dmitry Guriev, Minister of Finance, assigned engineer Agustín de Betancourt
Agustín de Betancourt
Agustín de Betancourt y Molina was a prominent Spanish-Canarian engineer, who worked in Spain, France and Russia. His work ranged from steam engines and balloons to structural engineering and urban planning...

 to design and build the modern, steam-powered currency printshop which was completed in 1818.

In 1838, a Russian academician
Academician
The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy.In many countries, it is an honorary title. There also exists a lower-rank title, variously translated Corresponding Member or Associate Member, .-Eastern Europe and China:"Academician" may also be a functional...

 Moritz von Jacobi (known as Boris Yakobi in Russia), employed at this Department, used his invention of galvanoplastics
Electrotyping
Electrotyping is a chemical method for forming metal parts that exactly reproduce a model. The method was invented by Moritz von Jacobi in Russia in 1838, and was immediately adopted for applications in printing and several other fields...

 to produce printing plates for the first time in printing
Printing
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

 history. In the 1890s, an employee of the Department Ivan Orlov invented and developed a new printing method, which would be called the "Orlov Stamp" (Орловская печать). Also, he built multicolor printing press
Printing press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium , thereby transferring the ink...

es, which would serve as a prototype for modern multicolor printing presses. Orlov's machines were still in use in some countries in the 1970s.

After the October Revolution
October Revolution
The October Revolution , also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution , Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917...

 of 1917, the Department of State Currency Production was reorganized and renamed Goznak (short for Государственный знак, or State Currency). Although the initial scope of Goznak had been the production of bank notes, the production of coins was added to its field of operation in 1941, when the Leningrad mint was taken over by Goznak. Goznak had its own All-union Research Institute in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. In the 1920s, a Goznak employee and a prominent Soviet sculptor
Sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

 Ivan Shadr
Ivan Shadr
Ivan Shadr , pseudonym of Ivan Dmitriyevich Ivanov was a Russian/Soviet sculptor and medalist who took his pseudonym after his hometown of Shadrinsk.- Life :...

 created the first samples of the Soviet money. In the 1950s – 1960s, an employee of the Goznak’s Moscow Printing Factory V.A.Oleynik invented an original money counting device, which would be further developed by other workers of the All-union Research Institute. Thus, all of the paper and printing factories and mints of the Goznak were equipped with the counting machines.

Currently, Goznak is a Russian Federal Government-owned corporation that consists of:
  • Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

     mint
  • Perm
    Perm
    Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov ....

     printing shop
  • Saint Petersburg Paper Mill
  • Saint Petersburg Mint
    Saint Petersburg Mint
    Saint Petersburg Mint is one of the world's largest mints. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1724 on the territory of Peter and Paul Fortress, so it is one of the oldest industrial enterprises in Saint Petersburg....

  • Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

     printing shop
  • Research Institute of Goznak (Moscow)
  • Krasnokamsk
    Krasnokamsk
    Krasnokamsk is a town of krai significance in Perm Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kama River, west of Perm by road. Population: Municipally, the town territory is incorporated as Krasnokamsky Municipal District.-History:...

     paper mill
  • Moscow typography

ePassport

Since beginning of 2006, the Moscow Printing Factory of Goznak (MPF Goznak) started with the personalization of the first ePassports. The current ePassport - often announced as biometric passport - does not contain any biometric data yet.Since the production capacities were low, the ePassports was only issued for certain regions of Russia.
Starting 2008, MPF Goznak increased its capacities significantly. Objective is a possible output of more than 5 million ePassports per year. The personalization ePassport equipment for the Russian ePassport is provided by the German company Mühlbauer AG. From January 2008 till September 2008 more than 800.000 ePassports have been issued.

190th Anniversary

On September 3, 2008 Goznak celebrated its 190th anniversary. During these days the 1.000.000th Russian ePassport have been issued.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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