Gmunden
Overview
 
Gmunden is a town in Upper Austria
Upper Austria
Upper Austria is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on Germany and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria, Styria, and Salzburg...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 in the district of Gmunden
Gmunden (district)
Bezirk Gmunden is a district of the state ofUpper Austria in Austria.- Municipalities :Towns are indicated in boldface; market towns in italics; suburbs, hamlets and other subdivisions of a municipality are indicated in small characters.*Altmünster*Bad Goisern*Bad...

. It has 13,202 inhabitants (estimates 2004). It is much frequented as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of goat, lake, brine, vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, etc. It is also an important centre of the salt industry in Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
The Salzkammergut is a resort area located in Austria. It stretches from City of Salzburg to the Dachstein mountain range, spanning the federal states of Upper Austria , Salzburg , and Styria . The main river of the region is the Traun, a tributary of the Danube...

.
Gmunden covers an area of 63.49 km² and has a median height of 425 m.
Encyclopedia
Gmunden is a town in Upper Austria
Upper Austria
Upper Austria is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on Germany and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria, Styria, and Salzburg...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 in the district of Gmunden
Gmunden (district)
Bezirk Gmunden is a district of the state ofUpper Austria in Austria.- Municipalities :Towns are indicated in boldface; market towns in italics; suburbs, hamlets and other subdivisions of a municipality are indicated in small characters.*Altmünster*Bad Goisern*Bad...

. It has 13,202 inhabitants (estimates 2004). It is much frequented as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of goat, lake, brine, vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, etc. It is also an important centre of the salt industry in Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
The Salzkammergut is a resort area located in Austria. It stretches from City of Salzburg to the Dachstein mountain range, spanning the federal states of Upper Austria , Salzburg , and Styria . The main river of the region is the Traun, a tributary of the Danube...

.

Geography

Gmunden covers an area of 63.49 km² and has a median height of 425 m. It is situated next to the lake Traunsee
Traunsee
Traunsee is a lake in the Salzkammergut, Austria, located at . Its surface is approximately 24.5 km² and its maximum depth is 191 metres. It is a popular tourist destination, and its attractions include Schloss Ort, a medieval castle....

 on the Traun River
Traun River
Traun is a river in the Austrian state of Upper Austria. Its source is in the Totes Gebirge mountain range in Styria. It flows through the Salzkammergut area and the lakes Hallstätter See and Traunsee. The Traun is a right tributary of the Danube, which it meets near the City of Linz...

 and is surrounded by high mountains, as the Traunstein (mountain)
Traunstein (mountain)
Traunstein is the highest mountain on the east bank of Traunsee in the district of Gmunden. As measured by the height above sea level of its summit it is 1691 metres high. Because of its almost vertical walls ending directly in the lake and secluded, advanced position Traunstein looks like a...

 (5446 ft.), the Erlakogel (5150 ft.), the Wilder Kogel (6860 ft.) and the Höllengebirge.

Municipal arrangement

Gmunden is divided into the following boroughs: Gmunden, Gmunden-Ort, Schlagen, Traundorf, Unterm Stein.

Neighboring municipalities

Ohlsdorf
Ohlsdorf
Ohlsdorf is a municipality in the district of Gmunden in Upper Austria, Austria....

Gschwandt
Gschwandt
Gschwandt is a municipality in the district of Gmunden in Upper Austria, Austria....

Pinsdorf
Pinsdorf
Pinsdorf is a village in Upper Austria, Austria in the district of Gmunden. The 2001 census indicates a population of 3,445 inhabitants. Dieter Helms has been mayor of Pinsdorf since 2002.-History:...

Sankt Konrad
Sankt Konrad
St. Konrad is a town located in the Gmunden district in the state of Upper Austria in Austria. The town, located 585 m above sea level, is part of the Salzkammergut resort area in Austria.-External links:*...

Altmünster
Altmünster
Altmünster is a market town located about 3 kilometres south of Gmunden in Upper Austria, on the west shore of the Traunsee. Its economic base consists primarily of tourism, light industry, and as a bedroom community for people working in larger communities such as Gmunden and Vöcklabruck....

Ebensee
Ebensee
Ebensee is a market town in the Traunviertel region of the Austrian state of Upper Austria, located within the Salzkammergut Mountains at the southern end of the Traunsee. The regional capital Linz lies approximately to the north, nearest towns are Gmunden and Bad Ischl...


Demographics

Gmunden's population
1869 to 2001
Year Population Year Population
1869 6.857 1939 10.792
1880 6.857 1951 12.894
1890 7.521 1961 12.518
1900 8.451 1971 12.331
1910 8.451 1981 12.653
1923 9.633 1991 13.133
1934 9.838 2001 13.336


As of 2001, Gmunden has a population of 13,336. Of that, 88.4 % are Austrian
Austrians
Austrians are a nation and ethnic group, consisting of the population of the Republic of Austria and its historical predecessor states who share a common Austrian culture and Austrian descent....

 in nationality, 1.5 % are from other European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 states, and 10.2 % are other foreigners. Citizens of Bosnia-Herzegovina (3.6 %) and the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (2.7 %) placed the strongest foreigner portion, followed by Turks (1.2 %) and Germans (1.1 %).

The majority (69.3 %) confess themselves to the Roman Catholic Church. Evangelicals
Evangelism
Evangelism refers to the practice of relaying information about a particular set of beliefs to others who do not hold those beliefs. The term is often used in reference to Christianity....

 are next, which 7.3 % of the population associate with. 5.9 % are Muslims and 3.3 % are Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

. 10.3 % are nonreligious.

History

A settlement was in existence already in the fifth century AC. By 1186 Gmunden was a fortified town surrounded by walls, although it did not receive a church until about 1300. On November 14, 1626 an army of rebellious peasants was completely defeated at Gmunden by General Pappenheim
Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim was field marshal of the Holy Roman Emperor in the Thirty Years' War.-Biography:...

, who had been ordered by Maximilian I
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian I, Duke/Elector of Bavaria , called "the Great", was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War ....

 to suppress the peasant rebellion in Upper Austria
Upper Austria
Upper Austria is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on Germany and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria, Styria, and Salzburg...

.
The dead peasant insurgents were buried in nearby Pinsdorf
Pinsdorf
Pinsdorf is a village in Upper Austria, Austria in the district of Gmunden. The 2001 census indicates a population of 3,445 inhabitants. Dieter Helms has been mayor of Pinsdorf since 2002.-History:...

, where an obelisk
Obelisk
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, and is said to resemble a petrified ray of the sun-disk. A pair of obelisks usually stood in front of a pylon...

 styled memorial
Memorial
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains, and even entire parks....

 known as the Bauernhügel in their honour can still be seen.

Gmunden supplied battleships to Austria during the 17th century and helped wounded soldiers in hospitals in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, an SS maternity home was located here, "to insure racial purity" in accordance with Nazi racial theories.

Politics

The local council consists of 37 members. Since 2003 the members are from the following political parties:
  • ÖVP
    OVP
    OVP is a three-letter abbreviation that may refer to:*The Office of the Vice President of the United States*The Office of the Vice President of the Philippines*OVP , a light sub-machine gun developed in Italy...

    : 19 seats
  • SPÖ
    SPO
    - Technology :SPO: Microsoft SharePoint Online, Microsoft Cloud Computing, Office 365. See Microsoft Online Services-Economics:* Secondary Public Offering, an equity capital market instrument...

    : 11 seats
  • Die Grünen
    Die Grünen
    Die Grünen may refer to:*Austrian Green Party*German Green Party*Green Party of Switzerland...

    : 4 seats
  • FPÖ
    FPO
    FPO may refer to:*Fleet Post Office, a "city" designation in military mail *Field post office, a term for military post offices in military mail systems *For position only, a designation for placeholder graphics...

    : 3 seats


Since 1997 the mayor has been Heinz Köppl of the ÖVP.

Main sights

There are a great number of excursions and points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the Traun Fall, 10 miles (16.1 km) north of Gmunden, a castle called Schloss Ort
Schloss Ort
Schloss Ort is an Austrian castle situated in the Traunsee lake, in Gmunden, 19 km from Vöcklabruck, the gate to Salzkammergut.-Early history:...

, and a ceramic factory producing Gmunden Keramik branded pottery. The town hall is also a popular tourist destination.

Education

In Gmunden there are to four kindergartens, four elementary schools and three hauptschule
Hauptschule
A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

. The three high schools are BG/BRG Gmunden, BRG Schloss Traunsee, and Gymnasium Ort.

People

  • Caspar Erasmus Duftschmid
    Caspar Erasmus Duftschmid
    Caspar Erasmus Duftschmid properly Kaspar was an Austrian naturalist and physician who made significant contributions to entomology, especially Coleoptera.He was born in Gmunden 19 November 1767 and died in Linz 17 December 1821....

    , born here
  • Heinrich Schiff
    Heinrich Schiff
    Heinrich Schiff is an Austrian cellist and conductor. He studied cello with Tobias Kühne and André Navarra and made his solo debut in Vienna and London in 1971...

    , cellist and conductor, born here
  • Duchess Maria Amalia of Württemberg, born here; see Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg
    Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg
    Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg or Albrecht Herzog von Württemberg was a German Generalfeldmarschall and head of the Royal House of Württemberg...

  • Johannes von Gmunden
    Johannes von Gmunden
    Johannes von Gmunden was a German/Austrian astronomer, mathematician, humanist and early instrument maker.He received the degree of a master of arts at Vienna University in 1406...

  • Andreas Berger
    Andreas Berger
    Andreas Berger is a former Austrian track and field sprinter, who ran in the 100m and 200m.His biggest success came in 1989 when he won the European Indoor Championship's 60 meter dash. In 1987 and 1989 he reached the semi-finals and 1989...

    , born here
  • Princess Marie Louise of Hanover, born here
  • Princess Alexandra of Hanover (1882–1963), born at the Schloss Ort
  • Prince Otto Heinrich of Hanover
    Prince Otto Heinrich of Hanover
    Prince Otto Heinrich of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg , Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg) was the only child of music producer Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover and his wife,...

    , born here
  • Prince George William of Hanover (1880–1912), born here
  • Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover
    Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover
    Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover , Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg was the fourth son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and his wife Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Viktoria of...

    , born here
  • Prince Welf Henry of Hanover, born here

Famous residents

  • Thomas Bernhard
    Thomas Bernhard
    Thomas Bernhard was an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet. Bernhard, whose body of work has been called "the most significant literary achievement since World War II," is widely considered to be one of the most important German-speaking authors of the postwar era.- Life :Thomas Bernhard was...

    , playwright and novelist
  • George V of Hanover
    George V of Hanover
    George V was King of Hanover, the only child of Ernest Augustus I, and a grandchild of King George III of the United Kingdom. In the peerage of Great Britain, he was 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 2nd Earl of Armagh...

    , exiled here
  • Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, exiled and died here
  • Princess Thyra of Denmark
    Princess Thyra of Denmark
    Princess Thyra of Denmark was the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel.-Early life:Thyra was the sister of Frederik VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, George I of Greece and...

    , lived and died here
  • Princess Marie of Hanover
    Princess Marie of Hanover
    Princess Marie of Hanover was the younger daughter of King George V of Hanover and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.-Biography:...

    , lived and died here
  • Ludwig Bemelmans
    Ludwig Bemelmans
    Ludwig Bemelmans was an Austrian author, an internationally known gourmet, and a writer and illustrator of children's books. He is most noted today for his Madeline books, six of which were published from 1939-1961...

    , grew up here
  • Gabi Burgstaller
    Gabi Burgstaller
    Gabi Burgstaller is an Austrian politician, and the current governor of the State of Salzburg.She was born in Penetzdorf/Niederthalheim near Schwanenstadt in Upper Austria. After matriculation at a high school in Gmunden and one year abroad in England, she studied Law at the University of Salzburg...

    , went to high school
  • Walter Reder
    Walter Reder
    SS-Sturmbannführer Walter Reder was a German Waffen-SS officer who served with the 3.SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf and the 16.SS-Panzergrenadier-Division Reichsführer-SS. He was a Knight's Cross and German Cross in Gold winner...

    , buried here
  • Betty Haag
    Betty Haag
    Betty Haag is an American music educator. She received Bachelor and Master of Music degrees from Indiana University where she was the recipient of the Goodbody Fellowship and the Performer's Certificate...

    , lived near here as a professor
  • Jory Vinikour
    Jory Vinikour
    Jory Vinikour is an American harpsichordist. He has been living in Paris since 1990, where he studied on a scholarship from the Fulbright Foundation with Huguette Dreyfus and Kenneth Gilbert....

    , lived as a teacher at the Austrian Baroque Academy of Gmunden
  • Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
    Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
    Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.-Early life:Marie was born at Hildburghausen, as Princess Marie of...

    , exiled and died here
  • Princess Frederica of Hanover
    Princess Frederica of Hanover
    Princess Frederica of Hanover, was a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived mostly in England, where she was a prominent member of Society.-Early life:...

    , lived here
  • Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, married here
  • Christoph Ransmayr
    Christoph Ransmayr
    Christoph Ransmayr is an Austrian writer.- Life :Born in Wels, Upper Austria Ransmayr grew up in Roitham near Gmunden and the Traunsee. From 1972 to 1978 he studied philosophy and ethnology in Vienna...

    , grew up near here
  • Carl Rahl
    Carl Rahl
    Carl Rahl, sometimes spelled Karl Rahl , was an Austrian painter.Rahl was born in Vienna to Carl Heinrich Rahl , an engraver. He attended the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna and won a prize at the age of 19. From there he traveled to Munich, Stuttgart, Hungary, and in 1836 to Italy...

    , lived here
  • Christian Griepenkerl
    Christian Griepenkerl
    Christian Griepenkerl was a German painter and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna.Griepenkerl was born to one of Oldenburg's leading families...

    , lived here
  • John Haswell
    John Haswell
    John Haswell was an engineer and locomotive designer.He was born on 20 March 1812 in Lancefield, Glasgow, Scotland, studied at Anderson's University in Glasgow and worked for 22 years in the shipbuilding office of William Fairbairn & Co.In 1837 at the prompting of Matthias Schönerer, who was also...

    , worked here
  • Horaz Krasnopolski, died here
  • Matthias von Schönerer
    Matthias von Schönerer
    Mathias Ritter von Schönerer was one of the most important railway pioneers in Austria. He built the Südrampe or South Ramp on the Budweis–Linz–Gmunden wagonway and its extension to Gmunden by the Traunsee lake...

    , worked here
  • Prince Christian of Hanover (1885–1901), died here
  • Count Richard Belcredi
    Count Richard Belcredi
    Count Richard Belcredi was an Austrian civil servant and statesman....

    , died here
  • Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria
    Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria
    Archduchess Margarete Sophie Marie Annunciata Theresia Caroline Luise Josephe Johanna of Austria, full German name: Margarete Sophie Marie Annunciata Theresia Caroline Luise Josephe Johanna, Erzherzogin von Österreich was a member of...

    , died here
  • Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies
    Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies
    Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies was Grand Duchess of Tuscany from 1833 to 1859 as the consort of Leopold II...

    , died here
  • Princess Olga of Hanover (1884–1958), lived and died here
  • Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen
    Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen
    Princess Alexandra of Hanover , Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Princess of Leiningen is the wife of Andreas, 8th Prince of Leiningen....

    , married here
  • Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover
    Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover
    Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover was a member of the House of Hanover and a music producer.-Early life and career:...

    , died here

See also

Gmunden Straßenbahn
Gmunden Straßenbahn
The Gmunden Tramway , located in Gmunden, Austria, is the shortest and oldest remaining tram system in Austria. It is operated by Stern & Hafferl, which was founded in 1893. The tramway was opened on 13 August 1894. It is 2.3 km long...

, the town tramway.

External links

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