Glossary of wildland fire terms
Overview
The following is a glossary of wildfire terms. Except where noted, terms are taken from a 1998 Fireline Handbook transcribed for a Conflict 21 counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 studies website by the Air National Guard
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard , often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States. Established under Title 10 and...

.

Separate glossaries for firefighting terms
Glossary of firefighting terms
Firefighting jargon includes a diverse lexicon of both common and idiosyncratic terms. One problem that exists in trying to create a list such as this is that much of the terminology used by a particular department is specifically defined in their particular standing operating procedures, such that...

 and firefighting equipment
Glossary of firefighting equipment
- A :* Adapter: plumbing accessories for connecting hoses and pipes of incompatible diameter, thread, or gender. See also reducer, increaser, double male, double female, water thief. May contain combinations, such as a double-female reducer...

 are also available.
  • Aerial canopy: Fuel type consisting of trees having few low branches, making it less susceptible to ignition by low-intensity fires.
  • Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting is the use of aircraft and other aerial resources to combat wildfires. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are also classified as aerial firefighters, delivered to the fire by parachute from a variety of fixed-wing...

    (or air attack): Use of aircraft in support of ground resources to combat wildfires, often most effective in initial attack in light fuels.
  • Air drop: Delivery of supplies or retardant from the air.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The following is a glossary of wildfire terms. Except where noted, terms are taken from a 1998 Fireline Handbook transcribed for a Conflict 21 counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 studies website by the Air National Guard
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard , often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States. Established under Title 10 and...

.

Separate glossaries for firefighting terms
Glossary of firefighting terms
Firefighting jargon includes a diverse lexicon of both common and idiosyncratic terms. One problem that exists in trying to create a list such as this is that much of the terminology used by a particular department is specifically defined in their particular standing operating procedures, such that...

 and firefighting equipment
Glossary of firefighting equipment
- A :* Adapter: plumbing accessories for connecting hoses and pipes of incompatible diameter, thread, or gender. See also reducer, increaser, double male, double female, water thief. May contain combinations, such as a double-female reducer...

 are also available.
  • Aerial canopy: Fuel type consisting of trees having few low branches, making it less susceptible to ignition by low-intensity fires.
  • Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting is the use of aircraft and other aerial resources to combat wildfires. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are also classified as aerial firefighters, delivered to the fire by parachute from a variety of fixed-wing...

    (or air attack): Use of aircraft in support of ground resources to combat wildfires, often most effective in initial attack in light fuels.
  • Air drop: Delivery of supplies or retardant from the air. Supplies can be dropped by parachute. Retardant is dropped in a single "salvo" or one or more "trails", the size of which is determined by the wind and the volume, speed and altitude of the airtanker (usually no less than 200 feet above the drop zone).
  • Air operations: Group tasked with coordinating aerial-based observation, supply, rescue and suppression at a wildfire
    Wildfire
    A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

    .
  • Air Tactical Group Supervisor or Air Attack: Coordinates air resources for attack of a fire.
  • Airtanker
    Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting is the use of aircraft and other aerial resources to combat wildfires. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are also classified as aerial firefighters, delivered to the fire by parachute from a variety of fixed-wing...

    : Fixed-wing aircraft certified by FAA as being capable of transport and delivery of 600 to 3,0000 gallons of water or other liquid or powder fire retardants. Formerly referred to as "borate bombers" before borate-based retardants became less desirable. Often accompanied by a spotter plane.
  • Anchor point: An advantageous location, usually a barrier to fire spread, from which to start constructing a fireline. The anchor point is used to minimize the chance of being flanked (or outflanked) by the fire while the line is being constructed.

B

  • Backburn: Precautionary fire set downwind of main fire for controlled fuel clearing by "backing" it into the main fire, similar to burnout, below, which occurs adjacent to control line.
  • Backfire: A fire set along the inner edge of a fireline to consume the fuel in the path of a wildfire and/or change the direction or force of the fire’s convection column.
  • Bambi bucket
    Bambi bucket
    A helicopter bucket is a specialised bucket suspended on a cable carried by a helicopter to deliver water for aerial firefighting. Each bucket has a release valve on the bottom which is controlled by the helicopter crew. When the helicopter is in position, the crew releases the water to extinguish...

    : collapsible bucket for lifting and moving water or other fire retardant with a helicopter
    Helicopter
    A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

    . (Note: The name was in use many years before the trademark owner claimed it in 1983.)
  • Barrier: Any obstruction to the spread of fire. Typically an area or strip devoid of combustible fuel.
  • Base: (1) staging and/or command center location for fire operations; (2) starting location of a fire; (3) base camp: location for eating, sleeping, etc., near staging or command center.
  • Berm
    Berm
    A berm is a level space, shelf, or raised barrier separating two areas. Berm originates in the Middle Dutch and German berme and came into usage in English via French.- History :...

    : Soil heaped on the downhill side of a traversing fireline below a fire, to trap rolling firebrands.
  • Blackline: A condition where no combustible fuels remain between the fireline and the main fire.
  • Blowup: Sudden increase in fireline intensity or rate of spread of a fire sufficient to preclude direct control or to upset existing suppression plans. Often accompanied by violent convection and may have other characteristics of a firestorm.
  • Boise Interagency Fire Center (BIFC): The former name of the National Interagency Fire Center (see below); often pronounced as "biff-see".
  • Bone yard: A noun meaning an area scraped to mineral soil for safe handling of smoldering materials; a verb meaning systematic mop-up of smoldering materials by scraping off embers, placing materials into the bone yard area.
  • Booster hose, booster pump, booster reel: small solid hose on a reel connected to a small pump fitted to a water tank on a vehicle. Booster pump also refers to pump in a relay series for pumping uphill beyond the lift of the previous pump.
  • Brush blade: Rake attachment for cutting or ripping brush and roots out of a fireline.
  • Brush hook: Cutting tool used to clear brush, longer than a machete, usually with a heavy, solid,curved blade bolted to the end of an arm's-length handle.
  • Brush truck: Small fire truck outfitted for wildland fire. Also called a "Type 6 Engine."
  • Bump up: To move to another location. Can refer to anything from moving to another location on a fireline, to an entire crew moving to another fire. "Bump back" means to return to your previous location. In the "bump" system of fireline construction, each firefighter works on a small piece of fireline with his or her tool, perhaps slowly walking as the line progresses, until a completed portion of line is encountered. Then the call to "bump up!" is heard, and everyone ahead of the caller skips ahead one or more positions, leaving the unfinished fireline for those coming up behind. This is known as the bump up method or leapfrog method.
  • Burning index: relative measure of fire-control difficulty; doubling the index means twice the effort may be needed to control the fire (e.g., wind shift, heavier fuel load, etc.).
  • Burn out: Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel between the edge of the fire and the control line.
  • Burning period: The part of each 24-hour period when fires spread most rapidly; typically from 10:00 AM to sundown.
  • Bushfire: A bushfire is a wildfire
    Wildfire
    A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

     that occurs in the forest
    Forest
    A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

    s, scrubs, woodland
    Woodland
    Ecologically, a woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of...

    s or grassland
    Grassland
    Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants . However, sedge and rush families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica...

    s of Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     or New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

    .

C

  • Candle: A standing tree with a broken top which often continues to burn after the main firefront has passed. Candles usually send up a fountain of sparks and burning embers which may travel some distance and be of concern if near the unburnt side of a control line.
  • Closed area: An area in which specified activities or entry are temporarily restricted to reduce risk of human-caused fires.
  • Closure: Legal restriction, but not necessarily elimination, of specified activities such as smoking, camping, or entry that might cause fires in a given area.
  • Cold trailing: A method of controlling a partly dead fire edge by carefully inspecting and feeling with the hand for heat to detect any fire, and lining any live edge. This method is the only way to fly in the Great Basin.
  • Complex: Two or more individual incidents located in the same general area which are assigned to a single incident commander or unified command.
  • Confine a fire: The least aggressive wildfire suppression strategy which can be expected to keep the fire within established boundaries of constructed firelines under prevailing conditions.
  • Contain a fire: A moderately aggressive wildfire suppression strategy which can be expected to keep the fire within established boundaries of constructed firelines under prevailing conditions.
  • Control line: An inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated (retardant) fire edges used to control a fire.
  • Controlled burn
    Controlled burn
    Controlled or prescribed burning, also known as hazard reduction burning or Swailing is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for...

    : See Prescribed Burn (Rx burn).
  • Coyote tactics: A progressive line construction duty involving primarily hotshot and jumpers which build fireline until the end of the operational and then bed down where ever they end up sleeping just as they started the shift, no sleeping bag. "Coyoteing" is not to be confused with "spiking" where sleeping bags a hot buckets are the prizes of the day. Coyoteing is a very useful tool although very uncomfortable. For the privilege of coyoteing personnel are compensated while they sleep (usually).
  • Creeping fire: Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly.
  • Crown fire: A fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs more or less independent of a surface fire. Crown fires are sometimes classed as running or dependent to distinguish the degree of independence from the surface fire.
  • Crown out: see "Torching"

D

  • Dead Man Zone
    Dead Man Zone
    The Dead Man Zone is defined as the area directly around a bushfire that is likely to burn within five minutes given the current wind conditions or an anticipated change in wind direction...

    : Unburnt areas around edges of brush fire.
  • Demob: Demobilization, or a crew being removed from working a fire.
  • Direct Attack: Any treatment applied directly to burning fuel such as wetting, smothering, or chemically quenching the fire or by physically separating the burning from unburned fuel.
  • Dozer line: Fireline constructed by the front blade of a bulldozer
    Bulldozer
    A bulldozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device to loosen densely-compacted materials.Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites,...

     or any tracked vehicle with a front mounted blade used for exposing mineral soil. Also "catline."
  • Drafting
    Draft (water)
    The term drafting water refers to the use of suction to move a liquid such as water from a vessel or body of water below the intake of a suction pump. A rural fire department or farmer might draft water from a pond as the first step in moving the water elsewhere...

    : using a suction pump to lift water from below the pump, using a semi-rigid suction hose, typically to fill a portable reservoir that has other suction pumps (to relay) or siphon hoses running downhill to their nozzles.
  • Drip torch
    Driptorch
    A driptorch is a tool used in wildfire suppression, controlled burning, and other forestry applications to intentionally ignite fires.The driptorch consists of a canister for holding fuel with a handle attached to the side, a spout with a loop to prevent fire from entering the fuel canister, a...

    : hand-carried fire-starting device filled with flammable liquid that is poured across a flaming wick, dropping flaming liquid onto the fuels to be burned.
  • Duff: Layer of decaying forest litter consisting of organics such as needles, leaves, plant and tree materials covering the mineral soil. Duff can smolder for days after a fire. Extinguishing smoldering duff is key to successful mopup operations.
  • Dead Out: When a fire is completely out, with no smoldering or burning areas. (This is different from contained.)

E

  • Engine
    Engine
    An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to create motion...

    : Any ground vehicle providing specified levels of pumping, water, and hose capacity but with less than the specified level of personnel.
  • Engine crew: A number of personnel trained and supervised to respond to incidents using an engine. Typically much smaller than a hand crew.
  • Escape fire
    Escape fire
    An escape fire is a term used to describe the "backfire" or "backburn" set by Fireboss Wag Dodge at Mann Gulch to escape a primary fire burning inescapably towards him and his crew. Check Wiki definitions for "backfire" and "backburn," e.g...

    : An intentional fire ignited by a fire crew, usually in a grassland
    Grassland
    Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants . However, sedge and rush families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica...

     environment, to escape a dangerous situation.
  • Escaped fire: A fire, which has exceeded or is expected to exceed initial attack capabilities or prescription.
  • Extended attack: Situation in which a fire cannot be controlled by initial attack resources within a reasonable period of time. Committing additional resources within 24 hours after commencing suppression action will usually control the fire.

F

  • Fire behavior: The manner in which a fire reacts to the influences of fuel, weather, and topography.
  • Fire camp: Temporary camp established at large fires to provide food, rest, and other necessities to fire crews.
  • Fire cycle:
  • Fire danger:
  • Fire ecology:
  • Fire edge: The boundary of a fire at a given moment.
  • Fire fighting foam: The aerated solution created by forcing air into, or entraining air in water containing a foam concentrate by means of suitably designed equipment or by cascading it through the air at a high velocity. Foam reduces combustion by cooling, moistening and excluding oxygen.
  • Fire lookout tower
    Fire lookout tower
    A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a "fire lookout" whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness...

    : A structure located at a high vantage point to house and protect the person performing the duties of a Fire Lookout.
  • Fire Lookout
    Fire lookout
    A fire lookout is a person assigned the duty to look for fire from atop a building known as a fire lookout tower. These towers are used in remote areas, normally on mountain tops with high elevation and a good view of the surrounding terrain, to spot smoke caused by a wildfire.Once a possible fire...

    : A person that keeps an eye for possible fire starts and conditions. They can work in a Fire Lookout Tower
    Fire lookout tower
    A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a "fire lookout" whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness...

     or perform the duty as a role for a fire crew on the fireline.
  • Fire rake
    Fire rake
    A fire rake is a wildland fire fighting tool. A fire rake has a wooden or fiberglass handle with a rake head consisting of four very sharp, serrated, triangular steel blades. It is used to rake a fire break with the sharp teeth enabling it to reach fire in undergrowth in addition to loose surface...

    : A rake with sharpened teeth instead of blades, for raking fire breaks.
  • Fire retardant: Any substance (except plain water) that by chemical or physical actions reduces flammability of fuels or slows their rate of combustion. See retardant slurry, AFFF, and Foam as examples.
  • Fire risk:
  • Fire shelter: An aluminized tent offering protection by means of reflecting radiant heat and providing a volume of breathable air in a fire entrapment situation. Carried as a safety tool, fire shelters should only be used in life-threatening situations, as a last resort, as severe burns or asphyxiation often result.
  • Fire shirt: Distinctive yellow shirts made of Nomex
    Nomex
    Nomex is a registered trademark for flame resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.- Properties:...

     or other lightweight materials of low combustibility, used as uniform PPE
    Personal protective equipment
    Personal protective equipment refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in...

     of wildland firefighters, and more recently available in other colors (red, khaki, blue, etc.).
  • Fire trail
    Fire trail
    A fire trail is a rural road built specifically for the purpose of access for "fire management purposes". The term is part of the vocabulary of Australian bushfire control and may be also known as a fireroad in US terminology...

    : Australian term for fireroad, road built specifically for access for "fire management purposes".
  • Fire weather: weather conditions that affect fire vulnerability, fire behavior and suppression.
  • Fire whirl
    Fire whirl
    A fire whirl, colloquially fire devil or fire tornado, is a phenomenon—rarely captured on camera—in which a fire, under certain conditions , acquires a vertical vorticity and forms a whirl, or a tornado-like vertically oriented rotating column of air...

    : a tornado
    Tornado
    A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

    -like vortex
    Vortex
    A vortex is a spinning, often turbulent,flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex...

     that forms from the stretching of vorticity
    Vortex stretching
    In fluid dynamics, vortex stretching is the lengthening of vortices in three-dimensional fluid flow, associated with a corresponding increase of the component of vorticity in the stretching direction—due to the conservation of angular momentum....

     due to the interaction of air flowing towards and upwards in a fire.
  • Fire-Return Interval:
  • Fireline handbook: A small red booklet carried by U.S. firefighters on the firelines, as a quick reference on various firefighting topics.
  • Fireline: The part of a control line that is scraped or dug to mineral soil. Also called fire trail. More generally, working a fire is called being "on the fireline." May also refer to a "wet line" where water has been used to create a burn boundary in light fuels such as grass.
  • Firestorm
    Firestorm
    A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system. It is most commonly a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, and wildfires...

    : Extreme fire behavior indicated by widespread in-drafts and a tall column of smoke and flame, where added air increases fire intensity, creating runaway fire growth.
  • Firebreak
    Firebreak
    A firebreak is a gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire or wildfire. A firebreak may occur naturally where there is a lack of vegetation or "fuel", such as a river, lake or canyon...

    : A natural or constructed barrier used to stop or check fires that may occur, or to provide a control line from which to work.
  • Flanks of a fire: The parts of a fire’s spread perimeter that grow to the sides then run roughly parallel to the main direction of spread. Separated flank heads are extremely dangerous in steep terrain.
  • Flare-up: Any sudden acceleration in rate of spread or intensification of the fire. Unlike blowup, a flare-up is of relatively short duration and does not radically change existing control plans.
  • Flash fuels: Fuels such as grass, leaves, draped pine needles, fern, tree moss and some kinds of slash, which ignite readily and are consumed rapidly when dry.
  • Fuel load: the mass of combustible materials available for a fire usually expressed as weight of fuel per unit area (e.g., 20 tons per acre).
  • Fuel moisture: Percent water content of vegetation, an important factor in rate of spread, ranging from dead-fuel and fine-fuel moisture (FFM), of 10 percent or less, to live-fuel moisture (LFM), of 60 percent or more. FFM can be estimated by weighing calibrated wood sticks.
  • Fuel type: An identifiable association of fuel elements of distinctive species, form, size, arrangement, or other characteristics that will cause a predictable rate of spread or resistance to control under specified weather conditions.
  • Fuelbreak: A natural or manmade change in fuel characteristics which affects fire behavior so that fires burning into them can be more readily controlled.

G

  • Ground fire: Fire that consumes the organic material beneath the surface litter ground, such as peat fire.

H

  • Hand crew: A number of individuals that have been organized and trained and are supervised principally for operational assignments on an incident, typically using hand tools. In the United States, an ordinary hand crew is 20 in number, including supervisors.
  • Hazard Reduction: Precautionary controlled and managed fire lit during cooler and/or wetter weather in order to reduce the available fuel load. Sometimes incorrectly called a backburn.
  • Head of a fire: The most rapidly spreading portion of a fire’s perimeter, usually to the leeward or up slope; may have multiple heads if there are separated flanking fires.
  • Heavy fuels: Fuels of large diameter such as snags, logs, large limb wood, which ignite and are consumed more slowly than flash fuels.
  • Helispot: A natural or improved takeoff and landing area intended for temporary or occasional helicopter use, typically in remote areas without other access.
  • Helitack
    Helitack
    Helitack refers to "helicopter-delivered fire resources", and is the system of managing and using helicopters and their crews to perform aerial firefighting and other firefighting duties, primarily initial attack on wildfires...

    : A fire crew trained to use helicopters for initial attack, and to support large fires through bucket drops and the movement of personnel, equipment and supplies. Another primarily function of helitack is jumper support and retrieval.
  • Hose Pack
    Hose Pack
    Hose Pack A hosepack is a backpack containing fire hose in a preconfigured arrangement, sometime completely made from fire hose without a bag, which is used to quickly facilitate the construction of a hose lay. In the context of wildland fire fighting hosepacks are wildly use in areas where fire...

    : A general term covering all types of hose configurations a person would carry to deploy.
  • Hose Vacuum : A small pneumatic vacuum generator that removes air from the inside of a fire hose making it smaller and firm, it is therefore easier to pack and takes up less space.
  • Hot spot: A particularly active part of a fire.
  • Hotshot crew
    Hotshot crew
    In the United States, an interagency hotshot crew , or simply hotshot crew, is a Type 1 handcrew of 20 firefighters specially trained in wildfire suppression tactics...

    : Intensively trained fire crew used primarily in hand line construction, and organized primarily to travel long distances from fire to fire as needed rather than serving only one geographic location.

I

  • Incident Command System
    Incident Command System
    The Incident Command System is "a systematic tool used for the command, control, and coordination of emergency response" according to the United States Federal Highway Administration...

     (ICS)
    : System first developed to provide a command structure to manage large wildfires in the United States, now widely used by many emergency management agencies.
  • Indian pump: Water vessel carried on one's back, either a rigid can or collapsible bag, with a hose and telescoping squirt pump. Contains 5 US gal, and is used on hot spots and during mop up. Also called bladder bag (if collapsible), piss pump, or Fedco. Of uncertain utility in active crown fires.
  • Indirect attack: A method of suppression in which the control line is located some considerable distance away from the fire’s active edge. Generally done in the case of a fast-spreading or high-intensity fire and to utilize natural or constructed firebreaks fuel breaks and favorable breaks in the topography. The intervening fuel is usually backfired; but occasionally the main fire is allowed to burn to the line, depending on conditions.
  • Infrared
    Infrared
    Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

     (IR) detector
    : A heat detection system used for fire detection, mapping, and hotspot identification.
  • Initial attack: The actions taken by the first resources to arrive at a wildfire to protect lives and property, and prevent further extension of the fire. Usually done by trained and experienced crews and takes place immediately after size-up.
  • Interface zone: Where urban firefighting meets wildland firefighting. Structures at the edges of wildlands are threatened and require skills and equipment of both disciplines.
  • Into the black: Moving from outside the fire front to inside the burned area, which is sometimes the safest place to be in a flare-up, i.e., behind the fire, if possible to traverse the flames.

K

  • Knock down: To reduce the flame or heat on the more vigorously burning parts of a fire edge, usually by cooling with dirt, water or other retardant.

L

  • Ladder fuels
    Fuel ladder
    A fuel ladder is a firefighting term for live or dead vegetation that allows a fire to climb up from the landscape or forest floor into the tree canopy. Common fuel ladders include tall grasses, shrubs, and tree branches, both living and dead...

    : Flammable vegetation that helps a ground fire move into the canopy.
  • LCES: Firefighter safety mnemonic for Lookouts, Communications, Escape routes, Safe zones.
  • Lead plane: Aircraft with pilot used to make trial runs over the target area to check wind, smoke conditions, topography and to lead air tankers to targets and supervise their drops.
  • Let-burn policy: Administrative decision to defer fire suppression, perhaps because of wilderness and long-term forest conservation considerations.
  • Light 'em, fight 'em: Derogatory term for wildland crew with a reputation for igniting its prescribed burns carelessly.
  • Line firing: Activity related to burn out along a fireline, using drip torches, fusees or other flammable materials.
  • Litter (forest litter): Surface buildup of leaves and twigs.
  • Logging slash or logging debris: Tops, stumps, mill ends, limbs left by logging operations. May be beneficial to soil stability, but can dry out and create heavy fuel load hazards.
  • Longline: Helicopter arrangement for lowering external loads (or removing loads) into areas not available for landing, using a long cable suspended from a hard point on the belly of the aircraft.
  • Lookouts: (1) Safety person positioned to monitor the location and behavior of a fire, ready to signal a crew to escape; (2) Fire lookout tower
    Fire lookout tower
    A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a "fire lookout" whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness...

    or fire tower, often on mountain-tops, for viewing the surrounding countryside and watching for signs of fire; (3) Fire lookout
    Fire lookout
    A fire lookout is a person assigned the duty to look for fire from atop a building known as a fire lookout tower. These towers are used in remote areas, normally on mountain tops with high elevation and a good view of the surrounding terrain, to spot smoke caused by a wildfire.Once a possible fire...

    , the person who works in the fire lookout tower; (4) The "L" of "LCES" safety mnemonic, which see above.

M

  • McLeod
    McLeod (tool)
    The McLeod is a wildland firefighting tool with a large hoe-like blade on one side and tined blade on the other. It is commonly used in the mountains of the American west. This tool is called a "Rake Hoe" in Australia and a "Streif" in the American southwest....

    : Hand tool used in fireline construction, consisting of a combination rake and hoe.
  • Mop-up: Extinguishing or removing burning material near control lines, felling snags, and trenching logs to prevent rolling after an area has burned, to make a fire safe, or to reduce residual smoke.
  • Mutual aid
    Mutual aid (emergency services)
    In emergency services, mutual aid is an agreement among emergency responders to lend assistance across jurisdictional boundaries. This may occur due to an emergency response that exceeds local resources, such as a disaster or a multiple-alarm fire. Mutual aid may be ad hoc, requested only when...

    : cross-jurisdictional assistance with emergency services by pre-arranged agreement.

N

  • National Fire Protection Association
    National Fire Protection Association
    The National Fire Protection Association is a United States trade association that creates and maintains private, copywrited, standards and codes for usage and adoption by local governments...

    (NFPA): Fire and safety standards organization; issues various wildfire-oriented standards related to clothing, tactics, equipment, etc.
  • National Hose (NH): National Standard Thread (NST) design of threaded couplings used on fire hose in various diameters; incompatible with many types of wildfire hose threads, thus requiring adapters.
  • National Interagency Fire Center
    National Interagency Fire Center
    The National Interagency Fire Center in Boise, Idaho, is the physical facility that is home to the National Interagency Coordination Center , and the National Multi-Agency Coordination group ....

     (NIFC)
    : Coordination facility in Boise, Idaho
    Boise, Idaho
    Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

    , operated by several U.S. agencies to provide logistics, weather information and resource coordination for wildfire suppression across the U.S. (formerly BIFC).
  • Nomex
    Nomex
    Nomex is a registered trademark for flame resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.- Properties:...

    : Brand of approved, fire retardant, synthetic, aramid cloth and thread used in personal protective equipment for wildland firefighting, and jumpsuits.
  • National Wildfire Coordinating Group
    National Wildfire Coordinating Group
    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group was formed in the United States as a result of the aftermath of a major wildfire season in 1970....

    : Coordination agency located in Washington, D.C. which sets national standards for firefighter training and publishes training manuals.

O

  • One-hour fuel: Vegetation with large surface-to-mass ratio, a so-called "fine fuel" (along with 10-hour) that quickly reaches critical (inflammable) moisture levels (fine fuel moisture, FFM) when exposed to heat
    Heat
    In physics and thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one body, region, or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact or thermal radiation when the systems are at different temperatures. It is often described as one of the fundamental processes of energy transfer between...

    ; compare with 100-hour or 1000-hour fuels (i.e., live fuel moisture, LFM), which take much more heat to ignite.
  • Overhead: Personnel assigned to supervisory positions, including Incident Commander, Command Staff, General Staff, Branch Directors, Supervisors, Unit Leaders, Managers, and staff. Also may be organized according to qualifications and experience, as "Type I Overhead Team", and the like. Many positions, functions and interactions of wildfire overhead organizations provided the model for today's Incident Command System
    Incident Command System
    The Incident Command System is "a systematic tool used for the command, control, and coordination of emergency response" according to the United States Federal Highway Administration...

    s in the United States.

P

  • Palmer drought severity index (PDI): Technique for measuring impact of soil moisture changes on vegetation, for predicting fire danger and fire behavior.
  • Parallel attack: Fire containment method where crews construct a fireline at some distance from the edge of the fire (e.g., 100 yards) and then burn out the fuel in the buffer as the fireline is completed.
  • Perennial grasses: an extremely volatile fuel, after curing, in May, June, July, which can lead to large, fast fires that may reach larger fuels.
  • Point of origin: an element of fire behavior, indicating where a fire began, supporting further analysis of where the fire went or will go; evidence of specific origin is often obscured or destroyed by suppression tactics.
  • Prescribed burn
    Controlled burn
    Controlled or prescribed burning, also known as hazard reduction burning or Swailing is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for...

    : Deliberately ignited fire for the purpose of forest or prairie management, often to remove heavy fuel buildup or simulate natural cycles of fire in an ecosystem. Also called "controlled burn", even if it becomes uncontrollable.
  • Progressive hose lay: A method of deploying hoses along firelines during suppression and as they are built and reinforced, typically using 1½-inch supply lines, gated wyes and 1-inch lateral lines with nozzles (or at least spigot valves) every 100 feet or so. As the line progesses, more hoses and valves are added.
  • Project fire: Any large fire requiring extensive management and the establishment of a temporary infrastructure to support firefighting efforts, such as fire camps.
  • Pulaski
    Pulaski (tool)
    The pulaski is a special hand tool used in wildland firefighting.The tool combines an axe and an adze in one head, similar to that of the cutter mattock, with a rigid handle of wood, plastic, or fiberglass. The pulaski is a versatile tool for constructing firebreaks, as it can be used to both dig...

    : Combination axe and grub hoe tool with a straight handle, used for building handline. Also known as "P-tool"

R

  • Rapeller: Crew of specialist firefighters who are trained to access a fire area by sliding down ropes suspended from a hovering helicopter. Also used for delivering wilderness first aid if a rapeller is an EMT
    Emergency medical technician
    Emergency Medical Technician or Ambulance Technician are terms used in some countries to denote a healthcare provider of emergency medical services...

    .
  • Reburn: (1) Repeat burning of an area over which a fire has previously passed, but left fuel that later ignites when burning conditions are more favorable; (2) An area that has re-burned.
  • Red card: Credentials issued to qualified wildland firefighters, listing their qualifications and specialties.
  • Red-flag day: Weather conditions creating a critical fire hazard, may require closing the forest to non-emergency activities in order to minimize the risk of accidental wildland fires.

S

  • S-130/S-190
    S-130/S-190
    In wildland fire suppression in the United States, S-130/S-190 refers to the basic wildland fire training course required of all firefighters before they can work on the firelines....

    : The basic wildland fire training course given to all U.S. firefighters before they can work on the fire lines.
  • Safety zone: An area cleared of flammable material used for escape in the event the line is outflanked or in case a spot fire causes fuels outside the control line to render the line unsafe. In firing operations, crews progress so as to maintain a safety zone close at hand allowing the fuels inside the control line to be consumed before going ahead. Safety zones may also be constructed as integral parts of fuel breaks; they are greatly enlarged areas which can be used with relative safety by firefighters and their equipment in the event of blowup in the vicinity.
  • Sawyer: Chainsaw
    Chainsaw
    A chainsaw is a portable mechanical saw, powered by electricity, compressed air, hydraulic power, or most commonly a two-stroke engine...

     crew, may also include ‘’’faller’’’ or ‘’’feller’’’ who is qualified to cut down trees or snags, perhaps while the tree or snag is burning.
  • Secondary line: Any fireline constructed at a distance from the fire perimeter concurrently with or after a line already constructed on or near to the perimeter of the fire. Generally constructed as an insurance measure in case the fire escapes control by the primary line.
  • SEAT
    Aerial firefighting
    Aerial firefighting is the use of aircraft and other aerial resources to combat wildfires. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are also classified as aerial firefighters, delivered to the fire by parachute from a variety of fixed-wing...

    : Single Engine Airtanker - small agricultural aircraft converted for use on fires, predominantly during the initial attack phase.
  • Size-up: Initial assessment of fire including (among other things) fuel load, fire weather, topography, fire behavior, hazards and exposures of valuable properties. Quickly detects need for additional resources and sets operational priorities.
  • Skidder unit: Pre-configured tank, pump, hose for attachment to a logging skidder (large 4-wheel-drive tractor with a dozer blade, winch or grapple) to be carried to a fireline.
  • Slash
    Slash (logging)
    Slash, or slashings, is a forestry term that refers to coarse and fine woody debris generated during logging operations or through wind, snow or other natural forest disturbances. Slash generated during logging operations may increase fire hazard and some North American states have passed laws...

    : Debris resulting from such natural events as wind, fire, or snow breakage; or such human activities as road construction, logging, pruning, thinning, or brush cutting. It includes logs, chunks, bark, branches, stumps, and broken under-story trees or brush. See also logging slash.
  • Sling load: Cargo net containing supplies or equipment delivered by longline below a helicopter.
  • Slopover: Fire spreading outside the boundaries of a control line.
  • Slug: Humorous pejorative term for those believed to be doing less work than you. "Heli-slug" for helislack, "camp slug" for fire camp support personnel, "engine slug" for engine crew member, etc. If you're not a Hotshot or smokejumper you're most likely a slug.
  • Slurry bomber: See Airtanker.
  • Smokechaser: Colloquial term for a wildland firefighter. Now mostly archaic, except in Minnesota
    Minnesota
    Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

     where state Department of Natural Resources firefighters are officially known by that name.
  • Smokejumper
    Smokejumper
    A smokejumper is a wildland firefighter who parachutes into a remote area to combat wildfires.Smokejumpers are most often deployed to fires that are extremely remote. The risks associated with this method of personnel deployment are mitigated by an extremely well developed training program that has...

    : A specifically trained and certified firefighter who travels to remote wildfires by fixed-wing aircraft and parachutes into a jump spot - that may include trees - close to the fire.
  • Smoldering: A fire burning without flame and barely spreading.
  • Snag: A dead standing tree that can be hazardous.
  • Spike camp: Remote camp usually near a fireline, and lacking the logistical support that a larger fire camp would have.
  • Spotting: Behavior of a fire producing sparks or embers that are carried by the wind and which start new fires (spot fires) beyond the zone of direct ignition by the main fire. A cascade of spot fires can cause a blowup.
  • Strike team: Specified combinations of the same kind and type of resources, with communications, and a leader.
  • Suppression: All the work of extinguishing or confining a fire beginning with its discovery.
  • Suppression crew (also "Soup Crew"): Two or more firefighters stationed at a strategic location for initial action on fires. Duties are essentially the same as those of individual firefighters; often organized into 20-person crews, including supervisors, for simplified logistics and operations.
  • Surface fire: Fire that burns loose debris on the surface, which include dead branches, blowdown timber, leaves, and low vegetation, as contrasted with crown fire.

T

  • Task force: Any combination or single resources assembled for a particular tactical need, with common communications and a leader. A Task Force may be pre-established and sent to an incident, or formed at an incident.
  • Tree jump: A Smokejumper
    Smokejumper
    A smokejumper is a wildland firefighter who parachutes into a remote area to combat wildfires.Smokejumpers are most often deployed to fires that are extremely remote. The risks associated with this method of personnel deployment are mitigated by an extremely well developed training program that has...

     can sometimes parachute into the tree canopy if a clearing is not available or suitable.
  • Torching: Not to be confused with crowning, is when a single or small group of trees "torch" or go up in flames. Torching and group torching are more of a nuisance whereas crown fire is of much greater concern.
  • Turn Around: A widened part of a fire break used for turning vehicles around, also used as a safe area during entrapment.
  • Type I Engine: A fire engine
    Fire apparatus
    A fire apparatus, fire engine, fire truck, or fire appliance is a vehicle designed to assist in fighting fires by transporting firefighters to the scene and providing them with access to the fire, along with water or other equipment...

     designed primarily for fighting fires in structures accessible from roads.
  • Type II Engine: A fire engine designed to carry and pump water for use in fire suppression. Also known as a "Tender" or "Water Tender".
  • Type III Engine: A fire engine designed primarily for fighting wildland fires. These engines are usually able to traverse more rugged terrain than Type I and Type II engines.

U

  • Understory burn: A controlled burn of fuels below the forest canopy, intended to remove fuels from on-coming or potential fires.
  • Urban interface: The Interface zone where man-made structures inter-mingle with wildlands, creating risk of structural involvement in a wildland fire incident and wildland fire involvement in structure fires, each of which requires different equipment, training and tactics.

W

  • Watch out situations: A list of 18 situations for firefighters to be aware of, which signal potential hazards on the fire line; originated from analysis of generations of similar incidents.
  • Water tender: Any ground vehicle capable of transporting specified quantities of water.
  • Wet line: Temporary control line using water or other fire retardant liquid to prevent a low-intensity fire from spreading in surface fuels or to knock down a more intense fire.
  • Widowmaker: Any branch or treetop that is poorly or no longer attached to a tree, but still tangled overhead; does not discriminate among potential victims by gender or marital status.
  • Wildfire
    Wildfire
    A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

    : An unplanned, unwanted wildland fire, including unauthorized human-caused fires, escaped wildland fire use events, escaped prescribed fire projects, lightning strikes, downed power lines, and all other wildland fires where the objective is to put the fire out.
  • Wildland: An area in which development is essentially nonexistent, except for roads, railroads, power lines, and similar transportation facilities. Structures, if any, are widely scattered.
  • Wildland fire engine
    Wildland fire engine
    Wildland fire engines use special equipment to spray water, foam, and chemicals. The engines are able to carry up to of water. Many wildland fire engines are also equipped with four wheel drive and special equipment for off-road use.*...

    : Fire apparatus
    Fire apparatus
    A fire apparatus, fire engine, fire truck, or fire appliance is a vehicle designed to assist in fighting fires by transporting firefighters to the scene and providing them with access to the fire, along with water or other equipment...

     specialized for accessing wildland fires with water, equipment and small crew. Size and agility of these units may also be useful for other urban missions.
  • Wildland Fire Use fires (WFU fires) are naturally-ignited wildland controlled burn
    Controlled burn
    Controlled or prescribed burning, also known as hazard reduction burning or Swailing is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for...

    s that are managed for purposes of achieving specific previously-defined resource management objectives.
  • Windfall: Tree knocked over or broken off by wind, increasing fuel loading and hampers building fireline. Also sometimes called blowdown. Large, unmanaged ares of dense blowdown can create serious fire hazards once the larger fuels become dry.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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