Gliadin is a glycoprotein
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. In proteins that have segments extending...

 present in wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and several other cereal
Cereals are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their grain , composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran...

s within the grass genus Triticum. Gliadins are prolamin
Prolamins are a group of plant storage proteins having a high proline content and found in the seeds of cereal grains: wheat , barley , rye , corn , sorghum and as a minor protein, avenin in oats. They are characterised by a high glutamine and proline content and are generally soluble only in...

s and are separated on the basis of electrophoretic
Electrophoresis, also called cataphoresis, is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Reuss , who noticed that the application of a constant electric...

 mobility and isoelectric focusing
Isoelectric focusing
Isoelectric focusing , also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by their electric charge differences...

  • α-/β-gliadins – soluble in low-percentage alcohols.
  • γ-gliadins – ancestral form of cysteine-rich gliadin with only intrachain disulfide bridges
  • ω-gliadins – soluble in higher percentages, 30–50% acidic acetonitrile.

Gliadins are known for their role, along with glutenin
Glutenin is the glutelin derived from wheat. Gluteninis a protein best known for its role, along with gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter- and intra-molecule links. Glutenin consists of 20% HMW subunits, which are relatively low in sulfur...

, in the formation of gluten
Gluten is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye...