German Type U 31 submarine
U 31 was a class of U-boat
U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word U-Boot , itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot , and refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II...

s built during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 by the Kaiserliche Marine
Kaiserliche Marine
The Imperial German Navy was the German Navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy and Norddeutsche Bundesmarine, which primarily had the mission of coastal defense. Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded...


U 31 U-boats carried 6 torpedo
The modern torpedo is a self-propelled missile weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with it or in proximity to it.The term torpedo was originally employed for...

es and were originally armed with one 8.8 centimetres (3.5 in) geck gun, which was replaced in 1916/17 by a 10.5 centimetres (4.1 in) deck gun. They carried a crew of 35 and had a cruising range of around 8790 nautical miles (16,279.1 km).

Between 1912 and 1915 11 were built on Germaniawerft in Kiel
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 238,049 .Kiel is approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the...

, amongst these top-three-scoring with the famous Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière as commander, with Walter Forstmann and with Max Valentiner
Max Valentiner
Captain Christian August Max Ahlmann Valentiner was a German U-boat commander during World War I.He was the third highest-scoring U-boat commander of the war, and was awarded the Pour le Mérite, the highest Prussian military order until the end of the war, for his achievements.He was also branded...

. Together these U-boats sunk more than .

Later Admiral
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet . It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"...

 and head of the Abwehr
The Abwehr was a German military intelligence organisation from 1921 to 1944. The term Abwehr was used as a concession to Allied demands that Germany's post-World War I intelligence activities be for "defensive" purposes only...

 from 1935 to 1944 Wilhelm Canaris
Wilhelm Canaris
Wilhelm Franz Canaris was a German admiral, head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944 and member of the German Resistance.- Early life and World War I :...

 also served as commander on two different U 31 U-boats. He first took over from Max Valentiner on U-38 and later on .

List of Type U 31 submarines

There were eleven Type U 31 submarines commissioned
Ship commissioning
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military...

into the Kaiserliche Marine.
Boat Armament Fate
one 8.8 cm gun lost in January 1915 in the North Sea
two 8.8 cm guns, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun sunk 5 May 1918 north-west of Malta
one 8.8 cm gun, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun surrendered 1919, scrapped
one 8.8 cm gun, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun sunk October 1918 in the Mediterranean Sea
one 7.5 cm gun (1914), one 10.5 cm gun (1916) surrendered 1918, scrapped
two 8.8 cm guns, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun sunk 24 July 1915 west of Rona, Hebrides
two 8.8 cm guns, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun sunk by mine in April 1915 in the English Channel
one 8.8 cm gun, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun surrendered 1919, scrapped
one 8.8 cm gun, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun, from 1916/17 one 10.5 cm gun sunk 18 May 1918 off El Ferrol
one 8.8 cm gun sunk 23 June 1915 in the North Sea
one 8.8 cm gun sunk 24 September 1915 in the English Channel
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