German Army
Overview
 
The German Army is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Following the disbanding of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, it was re-established in 1955 as the Bundesheer, part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

along with the Navy and the Air Force
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

. In the aftermath of the German reunification
German reunification
German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The start of this process is commonly referred by Germans as die...

 of 1990, the National People's Army
National People's Army
The National People’s Army were the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic .The NVA was established in 1956 and disestablished in 1990. There were frequent reports of East German advisors with Communist African countries during the Cold War...

 of the former German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
The German Democratic Republic , informally called East Germany by West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city...

 was integrated into the (West) German Army.

A unified German Army dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany under the leadership of Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The German Army is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Following the disbanding of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, it was re-established in 1955 as the Bundesheer, part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

along with the Navy and the Air Force
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

. In the aftermath of the German reunification
German reunification
German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The start of this process is commonly referred by Germans as die...

 of 1990, the National People's Army
National People's Army
The National People’s Army were the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic .The NVA was established in 1956 and disestablished in 1990. There were frequent reports of East German advisors with Communist African countries during the Cold War...

 of the former German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
The German Democratic Republic , informally called East Germany by West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city...

 was integrated into the (West) German Army.

A unified German Army dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany under the leadership of Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

. Since that date, the German Army was involved in the First World War, Second World War, Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, and peacekeeping operations in Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

, and since 2002, fighting with the International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
The International Security Assistance Force is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386 as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement...

 in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

.

Overview

Since Germany first became a modern unified state
Sovereign state
A sovereign state, or simply, state, is a state with a defined territory on which it exercises internal and external sovereignty, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither...

 in 1871, previous names of German unified ground forces have included:
  • 1871–1919 Kaiserlich Deutsches Heer or Imperial German Army, part of Imperial Forces (Reichsheer was also used)
  • 1921–1935 Reichsheer or National Army, part of the Reichswehr
  • 1935–1945 Heer or Army, part of the Wehrmacht
    Wehrmacht
    The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

  • 1956–1990 Landstreitkräfte, ground forces of East German Nationale Volksarmee
  • 1955–present Deutsches Heer or German Army, part of the Bundeswehr
    Bundeswehr
    The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...


Pre-1914

After the reform movement of the Prussian Army following a series of disastrous defeats at the hands of her enemies in the 18th century, internal analysis of the lessons learned had informed Prussian civilian and military leadership that, while individual soldiers were first rate, command structures, staff organisation and generalship was a hit-and-miss affair, more dependent on the martial skills of the King and the individual members of the German nobility
German nobility
The German nobility was the elite hereditary ruling class or aristocratic class from ca. 500 B.C. to the Holy Roman Empire and what is now Germany.-Principles of German nobility:...

 who dominated the military profession. Too often, military talent was brought together only after the Nation faced a crisis. There was little effective organizational work in between wars. The rise of the German General Staff
German General Staff
The German General Staff was an institution whose rise and development gave the German armed forces a decided advantage over its adversaries. The Staff amounted to its best "weapon" for nearly a century and a half....

, an institution that sought to institutionalize military excellence, brought the German Army back from years of atrophy and the humiliation of Napoleon's capture of Berlin
War of the Fourth Coalition
The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon's French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom....

. With membership in the officer corps extended to all qualified German-speaking men via national examinations, the improved education of the military schools, and selection from the top 1% graduates of the Kriegsakademie, a new class of top-notch leaders arose, and the German Army was set on a course for near-total dominance in Europe.

Following the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 the Prussian Kingdom
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

 had years of military successes in the 19th and 20th centuries. Every able bodied man between the ages of 17 and 45 was liable for military service. There were 4 classes of service - Active
Active
Active may refer to:Human Activity* An active lifestyle, a lifestyle characterized by frequent or various social, intellectual, and physical activities* An "active" in a fraternity or sororityComputers and electronics...

 (Aktiv), Reserve
Military reserve force
A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilizes for total war or to defend against invasion...

, Landwehr
Landwehr
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to large scale, low strength fortifications...

 and Landsturm
Landsturm
German-speaking countries used the word Landsturm to refer to third-class infantry or militias.- 1813 :King Frederick William III of Prussia established the Prussian Landsturm as irregular military forces on 21 April 1813 by royal edict – the decree appeared in the preussische Gesetzesammlung...

. The Landwehr and Landsturm were only called up at times of war. The basic unit of the army at this time was the Regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

. Regiments were typically raised and supported by a specific city or region. Each regiment was then stationed near its home city. The Reserve regiment was often made up of past members of the local regiment. The Landwehr and Landsturm units were also organized the same way. An individual could spend all 22 years of military service surrounded by friends and family. While this system created close ties within regiments, it also meant that the entire population of young men from a city or region could be wiped out in one battle.

World War I 1914–1918

The German Army that fought in World War I was not a truly single, unified army. Before unification, each monarchy (for example, the Great Dukedoms of Hesse and Baden) had its own army. The unification of Germany in January 1871 and the formation of the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 brought most of them under the command of the Prussian army, which became the nucleus of the Armies of the German Empire (Deutsches Reichsheer), though each continued to wear its own uniforms and insignias. Furthermore, the four German kingdoms that existed after the Napoleonic era - Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

, Saxony
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

 and Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

 - kept their own armies until the end of WWI. The peacetime commander-in-chief of each army was its king. After the declaration of war, the emperor (Kaiser) became the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces.

In 1914 the German army fielded 50 active divisions
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

 and 48 in reserve. By 1918, the number of divisions had risen to a total of 251.

Reichswehr 1918–1935

Following the end of World War I and the collapse of the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

, most of the German Army (Heer) was demobilized or simply dissolved. Many former soldiers drifted into small paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 groups known as Free Corps (Freikorps
Freikorps
Freikorps are German volunteer military or paramilitary units. The term was originally applied to voluntary armies formed in German lands from the middle of the 18th century onwards. Between World War I and World War II the term was also used for the paramilitary organizations that arose during...

). The Free Corps were generally groups of 100 men or fewer that protected a neighbourhood or town.

On 6 March 1919 an army known as the Provisional German Defence Force (Vorläufige Reichswehr) was formed with about 400,000 men, many drawn from the Free Corps. On 30 September that same year, the Transitional Army (Übergangsheer) was created from the Defence Force and the Free Corps.

Finally, on 1 January 1921 the 100,000 man Army of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 (Reichswehr
Reichswehr
The Reichswehr formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was renamed the Wehrmacht ....

) was formed with seven Infantry Divisions and three Cavalry Divisions. It was troops from the Army of the Weimar Republic who crushed Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

's Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed attempt at revolution that occurred between the evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of 9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff, and other heads of the Kampfbund unsuccessfully tried to seize power...

 in November 1923.

Heer 1935–1945

Under the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

, the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
The Reichswehr formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was renamed the Wehrmacht ....

was only allowed 100,000 men split between the Army and the Navy
German Navy
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr .The German Navy traces its roots back to the Imperial Fleet of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52 and more directly to the Prussian Navy, which later evolved into the Northern German Federal Navy...

. Following the 1932 German elections
German election, July 1932
The German parliamentary election of 31 July 1932, held after the premature dissolution of the Reichstag, saw great gains by the Nazi Party, which for the first time became the largest party in parliament, though without winning a majority...

 the Nazi Party
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 came to power and began to abrogate the treaty. The Army was made part of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

in May 1935 with the passing of the "Law for the Reconstruction of the National Defence Forces". The Wehrmacht included not just the Army and Navy but also a third branch known as the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

. Initially, the Army was expanded to 21 divisional-sized units and smaller formations. Between 1935 and 1945 this force grew to consist of hundreds of divisions and thousands of smaller supporting units. Between 1939 and 1945 close to 16 million served in the Army. Over 3 million were killed
World War II casualties
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. Over 60 million people were killed, which was over 2.5% of the world population. The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses.-Total dead:...

 and over 4.1 million were wounded. Of the 7,361 men awarded the initial grade of the highest German combat honor of World War II, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was a grade of the 1939 version of the 1813 created Iron Cross . The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was the highest award of Germany to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership during World War II...

, 4,777 were from the Army, making up 65% of the total awarded. The Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 dissolved the German Army on 20 August 1946.

Recreation of an army in West Germany

Just one year after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany and its increasing links with the West under the policy-making of Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

, the Consultative Assembly of Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 began to consider the formation of a European Defence Community
European Defence Community
The European Defense Community was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven, the French President of the Council , in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany...

 with German participation on 11 August 1950. Formerly high-ranking German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

 soldiers outlined in the Himmeroder memorandum for the first time an outline of a new "German contingent in an international force for the defense of Western Europe." For the German land forces the memorandum saw prior to 1952 the formation of a 250,000 strong army. The military saw the need for the formation of twelve Panzer division
Panzer Division
A panzer division was an armored division in the army and air force branches of the Wehrmacht as well as the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II....

s and six corps staffs with accompanying Corps troops, as only armored divisions could muster a fighting force to throw back the numerically far superior forces of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance , or more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe...

.

On 26 October 1950 Theodor Blank
Theodor Blank
Theodor Anton Blank was a German politician of the CDU. He was one of the founders of the CDU in 1945....

 was appointed "officer of the Federal Chancellor for the Strengthening of Allied Troops questions". This Defence Ministry
Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany)
The Federal Ministry of Defence is a top-level federal agency, headed by the Federal Minister of Defence as a member of the Cabinet of Germany...

 forerunner was known somewhat euphemistically as the Blank Office (Amt Blank), but explicitly used to prepare for the rearmament
Wiederbewaffnung
Wiederbewaffnung refers to the United States of America plan to help build up West Germany after World War II. They could not function outside an alliance framework . These events lead to the establishment of the Bundeswehr, the West German army, in 1955.Heinz Guderian stated that the fight was...

 of West Germany (Wiederbewaffnung
Wiederbewaffnung
Wiederbewaffnung refers to the United States of America plan to help build up West Germany after World War II. They could not function outside an alliance framework . These events lead to the establishment of the Bundeswehr, the West German army, in 1955.Heinz Guderian stated that the fight was...

). By March 1954 the Blank Office had laid plans for the new German army. Plans foresaw the formation of six infantry, four armoured, and two mechanised infantry divisions, as a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe in the framework of a European Defence Community
European Defence Community
The European Defense Community was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven, the French President of the Council , in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany...

. Following a decision of the London Nine Power Conference
London and Paris Conferences
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in late September and October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany...

 of 28 September to 3 October 1954, Germany's entry into NATO with effect from 9 May 1955 was accepted as a replacement for the failed European Defence Community
European Defence Community
The European Defense Community was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven, the French President of the Council , in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany...

 plan. Only after accession to NATO in 1955 was the Blank Office was converted to the Defence Ministry after the Bundestag on 8 February 1952 had approved a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe. Also necessary for the creation of a Defence Ministry was the amendment of the Basic Law
Basic Law
The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to "constitution", implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment of constitution. A basic law is either a codified constitution, or in countries with uncodified constitutions, a law given to have constitution...

, since 26 February 1954, with the insertion of an article regarding defence of the sovereignty of the federal government. Theodor Blank became the first Defence Minister. The army formed the nucleus of the V Branch of the Department of Defence. Subdivisions included were VA Leadership and Training, VB Organisation and VC Logistics.

The actual history of the army began in 1955. The first soldiers of the army began their service on 12 November 1955 in Andernach
Andernach
Andernach is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, of currently about 30,000 inhabitants. It is situated towards the end of the Neuwied basin on the left bank of the Rhine between the former tiny fishing village of Fornich in the north and the mouth of the...

. In April 1957, the first conscripts were called up. The army saw itself explicitly not succeeding the defeated Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

, but as following the Prussian military reforms and military resistance
German Resistance
The German resistance was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to Adolf Hitler or the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945. Some of these engaged in active plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power and overthrow his regime...

 against National Socialism, such as the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

 group which mounted the failed 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler in 1944. Nevertheless, the officer corps was made up especially of Wehrmacht officers for lack of alternatives for a long time. The first Chief of the Army was the former General der Panzertruppe
General der Panzertruppe
General der Panzertruppe was a rank of German Army General introduced by the Wehrmacht in 1935. As the commander of a Panzer Corp this rank corresponds to a US Army Lieutenant-General...

 Hans Rottiger
Hans Röttiger
General Hans Röttiger was a Panzer General in the German army during World War II and the first Inspector of the Bundeswehr....

, who had been involved in the drafting of the Himmeroder memorandum.

From the beginning, the new army was firmly embedded in the NATO structure and was planned to field in 1959, as part of Army Structure I, twelve army divisions. To 1966 saw the NATO strategy of massive nuclear retaliation
Massive retaliation
Massive retaliation, also known as a massive response or massive deterrence, is a military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack.-Strategy:...

 in the event of an attack on conventional forces in Europe against superior Soviet forces. In 1956 the first troops of the Army set up seven training companies in Andernach and began the building of schools and army troops. On 1 April 1957, the first conscripts arrived for service in the army. The first military organisations created were instructional battalions, officer schools, and the Army Academy, the forerunner to the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr
Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr
The Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr is the highest military academy of the German armed forces, the Bundeswehr. Established in 1957, and since 1958 located in Hamburg, it is the successor of the Prussian Military Academy that was established in 1810...

 in Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

. The total of twelve planned armoured and infantry divisions now began to be established, the existing units were split approximately every six months in two groups. However the creation of all the planned twelve divisions did not take place until 1965. At the end of 1958 the strength of the army was about 100,000 men. The army was equipped first with American material, such as the M-47 Patton main battle tank. Three corps were formed from 1957 - the I Corps, II Corps, and the III Corps
III Corps (Bundeswehr)
III Corps was a corps of the German Army active from 1957 to 1994.The preparation of the staff of the corps took place from 16 March 1957 at Gneisenau-Kaserne, Koblenz; the corps was officially formed on 6th April 1957. Initially, the 2nd Panzergrenadier Division and 5th Armoured Division from the...

.

The land forces of the Bundeswehr were first, the German Army, and secondly, the Territorial Army. The army was firmly situated within the NATO command structure
Military units and formations of NATO
The military units and formations of NATO are the operational side of the organization, as determined by treaty. Strategically, NATO is run by three bodies...

. Later in 1957, the "Office for territorial defense" was established as the highest Territorial Army authority. The Territorial Defence was under the command directly of the Federal Ministry of Defence
Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany)
The Federal Ministry of Defence is a top-level federal agency, headed by the Federal Minister of Defence as a member of the Cabinet of Germany...

. In a narrower sense, the territorial defence was a separate organisation equal to the army, navy and air force. The units of the Territorial Defence was under national command and were not integrated into the NATO command structure. The main function of the Territorial Army was maintaining the operational freedom of NATO forces through providing rear area defence against saboteurs, enemy special forces, and the like.

The development of Soviet tactical nuclear weapons required the development of a new Army structure even before Army Structure I was fully achieved. To minimize the effects of attacks with battlefield nuclear weapons on the armed forces, 28,000 strong and semi-immobile classical Divisions
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

 were broken down into smaller and more mobile Brigade
Brigade
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of two to five battalions, plus supporting elements depending on the era and nationality of a given army and could be perceived as an enlarged/reinforced regiment...

s. These smaller units were also to be capable of self-sustainment on the atomic battlefield for several days, to be capable of to move out of defense and quick counter attacks. The new armoured and mechanized brigades were capable of combined arms combat. Each division was to be composed of three brigades. The armoured brigades consisted of an armoured infantry battalion, two armoured battalions, an armoured artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The mechanized brigades consisted of a motorized infantry battalion, two mechanized infantry battalions, an armored battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The mechanized divisions were designated "Panzer Grenadier Division". By the end of 1959, a total of 11 divisions and 27 brigades had been set up.

Post Cold War

After 1990, the Heer absorbed the army of socialist East Germany, a part of the Nationale Volksarmee
National People's Army
The National People’s Army were the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic .The NVA was established in 1956 and disestablished in 1990. There were frequent reports of East German advisors with Communist African countries during the Cold War...

. The former East German forces were initially commanded by the Bunderwehr Command East under command of Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm
Jörg Schönbohm
Jörg Schönbohm is a German politician and a retired Lieutenant General. He was the first commander of the Bundeswehr Eastern Command in 1990, which supervised the absorption of the East German National People's Army into the Federal German armed forces...

 and disbanded on 30 June 1991. In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps at Potsdam
Potsdam
Potsdam is the capital city of the German federal state of Brandenburg and part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the River Havel, southwest of Berlin city centre....

 in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1994 III Corps
III Corps (Bundeswehr)
III Corps was a corps of the German Army active from 1957 to 1994.The preparation of the staff of the corps took place from 16 March 1957 at Gneisenau-Kaserne, Koblenz; the corps was officially formed on 6th April 1957. Initially, the 2nd Panzergrenadier Division and 5th Armoured Division from the...

 was reorganised as the German Army Forces Command
German Army Forces Command
Army Command in Falckenstein Barracks in Koblenz is one of the two leadership pillars of the German Army, together with the German Army Office....

. In 1996, the 25th Airborne Brigade was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkräfte
Kommando Spezialkräfte
The KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte is an elite military unit composed of Special Operations soldiers from the ranks of Germany’s Bundeswehr and organized as such under the Division Spezielle Operationen . The unit has received many decorations and awards from both NATO and its affiliates...

.

The 2001 onwards restructuring of the German Army saw it move to a seven division structure – 5 mechanized (each with two mechanized brigades), 1 special forces, and one airmobile.

In 2003, three Corps still existed, each including various combat formations and a maintenance brigade. I. German/Dutch Corps
I. German/Dutch Corps
1 German/Netherlands Corps is a multinational formation consisting of units from both the Royal Dutch Army and German Army. It is also part of NATO's Response Force, a military force consisting of approximately 25,000 troops. The Corps' headquarters are situated in Münster , formerly the...

, a joint German-Netherlands organization, used to control in peacetime the 1st Panzer and 7th Panzer Divisions as well as Dutch formations. The 1st Panzer would have reported to the corps in wartime while the 7th would be posted to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. II Corps was German in peacetime but would have exchanged a division with the V U.S. Corps in time of war (the 5th Panzer
5th Armoured Division (Germany)
The 5th Armoured Division was a West German armored formation. It was part of the III Corps of the Bundeswehr, which also incorporated in 1985 the 2nd Panzergrenadier Division and 12th Panzer Division. III Corps was part of NATO's Central Army Group , along with the Bundeswehr's II Corps and the...

). 5th Panzer Division disbanded as of 30 June 2001. In peacetime it also commanded the 10th Panzer Division, which was allocated to Eurocorps
Eurocorps
Eurocorps is a multinational standing army corps available for the European Union and the Atlantic Alliance.Headquartered in Strasbourg, France, the force was created in May 1992, activated in October 1993 and declared operational in 1995....

 and which parents the German half of the Franco-German Brigade
Franco-German Brigade
The Franco-German Brigade is a joint formation consisting of units from both the French Armée de Terre and German Heer armies and is integrated in Eurocorps.-History:...

. The 1st Mountain Division at Munich was also under this headquarters.

The IV Corps was headquartered at Potsdam
Potsdam
Potsdam is the capital city of the German federal state of Brandenburg and part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the River Havel, southwest of Berlin city centre....

 in eastern Germany and controlled two Panzer-Grenadier Divisions, the 13th
13th Mechanized Infantry Division (Germany)
The 13th Mechanized Infantry Division is a mechanized division of the German Army.Its staff is based at Leipzig...

 and 14th. The 14th Panzer-Grenadier Division also took control of units in Western Germany re-subordinated from the 6th Division when it lost its command function. It would have made up the German contribution to the Multinational Corps Northeast in time of war. IV Corps also used to have under its command the Military District Command I, the 1st Air Mechanised Brigade, and the Berlin Command (:de:Standortkommando Berlin).

Current army

All corps have now been disbanded or transferred to a multinational level such as Multinational Corps North East
Multinational Corps North East
Multinational Corps Northeast was formed on 18 September 1999 at Szczecin, Poland, which became its headquarters. It evolved from what was for many years the only multinational corps in NATO, Allied Land Forces Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland...

. IV Corps was reorganized and on 31 March 2002 became an overseas deployment command, the Einsatzführungskommando der Bundeswehr, like the British Permanent Joint Headquarters
Permanent Joint Headquarters
The Permanent Joint Headquarters is the British tri-service headquarters from where all overseas military operations are planned and controlled. It is situated at Northwood Headquarters in Northwood, London....

.

A total of 76,000 soldiers are currently on active service in the German Army. Of these, approximately 15,000 - 20,000 are conscripts
Conscription in Germany
Germany had conscription for male citizens between 1956 and 2011. On 22 November 2010, the German Minister of Defence proposed to the government to put conscription into abeyance on 1 July 2011...

.

A planned army reorganisation/reduction in 2012 will see the disbandment of the 13th Mechanized Infantry Division
13th Mechanized Infantry Division (Germany)
The 13th Mechanized Infantry Division is a mechanized division of the German Army.Its staff is based at Leipzig...

 headquarters, a merge of the Airmobile Operations Division and Special Operations Division headquarters, the disbandment of the 1st Airmobile Brigade, and reshuffling of units between divisions. No heavy brigades will be disbanded, but the two remaining heavy divisions will command three rather than two brigades.

Current structure of the German Army

The German Army is commanded by the Inspector of the Army
Inspector of the Army
The Inspector of the Army is the senior serving officer in the German Army of the modern day German Armed Forces or Bundeswehr.He is responsible for the readiness of personnel and materiel in the German Army, in that regard he reports directly to the Federal Minister of Defence...

 (Inspekteur des Heeres) based at the Federal Ministry of Defence in Berlin and Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

. The major commands are the German Army Office in Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 and the German Army Command in Koblenz
Koblenz
Koblenz is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck and its monument are situated.As Koblenz was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 8 BC, the...

. In 2002 a number of army units and their personnel were transferred to the newly formed Joint Support Service
Streitkräftebasis
Streitkräftebasis is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000 as a result of major reforms of the German Bundeswehr. It handles various logistics and organisational tasks of the German Armed Forces...

 (Streitkräftebasis) and Joint Medical Service branches.
  • Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

     Werner Freers
  • Army Staff at the Federal Ministry of Defence
    Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany)
    The Federal Ministry of Defence is a top-level federal agency, headed by the Federal Minister of Defence as a member of the Cabinet of Germany...


German Army Office

The German Army Office in Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 (Heeresamt) is the superior authority for all supporting elements of the Army, such as schools and education centres. It is commanded by a Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

, currently MajGen Joachim Clauß.
  • NBC Defence and Self-Protection School in Sonthofen
    Sonthofen
    Sonthofen is the most southerly town of Germany, located in the Oberallgäu region of the Bavarian Alps. Neighbouring Oberstdorf is situated 14 km farther south but is not classified as a town. Sonthofen is located at...

  • Military Police and Headquarters Services School in Sonthofen
  • Artillery School in Idar-Oberstein
    Idar-Oberstein
    Idar-Oberstein is a town in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. As a Große kreisangehörige Stadt , it assumes some of the responsibilities that for smaller municipalities in the district are assumed by the district administration...

  • Three Officer Candidate Battalions in Idar-Oberstein
    Idar-Oberstein
    Idar-Oberstein is a town in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. As a Große kreisangehörige Stadt , it assumes some of the responsibilities that for smaller municipalities in the district are assumed by the district administration...

    , Munster
    Munster, Lower Saxony
    Munster, also called Munster , is a small town in the district of Heidekreis, in Lower Saxony, Germany almost equidistant from Hamburg and Hanover. The town is home to the German Army's largest garrison and is situated between the two training areas of Munster North and Munster South. It is also...

     and Hammelburg
    Hammelburg
    Hammelburg is a town in the district of Bad Kissingen, in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the river Franconian Saale, 25 km west of Schweinfurt...

  • Special Operations Training Centre (formerly International Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol School) in Pfullendorf
    Pfullendorf
    Pfullendorf is a small historic city in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.-Geography:Its location is in the district of Sigmaringen, 25 km north of Lake Constance and south of the Danube valley and therefore on the continental divide between the watersheds of the...

  • Army Warfighting Simulation Centre in Wildflecken
    Wildflecken
    Wildflecken is a municipality in the Bad Kissingen district, at the border of northeastern Bavaria and southern Hesse. In 2005, its population was 3,285; the postal code is 97772. Wildflecken is in the picturesque Rhön hills and nature-park....

  • Army Combat Training Centre in Letzlingen
    Letzlingen
    Letzlingen is a village and a former municipality in the district Altmarkkreis Salzwedel, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 January 2011, it is part of the town Gardelegen....

  • School of Army Aviation in Bückeburg
    Bückeburg
    Bückeburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the border with North Rhine Westphalia. It was once the capital of the tiny principality of Schaumburg-Lippe and is today located in the district of Schaumburg close to the northern slopes of the Weserbergland ridge...

  • Training Centre Munster
    Munster, Lower Saxony
    Munster, also called Munster , is a small town in the district of Heidekreis, in Lower Saxony, Germany almost equidistant from Hamburg and Hanover. The town is home to the German Army's largest garrison and is situated between the two training areas of Munster North and Munster South. It is also...

     for
    • Army Air Defence
    • Armour
    • Reconnaissance
  • Mountain and Winter Combat School in Mittenwald
    Mittenwald
    Mittenwald is a German municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria.-Geography:Mittenwald is located approx. 16 kilometers to the south-east of Garmisch-Partenkirchen...

  • Infantry School in Hammelburg
    Hammelburg
    Hammelburg is a town in the district of Bad Kissingen, in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the river Franconian Saale, 25 km west of Schweinfurt...

  • Airborne Operations and Air Transport School in Altenstadt
    Altenstadt, Upper Bavaria
    Altenstadt is a municipality in the Weilheim-Schongau district, in Bavaria, Germany.-References:...

  • Army Officers' Academy in Dresden
    Dresden
    Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

     with Army Tactics Centre
  • Army NCO Academies (three at different locations)
  • Engineer School and Army School of Structural Engineering in Ingolstadt
    Ingolstadt
    Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

     (formerly in Munich
    Munich
    Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

    )
  • Army Maintenance School and Army School of Engineering in Aachen
    Aachen
    Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...


German Army Command

The German Army Command in Koblenz
Koblenz
Koblenz is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck and its monument are situated.As Koblenz was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 8 BC, the...

 (Heeresführungskommando) exercises command and control over all combat units. It is commanded by a Lieutenant General.
These units include two armour divisions, two mechanized infantry divisions, the Division for Specialized Operations and the Airmobile Division.
Depending on their size and role, brigades can be commanded either by a Brigadier General alike or a Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

. Unlike other European armies such of neighbouring Netherlands and France, regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

s are not a common form of organization and are thus rare in the German army. Battalions are directly subordinate to brigades or to divisions as divisional troops.
  • Division Intervention Forces/ 1st Armoured Division (Hannover)
    • Divisional troops
    • Panzerlehrbrigade 9
      Panzerlehrbrigade 9
      The Panzerlehrbrigade 9 is a formation of about 5,000 men strong within the German Armed Forces or Bundeswehr, which is subordinated to the 1st Armoured Division in Hanover. The bulk of the brigade is stationed in Munster. Two battalions are based in Neustadt am Rübenberge...

       (9th Armoured Demonstration Brigade)
    • Panzerbrigade 21 (21st Armoured Brigade "Lipperland
      Principality of Lippe
      Lippe was a historical state in Germany. It was located between the Weser River and the southeast part of the Teutoburg forest.-History:...

      ")

  • 10th Armoured Division
    10th Armoured Division (Germany)
    The 10th Armoured Division is an armoured division in the German Army of the Bundeswehr.Its staff is based at Sigmaringen. The division is a unit of the German Army's stabilization forces and specialized on conflicts of low intensity.- History :This division was founded as the 10. Panzerdivision...

    (Sigmaringen
    Sigmaringen
    Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district....

    )
    • Divisional troops
    • 12th Armoured Brigade "Oberpfalz
      Upper Palatinate
      The Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...

      "
    • 23rd Mountain Infantry Brigade "Bayern
      Bavaria
      Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

      "

  • 13th Mechanized Infantry Division
    13th Mechanized Infantry Division (Germany)
    The 13th Mechanized Infantry Division is a mechanized division of the German Army.Its staff is based at Leipzig...

    (Leipzig
    Leipzig
    Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

    )
    • Divisional troops
    • 37th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Freistaat Sachsen
      Saxony
      The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

      "
    • 41st Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Vorpommern
      Hither Pomerania
      Western Pomerania, Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania are terms used in English to translate the German Vorpommern the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.Forming part of...

      "

  • Special Operations Division (Regensburg
    Regensburg
    Regensburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate...

    )
    • Divisional troops
    • Special Forces Command
      Kommando Spezialkräfte
      The KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte is an elite military unit composed of Special Operations soldiers from the ranks of Germany’s Bundeswehr and organized as such under the Division Spezielle Operationen . The unit has received many decorations and awards from both NATO and its affiliates...

       (brigade-equivalent)
    • 26th Airborne Brigade "Saarland
      Saarland
      Saarland is one of the sixteen states of Germany. The capital is Saarbrücken. It has an area of 2570 km² and 1,045,000 inhabitants. In both area and population, it is the smallest state in Germany other than the city-states...

      "
    • 31st Airborne Brigade "Oldenburg
      Oldenburg
      Oldenburg is an independent city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the western part of the state between the cities of Bremen and Groningen, Netherlands, at the Hunte river. It has a population of 160,279 which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig...

      "

  • Airmobile Operations Division
    Airmobile Operations Division
    Airmobile Operations Division is a division of the German Army. Its staff is based at Veitshöchheim near Würzburg. The division was founded on July 1, 2002 and reported for duty October 8, 2002 . It incorporates units from various branches of the German Army. These units are stationed all over...

    (Veitshöchheim
    Veitshöchheim
    Veitshöchheim is a municipality in the district of Würzburg, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the right bank of the Main, 6 km northwest of Würzburg. In the town is Schloss Veitshöchheim; this summer palace of the Prince-Bishops of Würzburg was built in 1680-82, and was enlarged to its...

    )
    • Divisional troops
    • Airmobile Brigade 1
    • Army Combat Support Brigade

  • Eurocorps
    Eurocorps
    Eurocorps is a multinational standing army corps available for the European Union and the Atlantic Alliance.Headquartered in Strasbourg, France, the force was created in May 1992, activated in October 1993 and declared operational in 1995....

    (Straßburg
    Strasbourg
    Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

    )
    • Command Support Brigade
    • German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

  • 1 (German/Netherlands) Corps (Münster
    Münster
    Münster is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland...

    )
    • German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

  • Multinational Corps North East
    Multinational Corps North East
    Multinational Corps Northeast was formed on 18 September 1999 at Szczecin, Poland, which became its headquarters. It evolved from what was for many years the only multinational corps in NATO, Allied Land Forces Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland...

    (Stettin
    Szczecin
    Szczecin , is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of June 2009 the population was 406,427....

    )
    • 610th Signal Battalion
    • German elements

  • Franco-German Brigade
    Franco-German Brigade
    The Franco-German Brigade is a joint formation consisting of units from both the French Armée de Terre and German Heer armies and is integrated in Eurocorps.-History:...

    Müllheim
    Müllheim
    Müllheim is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It belongs to the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald. Müllheim is generally considered to be the center of the region known as Markgräflerland.-History:...


  • Army Central Dump Herongen
    Straelen
    Straelen is a municipality in the district of Cleves, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located near the border with the Netherlands, approx. 10 km north-east of Venlo.Straelen was first mentioned in Latin as Strala in 1063.-External links:*...


  • Army Central Dump Pirmasens
    Pirmasens
    Pirmasens is a district-free city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, near the border with France. It is famous for the manufacture of shoes. The surrounding rural district was called Pirmasens from 1818 until 1997, when it was renamed Südwestpfalz....


  • Central Mobilisation Base in Brück
    Brück
    Brück is a town in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated 29 km southwest of Potsdam, and 28 km southeast of Brandenburg. Parts of Brück are located in the High Fläming Nature Park....


Truppengattungen

The German Army has eleven different branches of troops, designated as Truppengattungen. Each Truppengattung is responsible for training and readiness of its units and disposes of its own schools and centres of excellence for doing so.
Optically this distinction can be made by the branch colour, called Waffenfarbe which is displayed by a cord attached to the rank insignia, and the colour of their beret with a specific badge attached to it.

Beret Colour (Army only and Security Units of Navy and Air Force)
  • Black: Armoured Corps, Reconnaissance Corps
  • Green: Mechanized Infantry and Rifles Corps
  • Dark Red: Aviation Corps, Airborne Corps, Special Forces, formations assigned to airborne division
  • Light Red: Combat Support Corps and Military Police
  • Dark Blue: Medical Corps
  • Navy Blue: Multinational Units, Officer Cadet Battalions, Navy and Air Force Security Units
  • Bright Blue: Troops with United Nations Missions

Grey mountain cap
M43 field cap
The M43 field cap or "Einheitsmütze" was a cap used by the German Wehrmacht and SS, during World War II. The design of the fieldcap was based on the German Gebirgsjäger's ski cap, the only differences being the bill was slightly extended and the top panel of the hat had a smaller circumference,...

 (Bergmütze): Mountain Troops Gebirgsjäger
Gebirgsjäger
Gebirgsjäger, in English Mountain Riflemen, is the German designation for mountain infantry. The word Jäger is the traditional German term for rifleman...


Waffenfarbe
Waffenfarbe
Waffenfarbe is a means the German military uses to distinguish between different corps or troop functions in its armed services...

 (Army and army support branch only)


  • Bright Red:General ranks (only "Kragenspiegel", not "Litze"),
  • Crimson: General Staff

Rank structure

The rank structure of the German army is adjusted to the rank structure of the NATO. Unlike its predecessors, the modern German Army does not use the rank of Colonel General
Colonel General
Colonel General is a senior rank of General. North Korea and Russia are two countries which have used the rank extensively throughout their histories...

.
The highest rank for an army officer is Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

, as the rank of Full General
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

 is reserved for the Armed Forces chief of staff or officers serving as NATO officers.
Officer cadets do not pass through all enlisted ranks, but are directly promoted to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

 after 36 months of service.

Equivalent US Army ranks are shown below according to "STANAG 2116 NSA MC LO (EDITION 6) – NATO CODES FOR GRADES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL":
Officers of the German Army
General
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

 
(General)
Gen
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 (Generalleutnant)
GenLt/GL
Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

 (Generalmajor)
GenMaj/GM
Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000...

 (Brigadegeneral)
BrigGen/BG
Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 
(Oberst
Oberst
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel. It is currently used by both the ground and air forces of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark and Norway. The Swedish rank överste is a direct translation, as are the Finnish rank eversti...

)
Oberst/O
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

 
(Oberstleutnant)
Oberstlt/OTL
OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4

Officers of the German Army
Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

 
(Major)
Maj/M
Staff Captain
Stabshauptmann
Stabshauptmann meaning "Staff Captain", is the highest military rank in the Bundeswehr for specialist officers . Instead of being promoted to the rank of major, specialist officers are promoted to the rank of Stabshauptmann and given the salary of a Major...

 
(Stabshauptmann)
StHptm/SH
Captain 
(Hauptmann)
Hptm/H
1st Lieutenant 
(Oberleutnant)
OLt /OL
2nd Lieutenant 
(Leutnant)
Lt/L
OF-3 OF-2 OF-2 OF-1 OF-1
Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army
Sergeant Major
Sergeant Major
Sergeants major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, Sergeants Major are usually appointments held by senior non-commissioned officers or warrant officers...

 (Oberstabsfeldwebel)
OStFw/OSF
First Sergeant
First Sergeant
First sergeant is the name of a military rank used in many countries, typically a senior non-commissioned officer.-Singapore:First Sergeant is a Specialist in the Singapore Armed Forces. First Sergeants are the most senior of the junior Specialists, ranking above Second Sergeants, and below Staff...

 
(Stabsfeldwebel)
StFw/SF
Master Sergeant (officer cadet) (Oberfähnrich)
OFähnr/OFR
Master Sergeant
Master Sergeant
A master sergeant is the military rank for a senior non-commissioned officer in some armed forces.-Israel Defense Forces:Rav samal rishoninsignia IDF...

 
(Hauptfeldwebel)
HptFw/HF
Sergeant 1st Class (Oberfeldwebel)
OFw/OF
OR-9 OR-8 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6
Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army
Staff Sergeant (officer cadet)
(Fähnrich
Fähnrich
Fähnrich is a German and Austrian military rank in armed forces which translates as "Ensign" in English. The rank also exists in a few other European military organizations, often with historical ties to the German system. Examples are Sweden, Norway and Finland . The French Army has a similar...

)
Fähnr/FR
Staff Sergeant
(Feldwebel
Feldwebel
Feldwebel is a German military rank which has existed since at least the 18th century with usage as a title dating to the Middle Ages. The word Feldwebel is usually translated as sergeant being rated OR-6 in the NATO rank comparison scale, equivalent to the British Army Sergeant and the US Army...

)
Fw/F
Sergeant
(Stabsunteroffizier)
StUffz/SU
Corporal (officer cadet)
(Fahnenjunker
Cadet
A cadet is a trainee to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. The term comes from the term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family.- Military context :...

)
Fhj/FJ
Corporal
(Unteroffizier
Unteroffizier
Unteroffizier is both a specific military rank as well as a collective term for non-commissioned officers of the German military that has existed since the 19th century. The rank existed as a title as early as the 17th century with the first widespread usage occurring in the Bavarian Army of the...

)
Uffz/U
OR-6 OR-6 OR-5 OR-5 OR-5
Enlisted Ranks of the German Army
Corporal Specialist (Oberstabsgefreiter)
OStGefr/OSG
Specialist
(Stabsgefreiter)
StGefr/SG
Lance Corporal
(Hauptgefreiter)
HptGefr/HG
Private 1st Class (NCO cadet)
(Obergefreiter
Obergefreiter
Obergefreiter is a rank of the German and Swiss militaries which dates from the 19th century.The rank was only used in the German army's heavy artillery branch before 1919 and commonly established with the founding of the Reichswehr...

 UA
)
OGefr/OG
Private First Class
Private First Class
Private First Class is a military rank held by junior enlisted persons.- Singapore :The rank of Private First Class in the Singapore Armed Forces lies between the ranks of Private and Lance-Corporal . It is usually held by conscript soldiers midway through their national service term...

 
(Obergefreiter)
OGefr/OG
OR-4 OR-4 OR-3 OR-3 OR-3
Enlisted Ranks of the German Army
Private 1st Class (officer cadet)
(Gefreiter OA)
Gefr/G
Private 1st Class (Sergeant cadet) (Gefreiter FA)
Gefr/G
Private 1st Class (NCO cadet)
(Gefreiter UA)
Gefr/G
Private 1st Class
(Gefreiter
Gefreiter
Gefreiter is the German, Swiss and Austrian equivalent for the military rank Private . Gefreiter was the lowest rank to which an ordinary soldier could be promoted. As a military rank it has existed since at least the 16th century...

)
Gefr/G
Private
(Soldat)
S
OR-2 OR-2 OR-2 OR-2 OR-1

Standard light weapons

  • Heckler & Koch G36
    Heckler & Koch G36
    The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3...

    —5.56 mm x 45 assault rifle
    Assault rifle
    An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine. Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies...

     (Version G36K and G36C for several branches including Special Forces)
  • Heckler & Koch MG4—5.56 mm light machine gun
    Machine gun
    A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute....

  • MG3
    Rheinmetall MG3
    The MG3 is a German general-purpose machine gun chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge. The weapon's design is derived from the World War II era MG 42 universal machine gun that fired the 7.92x57mm Mauser round....

    —7.62 mm x 51 machine gun
  • G8—7.62 mm x 51 automatic rifle, only used by special forces
  • HK21E—7.62 mm x 51 machine gun, only used by special forces
  • M3M-12.7 mm x 99
    .50 BMG
    The .50 Browning Machine Gun or 12.7×99mm NATO is a cartridge developed for the Browning .50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s. Entering service officially in 1921, the round is based on a greatly scaled-up .30-06 cartridge...

     heavy machine gun, used on armored vehicles and CH-53 helicopters
  • Heckler & Koch MP7
    Heckler & Koch MP7
    The MP7 is a German submachine gun manufactured by Heckler & Koch and chambered for the 4.6×30mm cartridge. It was designed with the new cartridge to meet NATO requirements published in 1989, as these requirements call for a personal defense weapon class firearm, with a greater ability to defeat...

    —4.6 mm x 30 submachine gun
    Submachine gun
    A submachine gun is an automatic carbine, designed to fire pistol cartridges. It combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the cartridge of a pistol. The submachine gun was invented during World War I , but the apex of its use was during World War II when millions of the weapon type were...

    , replacing the MP2
  • MP2
    Uzi submachine gun
    The Uzi is a family of Israeli open bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns. Smaller variants are considered to be machine pistols. The Uzi was one of the first weapons to use a telescoping bolt design which allows for the magazine to be housed in the pistol grip for a shorter weapon.The first Uzi...

    —9 x 19 mm submachine gun
  • Heckler & Koch MP5
    Heckler & Koch MP5
    The Heckler & Koch MP5 is a 9mm submachine gun of German design, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar....

    —9 x 19 mm submachine gun, used by various units like the Feldjäger
    Feldjäger
    For the German Military Police in WWII see: Feldjaegerkorps and FeldgendarmerieIn presence Feldjäger is the name of military police of the Bundeswehr, Germany's armed forces. The term Feldjäger, literally meaning field huntsmen or field Jäger, has a long tradition and dates back to the mid-17th...

     and special forces
  • Heckler & Koch P8
    Heckler & Koch USP
    The USP is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns.-History:...

    —9 x 19 mm pistol
    Pistol
    When distinguished as a subset of handguns, a pistol is a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel, as opposed to a revolver, wherein the chamber is separate from the barrel as a revolving cylinder. Typically, pistols have an effective range of about 100 feet.-History:The pistol...

  • Remington 870
    Remington 870
    The Remington Model 870 is a U.S.-made pump-action shotgun manufactured by Remington Arms Company, Inc. It is widely used by the public for sport shooting, hunting, and self-defense. It is also commonly used by law enforcement and military organizations worldwide.-Development:The Remington 870 was...

     - shotgun, used in small numbers by special forces and the military police (Feldjäger)
  • G22
    Accuracy International AWM
    The AWM is a sniper rifle manufactured by Accuracy International. It is also known as the AWSM , which typically denotes the .338 Lapua Magnum version.-The Arctic Warfare Magnum system:...

    7.62 mm x 66.5B
    .300 Winchester Magnum
    The .300 Winchester Magnum is a popular, belted, bottlenecked magnum rifle cartridge that was introduced by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1963 as a member of the family of Winchester Magnum cartridges. The .300 Winchester Magnum is a magnum cartridge designed to fit in a standard length...

     sniper rifle
    Sniper rifle
    In military and law enforcement terminology, a sniper rifle is a precision-rifle used to ensure more accurate placement of bullets at longer ranges than other small arms. A typical sniper rifle is built for optimal levels of accuracy, fitted with a telescopic sight and chambered for a military...

  • G24—sniper rifle, only used by special forces
  • G82—sniper rifle
  • HK MSG3—7.62 mm x 51 designated marksman rifle
  • Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3
    Panzerfaust 3
    The Panzerfaust 3 is a modern and disposable recoilless RPG anti-tank weapon developed between 1978 and 1985 and put into service by the Bundeswehr in 1992...

    —anti-tank rocket launcher
    Shoulder-launched missile weapon
    A shoulder-fired missile, shoulder-launched missile or man-portable missile is a projectile fired at a target, small enough to be carried by a single person, and fired while held on one's shoulder...

  • RGW90 AS
    MATADOR (weapon)
    MATADOR is a man-portable, disposable anti-armor weapon system developed in a collaboration between Singapore and Israel. It is an updated version of the German Armbrust design, and operates on the same principles...

    —rocket launcher
  • Raytheon Fliegerfaust 2 (FIM-92 Stinger)
    FIM-92 Stinger
    The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile , which can be adapted to fire from ground vehicles and helicopters , developed in the United States and entered into service in 1981. Used by the militaries of the U.S...

    infrared
    Infrared
    Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

     homing surface-to-air missile
    Surface-to-air missile
    A surface-to-air missile or ground-to-air missile is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles...

  • MILAN
    MILAN
    MILAN " is French and German for "kite bird") is a European anti-tank guided missile. Design of the MILAN started in 1962. It was ready for trials in 1971, and was accepted for service in 1972. It is a wire guided SACLOS missile, which means the sight of the launch unit has to be aimed at the...

    —anti-tank guided missile system
  • Granatpistole 40mm—grenade launcher
    Grenade launcher
    A grenade launcher or grenade discharger is a weapon that launches a grenade with more accuracy, higher velocity, and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand....

  • HK GMG—grenade autocannon
    Autocannon
    An autocannon or automatic cannon is a rapid-fire projectile weapon firing a shell as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun. Autocannons often have a larger caliber than a machine gun . Usually, autocannons are smaller than a field gun or other artillery, and are mechanically loaded for a...

  • AG36
    AG36
    The AG36 is a single-shot 40 mm grenade launcher which operates on the High-Low System and was designed primarily for installation on the G36 assault rifle, designed by the German weapons manufacturing company Heckler & Koch of Oberndorf am Neckar...

    —grenade launcher
  • KM2000
    KM2000
    The KM2000 is the standard knife of the German Bundeswehr, mostly used by the German Army. The knife is manufactured in Germany by the Eickhorn-Solingen company ....

    —172 mm tantō
    Tanto
    A is one of the traditional Japanese swords that were worn by the samurai class of feudal Japan. The tantō dates to the Heian period, when it was mainly used as a weapon but evolved in design over the years to become more ornate...

     style blade standard combat knife
    Knife
    A knife is a cutting tool with an exposed cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with or without a handle. Knives were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools...





Reconnaissance systems

  • Fennek
    Fennek
    The Fennek, named after the fennec , or LGS Fennek, with LGS being short for Leichter Gepanzerter Spähwagen in German , is a four wheeled armed reconnaissance vehicle produced by the German company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Dutch Defence Vehicle Systems...

     (wheeled armoured reconnaissance vehicle), replacing the Spähpanzer Luchs
    Spähpanzer Luchs
    The Spähpanzer Luchs is a German 8x8 amphibious reconnaissance armoured fighting vehicle in service since 1975 by the German Army, who used a total of 408 in their armoured reconnaissance battalions...

  • Luna X 2000
    Luna X 2000
    Luna X 2000 is a German unmanned aerial vehicle in service with the Bundeswehr and produced by EMT Penzberg of Germany....

     (reconnaissance drone system)
  • KZO
    KZO (aircraft)
    KZO is an unmanned aerial vehicle with stealth characteristics manufactured by Rheinmetall Defence Electronics of Germany....

     (reconnaissance drone system)
  • Aladin
    Aladin (UAV)
    EMT Aladin is a small, man-portable light reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle employed by the Bundeswehr .The UAV can be radio-controlled via a portable control station, or fly according to previously set GPS...

      (reconnaissance drone system)
  • Camcopter S-100
    Camcopter S-100
    -External links:* * at Defense-Update.com...

     (VTOL
    VTOL
    A vertical take-off and landing aircraft is one that can hover, take off and land vertically. This classification includes fixed-wing aircraft as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as cyclogyros/cyclocopters and tiltrotors...

     reconnaissance drone system, procurement planned)
  • MIKADO (mini reconnaissance drone system)
  • Fancopter (mini reconnaissance drone system)
  • RASIT (radar system), being phased out
  • BÜR (ground surveillance radar system, based on Dingo 2)




Armoured vehicles

  • Leopard 2
    Leopard 2
    The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

     (Main Battle Tank)
    • A4, being phased out
    • A5
    • A6
  • Marder 1 A3/A5
    Marder (IFV)
    The Marder is a German infantry fighting vehicle operated by the German Army as the main weapon of the Panzergrenadiere from the 1970s through the present day. Developed as part of the rebuilding of Germany's armoured fighting vehicle industry, the Marder has proven to be a successful and solid...

     (infantry fighting vehicle)
  • Spz Puma
    Puma (IFV)
    The Puma is a German infantry fighting vehicle, the mass production has started on the 6th July 2009. It will replace the aging Marder IFVs, from 2010 through 2020. Governing company is PSM Projekt System Management, a joint venture of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Landsysteme. The Puma is...

     (infantry fighting vehicle), replaces the Marder in the Mechanized Infantry, being delivered
  • Wiesel 1/2 (armoured weapons carrier)
    • as a reconnaissance vehicle for the airborne troops
    • with autocannon 20 mm
    • with TOW anti-tank guided missile
    • with mortar 120 mm
    • as a radar vehicle for the light air defence system (LeFlaSys)
    • as a command vehicle for the LeFlaSys
    • as an engineer reconnaissance vehicle
    • with Stinger equipped for the LeFlaSys
    • as a medical vehicle for the airborne troops
  • M113 A2
    M113 Armored Personnel Carrier
    The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier that has formed the backbone of the United States Army's mechanized infantry units from the time of its first fielding in Vietnam in April 1962. The M113 was the most widely used armored vehicle of the U.S...

     (multirole armoured vehicle) being phased out (594)
  • GTK Boxer
    Boxer MRAV
    The Boxer is a German-Dutch multirole armoured fighting vehicle designed to accomplish a number of operations through the use of installable mission modules. It is produced by the ARTEC GmbH industrial group, and the programme is being managed by OCCAR...

     (multirole armoured fighting vehicle) to replace M113 and TPz Fuchs (planned)
  • IAI Harop
    IAI Harop
    The IAI Harop is an unmanned combat air vehicle developed by the MBT division of Israel Aerospace Industries. Rather than holding a separate high-explosive warhead, the drone itself is the main munition. This hunter-killer is designed to loiter the battlefield and attack targets by...

     (unmanned combat aerial vehicle), loitering munition in combination with Rheinmetall KZO, ordered
  • Dingo 1/2
    ATF Dingo
    The ATF Dingo is a German heavily armored military infantry mobility vehicle based on a Unimog chassis with a V-hull design, produced by the company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann . It is designed to withstand land mines, rifle fire, artillery fragments and NBC-threats. ATF stands for...

     (armoured wheeled vehicle)
  • Eagle IV
    MOWAG Eagle
    The MOWAG Eagle is a wheeled armored vehicle designed by the Swiss MOWAG corporation. It has gone through several generations of development. The current vehicle, introduced in November 2003, is the Eagle IV, which is based on the Duro IIIP chassis...

     (armoured wheeled vehicle)
  • LAPV Enok
    LAPV Enok
    The LAPV Enok is an armoured military vehicle of the Bundeswehr, mostly in use with the German Army. It is a significantly further developed Wolf SSA, based on the Mercedes-Benz G-Class....

     (light armoured patrol vehicle)
  • Grizzly
    KMW Grizzly
    The KMW Grizzly is a medium weight highly protected vehicle, developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann , designed for operation with the German Army based on the 6x6 Trakker chassis from IVECO adapted to meet the needs of the German Army. It is being developed under the direction of the German Ministry of...

     (armoured wheeled vehicle)
  • AGF Serval
    AGF (Light infantry vehicle)
    The Rheinmetall LandSysteme Light Infantry Vehicle for Special Operations, or LIV , is a German light armoured utility vehicle developed from the Mercedes-Benz G-Class. It is also known by the names Serval, Wolf and AGF. As the name implies, the LIV is designed specifically for use by special...

     (reconnaissance and combat vehicle)
  • DURO III
    Mowag Duro
    The MOWAG DURO is a tactical military vehicle in both four and six wheel drive. Initially developed for Switzerland by Bucher-Guyer AG in Niederweningen, Switzerland, who started production of all-wheel-drive trucks in 1976. An initial 3,000 vehicles order for the Swiss Armed Forces came through...

     (armoured wheeled vehicle)
  • YAK
    Rheinmetall YAK
    The YAK is a heavily armored and mine-protected transport vehicle produced by the German company Rheinmetall Landsysteme AG based on the DURO IIIP chassis from the Swiss company MOWAG GmbH. DURO stands for DUrable and RObust....

     (armoured wheeled vehicle), based on DURO III
  • Mungo ESK
    Mungo ESK
    The Mungo ESK is an air-transportable, armoured multirole transport vehicle of the German Army for its Airmobile Operations Division and Division Special Operations....

     (armoured transport vehicle)
  • TPz Fuchs (multirole armoured vehicle)
  • BV 206 S
    Bandvagn 206
    Bandvagn 206 is a tracked articulated, all-terrain carrier developed by Hägglunds for the Swedish Army. It consists of two units, with all four tracks powered...

     (tracked armoured transport vehicle)

Artillery

  • M270 MLRS
    M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
    The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery.Since the first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the...

     (227 mm multiple rocket launcher)
  • PzH 2000 (155 mm self-propelled howitzer)
  • Wiesel 2 lePzMrs, advanced mortar system
  • ABRA (artillery radar system), being phased out
  • Mortar TAMPELLA (120 mm)
  • Mortar "R" (120 mm)
  • COBRA (counter artillery radar system)
  • ATMAS (artillery weather measure system)
  • SMA (artillery sound measure system)

Air defence systems

  • Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard
    Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard
    The Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard is an autonomous, all-weather-capable German self-propelled anti-aircraft gun . It was developed in the 1960s and fielded in the 1970s, and has been upgraded several times with the latest electronics...

     1 A2 (self-propelled anti air gun), will be formally phased out in late 2010 and then replaced by SysFla in the upcoming years.
  • LeFlaSys (light anti-aircraft missile system), based on Wiesel 2
  • MANTIS
    Nächstbereichschutzsystem MANTIS
    Nächstbereichschutzsystem MANTIS , formerly titled as NBS-C-RAM , is the latest very short-range protection system of the German Army intended for base-protection, particularly in Afghanistan, produced by Rheinmetall Air Defence Nächstbereichschutzsystem MANTIS (Modular, Automatic and Network...

     (stationary counter rocket, artillery, and mortar system for base protection), to be delivered in 2011
  • SysFla (system air defence – mobile and stationary platforms using the LFK NG
    LFK NG
    LFK NG from Lenkflugkörper Neue Generation , is currently under development by LFK-Lenkflugkörpersysteme and Diehl BGT Defence as the new short-range surface-to-air missile system for the German Army as a replacement for its former Roland air defence systems and as a part of the army's new SysFla...

     and MANTIS), under development
  • LÜR (radar system), being phased out

Engineer equipment

  • Dachs (tracked engineer tank)
  • Büffel (tracked salvage tank)
  • Biber (bridge layer)
  • Panzerschnellbrücke 2 (bridge layer), replacing the Biber
  • Mine Skorpion (mine layer)
  • Keiler (mine breaker)
  • M3 Amphibious Rig
    M3 Amphibious Rig
    The M3 Amphibious Rig is a self-propelled amphibious bridging vehicle that is used for the projection of tanks and other vehicles across water obstacles.-Development and service:...

     (amphibious vehicle)
  • Motorboot 3 (motorboat)
  • Medium Girder Bridge (bridge system)
  • Faltfestbrücke (solid bridge system)
  • Faltschwimmbrücke (swimming bridge system)
  • Pontoon bridge
  • Faltstraßensystem (mobile roadway system)

Aircraft inventory

The German Army operates more than 320 helicopters. Nearly all were built in Germany while nearly 40% are indigenous designs. 80 Eurocopter Tiger
Eurocopter Tiger
The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...

 and 80 NH90 helicopters have been ordered.

! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|Aircraft
! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|Origin
! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|Type
! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|Versions
! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|In service
! style="text-align: left; background: #aabccc;"|Notes
|-
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Attack Helicopter
Attack helicopter
An attack helicopter is a military helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored vehicles...


|-
| Eurocopter Tiger
Eurocopter Tiger
The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...


|
| Attack helicopter
|
| 11
| 80 (planned), entered service
|-
! style="align: center; background: lavender;" colspan="7" | Transport/Utility
Utility helicopter
A Utility Helicopter is a multi-purpose helicopter. A utility military helicopter can fill roles such as ground attack, air assault, cargo, surveillance and troop transport. Their size is generally between cargo helicopters and light observation helicopters....

 Helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...


|-
| UH-1 Iroquois
UH-1 Iroquois
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a military helicopter powered by a single, turboshaft engine, with a two-bladed main rotor and tail rotor. The helicopter was developed by Bell Helicopter to meet the United States Army's requirement for a medical evacuation and utility helicopter in 1952, and first flew...


|
| Utility helicopter
| UH-1D
| 82
| Being withdrawn; built by Dornier
|- style="background:#efefef; color:black"
| Bölkow Bo 105
Bölkow Bo 105
The MBB Bo 105 is a light, twin-engine, multi-purpose utility helicopter developed by Bölkow of Stuttgart, Germany. Production began under Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm , which became a part of Eurocopter in 1991...


|
| Utility/attack helicopter
| 105P
| 104
|
|-
| Eurocopter EC 135
Eurocopter EC 135
The Eurocopter EC135 is a twin-engine civil helicopter produced by Eurocopter, widely used amongst police and ambulance services and for executive transport. It is capable of flight under instrument flight rules .-Development:...


|
| Utility helicopter
| EC135
| 15
|
|- style="background:#efefef; color:black"
| NHI NH90
NHI NH90
The NHIndustries NH90 is a medium sized, twin-engine, multi-role military helicopter manufactured by NHIndustries. The first prototype had its maiden flight in December 1995...


|
| Transport helicopter
| NH90 TTH
| 3
| 80 (planned)
|-
| Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion
|
| Transport helicopter
| CH-53G/CH-53GS
| 101
| 110 built by VFW
|}

Logistic equipment

  • SLT 50-3 Elefant
    SLT 50-3 Elefant
    300px|thumb|A SLT 50-3 Elefant of the [[German Army]], [[Kosovo]], July 2002.The SLT 50 is a heavy duty tractor unit and tank transporter currently in use by the German Army.-History:...

     (heavy tractor trailer, tank transporter
    Tank transporter
    A tank transporter is a specialized road vehicle for the transport of tanks, to and from the battlefield or during peacetime. They are necessary to limit the mileage of the tracked vehicles and also to reduce wear on road surfaces which can easily be damaged by such heavy vehicles...

    )
  • Berge- und Kranfahrzeug, BKF 30.40 (salvage vehicle)

Non-combat vehicles

  • Mercedes-Benz 250 GD "Wolf"
    Mercedes-Benz G-Class
    The original 460-series Geländewagen went on sale for civilian buyers in 1979, after having debuted in February of that year. It was offered with two wheelbases, a short wheelbase of 2,400 mm and a long one of 2,850 mm. One could choose between three body styles: A two-door short...

  • KTM LC4 Military 27 PS, motorcycle
  • ATV Yamaha Kodiak 400, Quad
  • LKW 2t mil gl, 4x4 (Unimog)
    Unimog
    Unimog is a range of multi-purpose auto four wheel drive medium trucks produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of Daimler AG. The name Unimog is pronounced in German and is an acronym for the German "UNIversal-MOtor-Gerät", Gerät being the German word for machine or device...

  • LKW 5t mil gl, 4x4
  • LKW 5t mil, 4x4
  • LKW 7t mil gl, 6x6
  • LKW 7t mil, 6x6
  • LKW 10t mil gl, 8x8
  • LKW 15t mil gl, 8x8
  • LKW 15t mil gl MULTI, 8x8
  • Volkswagen T platform (T3/T4)
  • Snowmobile Ski-Doo

See also

  • Bundeswehr
    Bundeswehr
    The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

  • History of Germany during World War II
    History of Germany during World War II
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