George Sand
Overview
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, later Baroness (French: baronne) Dudevant (Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, 1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her pseudonym George Sand (ʒɔʁʒ sɑ̃d), was a French novelist and memoirist.
Sand's father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France, Maurice, Comte de Saxe, himself an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong
Frederick Augustus I or Augustus II the Strong was Elector of Saxony and King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania ....

, King of Poland and a Saxon elector, and a cousin to the sixth degree to the kings of France Louis XVI
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before being executed in 1793....

, Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII , known as "the Unavoidable", was King of France and of Navarre from 1814 to 1824, omitting the Hundred Days in 1815...

 and Charles X
Charles X of France
Charles X was known for most of his life as the Comte d'Artois before he reigned as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. A younger brother to Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him...

.
Encyclopedia
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, later Baroness (French: baronne) Dudevant (Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, 1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her pseudonym George Sand (ʒɔʁʒ sɑ̃d), was a French novelist and memoirist.

Life

Sand's father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France, Maurice, Comte de Saxe, himself an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong
Frederick Augustus I or Augustus II the Strong was Elector of Saxony and King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania ....

, King of Poland and a Saxon elector, and a cousin to the sixth degree to the kings of France Louis XVI
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before being executed in 1793....

, Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII , known as "the Unavoidable", was King of France and of Navarre from 1814 to 1824, omitting the Hundred Days in 1815...

 and Charles X
Charles X of France
Charles X was known for most of his life as the Comte d'Artois before he reigned as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. A younger brother to Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him...

. Sand's mother, Sophie-Victoire Delaborde, was a commoner. Sand was born in Paris but raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother, Marie Aurore de Saxe, Madame Dupin de Franceuil, at her grandmother's estate, Nohant, in the French province of Berry
Berry (province)
Berry is a region located in the center of France. It was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements on 4 March 1790....

 (See House of George Sand
House of George Sand
The House of French writer George Sand is located in the village of Nohant, in the Indre Department of France. It was purchased by the French state in 1952, and has been preserved as it was when Sand wrote many of her books there and hosted many of the most important artists and writers of her...

). She later used the setting in many of her novels. It has been said that her upbringing was quite liberal.

In 1822, at the age of nineteen, Sand married Baron Casimir Dudevant
Casimir Dudevant
François Casimir, Baron Dudevant was a French nobleman, and the illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant and his mistress Augustine Soulé....

 (1795–1871), illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children: Maurice
Maurice Sand
Jean-François-Maurice-Arnauld, Baron Dudevant, better known as Maurice Sand , was a French illustrator and writer. Maurice Sand also experimented in various other subjects, including painting, geology, and biology...

 (1823–1889) and Solange (1828–1899). In early 1831, she left her prosaic husband and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was legally separated from Dudevant and took her children with her.
Sand conducted affairs of varying duration with Jules Sandeau
Jules Sandeau
Leonard Sylvain Julien Sandeau was a French novelist.He was born at Aubusson , and was sent to Paris to study law, but spent much of his time in unruly behaviour with other students. He met George Sand, then Madame Dudevant, at Le Coudray in the house of a friend, and when she came to Paris in...

 (1831), Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. He is perhaps best known for his novella Carmen, which became the basis of Bizet's opera Carmen.-Life:...

, Alfred de Musset
Alfred de Musset
Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836.-Biography:Musset was born on 11 December 1810 in Paris...

 (summer 1833 – March 1835), Louis-Chrystosome Michel, Pierre-François Bocage, Félicien Mallefille and Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano"....

 (1837–47). Later in life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary , and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and style.-Early life and education:Flaubert was born on December 12, 1821, in Rouen,...

. Despite their obvious differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they eventually became close friends. She was engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval
Marie Dorval
Marie Dorval was a French actress.- Early life :Born Marie Thomase Amélie Delauney; abandoned by her father when she was five years old, and losing her mother to tuberculosis while still a teenager, at age of 15 she married Alain Dorval, a much older actor, who died five years later...

, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumors of a lesbian affair. Letters written by Sand to Dorval mentioned things like "wanting you either in your dressing room or in your bed."

In Majorca one can still visit the (then abandoned) Carthusian
Carthusian
The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics. The order was founded by Saint Bruno of Cologne in 1084 and includes both monks and nuns...

 monastery of Valldemossa
Valldemossa
Valldemossa or Valldemosa is a village and municipality on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands....

, where she spent the winter of 1838–39 with Chopin and her children. This trip to Majorca was described by her in Un Hiver à Majorque (A Winter in Majorca), published in 1855. Chopin was already ill
Frédéric Chopin's illness
Frédéric Chopin's disease, and the reason for his premature death at age 39, remain unclear. Though he was diagnosed in his lifetime with tuberculosis and treated for it, since his death in 1849 a number of alternative diagnoses have been suggested....

 with incipient tuberculosis (or, as has recently been suggested, cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease affecting most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver, and intestine...

) at the beginning of their relationship, and spending a winter in Majorca - where Sand and Chopin did not realize that winter was a time of rain and cold, and where they could not get proper lodgings - exacerbated his symptoms. They split two years before his death, for a variety of reasons. In Lucrezia Floriani, a novel, Sand used Chopin as a model for a sickly Eastern European prince named Karol. He's cared for by a middle-aged actress past her prime, Lucrezia, who suffers a great deal by caring for Karol. Though Sand claimed not to have made a cartoon out of Chopin, the book's publication and widespread readership may have exacerbated their antipathy to each other. However, the tipping point in their relationship involved her daughter Solange. Chopin continued to be cordial to Solange after she and her husband, Auguste Clesinger, had a vicious falling out with Sand over money. Sand took Chopin's support of Solange as outright treachery, and confirmation that Chopin had always "loved" Solange. Sand's son Maurice also disliked Chopin. Maurice wanted to establish himself as the 'man of the estate,' and did not wish to have Chopin as a rival for that role. Chopin was never asked back to Nohant. In 1848, he returned to Paris from a tour of the UK and died at the Place Vendôme. Chopin was penniless at that point; his friends had to pay for his stay there, as well as his funeral at the Madeleine. The funeral was attended by over 3,000 people, including Delacroix, Liszt, Victor Hugo and other famous people. George Sand, however, was notable by her absence.

She is also known for her implication and writings during "la commune" where she took position for the Versaille's assembly against the "communard", urging them to take violent action against the "rebels"
George Sand died at Nohant, near Châteauroux
Châteauroux
Châteauroux is the capital of the Indre department in central France and the second-largest town in the province of Berry, after Bourges. Its residents are called Castelroussines or Castelroussins....

, in France's Indre
Indre
Indre is a department in the center of France named after the river Indre. The inhabitants of the department are called Indriens.-History:Indre is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

 département on 8 June 1876, at the age of 71 and was buried in the grounds of her home there. In 2004, controversial plans were suggested to move her remains to the Panthéon
Pantheon
-Mythology:* Pantheon , the set of gods belonging to a particular mythology* Pantheon * Pantheon, Rome, now a Catholic church, once a temple to the gods of ancient Rome* Any temple dedicated to an entire pantheon-Other buildings:...

 in Paris.

Writing

A liaison with the writer Jules Sandeau
Jules Sandeau
Leonard Sylvain Julien Sandeau was a French novelist.He was born at Aubusson , and was sent to Paris to study law, but spent much of his time in unruly behaviour with other students. He met George Sand, then Madame Dudevant, at Le Coudray in the house of a friend, and when she came to Paris in...

 heralded her literary debut. They published a few stories in collaboration, signing them "Jules Sand." Her first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831), was written in collaboration with Sandeau. She subsequently adopted, for her first independent novel, Indiana (1832), the pen name that made her famous – George Sand.

Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, she wrote the rural novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (1847–1848), La Petite Fadette
La Petite Fadette
La Petite Fadette is an 1849 novel by French novelist George Sand. Sand wrote the rural story together with Francois le Champi in the 1840s as she settled in Châteauroux from Paris. The novel was first officially published in 1900 by Henry Holt and Company...

 (1849), and Les Beaux Messieurs Bois-Doré (1857). A Winter in Majorca described the period that she and Chopin spent on that island in 1838-9. Her other novels include Indiana
Indiana (novel)
Indiana is the first novel of George Sand, published in April 1832. It was Amandine Aurore Dupin's first novel published under the pseudonym George Sand. The novel blends the conventions of romanticism, realism, and idealism. The novel is about love and marriage.The novel set partly in France,...

 (1832), Lélia (1833), Mauprat
Mauprat
Mauprat is a novel by the French novelist George Sand about love and education. It was published in serial form in April and May 1837. Like many of Sand's novels, Mauprat borrows from various fictional genres- the Gothic novel, chivalric romance, the Bildungsroman, detective fiction, and the...

 (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo
Consuelo (novel)
Consuelo is a novel by George Sand, first published serially in 1842-1843 in La Revue indépendante, a periodical founded in 1841 by Sand, Pierre Leroux and Louis Viardot. According to the Nuttall Encyclopædia, it is "[Sand's] masterpiece; the impersonation of the triumph of moral purity over...

 (1842–1843), and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Further theatre pieces and autobiographical pieces include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859) (about her affair with Musset), Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at the Nohant estate.

In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. She wrote many essays and published works establishing her socialist
Socialism
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

 position. Because of her early life, she sided with the poor and working class. When the 1848 Revolution
French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France, the February revolution ended the Orleans monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. The February Revolution was really the belated second phase of the Revolution of 1830...

 began, women had no rights and Sand believed these were necessary for progress. Around this time Sand started her own newspaper which was published in a workers' co-operative. This allowed her to publish more political essays. She wrote "I cannot believe in any republic that starts a revolution by killing its own proletariat."

Her most widely used quote is "There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved."

She was known well in far reaches of the world, and her social practices, her writings and her beliefs prompted much commentary, often by other luminaries in the world of arts and letters. A few excerpts demonstrate much of what was often said about George Sand:
"She was a thinking bosom and one who overpowered her young lovers, all Sybil
Sibyl
The word Sibyl comes from the Greek word σίβυλλα sibylla, meaning prophetess. The earliest oracular seeresses known as the sibyls of antiquity, "who admittedly are known only through legend" prophesied at certain holy sites, under the divine influence of a deity, originally— at Delphi and...

 — a Romantic
Romanticism
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution...

."
V.S. Pritchett (writer)

"What a brave man she was, and what a good woman."
Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright. His first major publication, a short story collection entitled A Sportsman's Sketches, is a milestone of Russian Realism, and his novel Fathers and Sons is regarded as one of the major works of 19th-century...

 (novelist)

"The most womanly woman."
Alfred de Musset
Alfred de Musset
Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836.-Biography:Musset was born on 11 December 1810 in Paris...

 (poet)

Contemporary views

Sand's reputation came into question when she began sporting men's clothing in public — which she justified by the clothes being far sturdier and less expensive than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, Sand's male dress enabled her to circulate more freely in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, and gave her increased access to venues from which women were often barred — even women of her social standing. Also scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public; neither peerage nor gentry had yet sanctioned the free indulgence of women in such a habit, especially in public (though Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt ; ), was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.Liszt became renowned in Europe during the nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age...

's paramour Marie d'Agoult
Marie d'Agoult
Marie Catherine Sophie de Flavigny, Vicomtesse de Flavigny , was a French author, known also by her married name and title, Marie, Comtesse d'Agoult, and by her pen name, Daniel Stern....

 affected this as well, smoking large cigars). These and other behaviors were exceptional for a woman of the early and mid-19th century, when social codes—especially in the upper classes—were of the utmost importance. As a consequence of many unorthodox aspects of her lifestyle, Sand was obliged to relinquish some of the privileges appertaining to a baroness — though, interestingly, the mores of the period did permit upper-class wives to live physically separated from their husbands, without losing face, provided the estranged couple exhibited no blatant irregularity to the outside world.

Poet Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire was a French poet who produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, Les Fleurs du mal expresses the changing nature of beauty in modern, industrializing Paris during the nineteenth century...

 was a contemporary critic of George Sand: "She is stupid, heavy and garrulous. Her ideas on morals have the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women.... The fact that there are men who could become enamoured of this slut is indeed a proof of the abasement of the men of this generation." Other writers of the period, however, differed in their assessment. Flaubert, by no means an indulgent or forbearing critic, was an unabashed admirer, as was Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental À la recherche du temps perdu...

. Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon....

, who knew Sand personally, once said that if someone thought George Sand wrote badly, it was because their own standards of criticism were inadequate. He also noted that her treatment of imagery in her works showed that her writing had an exceptional subtlety, having the ability to 'virtually put the image in the word'.

In literature

Frequent literary references to George Sand can be found in Possession
Possession: A Romance
Possession: A Romance is a 1990 bestselling novel by British writer A. S. Byatt. It is a winner of the Man Booker Prize.Part historical as well as contemporary fiction, the title Possession refers to issues of ownership and independence between lovers, the practice of collecting historically...

 (1990) by A. S. Byatt
A. S. Byatt
Dame Antonia Susan Duffy, DBE is an English novelist, poet and Booker Prize winner...

. The American poet Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman
Walter "Walt" Whitman was an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse...

 cited Sand's novel Consuelo as a personal favorite and the sequel to this novel La Comtesse De Rudolstady contains at least a couple of passages that appear to have had a very direct influence on him. Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was one of the most prominent poets of the Victorian era. Her poetry was widely popular in both England and the United States during her lifetime. A collection of her last poems was published by her husband, Robert Browning, shortly after her death.-Early life:Members...

 (1806–1861), the English poet, produced two poems "To George Sand: A Desire" and "To George Sand: A Recognition". The character, Stepan Verkhovensky, in Dostoevsky's novel The Possessed took to translating the works of George Sand in his periodical, before the periodical was subsequently seized by the ever-cautious Russian government of the 1840s. George Sand is referenced a number of times in the play Voyage, the first part of Tom Stoppard
Tom Stoppard
Sir Tom Stoppard OM, CBE, FRSL is a British playwright, knighted in 1997. He has written prolifically for TV, radio, film and stage, finding prominence with plays such as Arcadia, The Coast of Utopia, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, Professional Foul, The Real Thing, and Rosencrantz and...

's The Coast of Utopia trilogy. And in the first episode of the "Overture" to Swann's Way—the first novel in Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental À la recherche du temps perdu...

's In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past is a novel in seven volumes by Marcel Proust. His most prominent work, it is popularly known for its considerable length and the notion of involuntary memory, the most famous example being the "episode of the madeleine." The novel is widely...

 sequence—a young, distraught Marcel is calmed by his mother as she reads from François le Champi, a novel which (it is explained) was part of a gift from his grandmother, which also included La Mare au Diable, La Petite Fadette, and Les Maîtres Sonneurs. As with many episodes involving art in À la recherche du temps perdu, this reminiscence includes commentary on the work. George Sand also makes an appearance in Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende Llona is a Chilean writer with American citizenship. Allende, whose works sometimes contain aspects of the "magic realist" tradition, is famous for novels such as The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts , which have been commercially successful...

's Zorro
Zorro (novel)
Zorro is a 2005 mock biography and the first origin story of the pulp hero Zorro, written by Chilean author Isabel Allende. It is a prequel to the events of the original Zorro story, Johnston McCulley's 1919 novella The Curse of Capistrano...

, going still by her given name, as a young girl in love with Diego de la Vega (Zorro).

In music, film, TV

  • A Song to Remember
    A Song to Remember
    A Song to Remember is a 1945 Columbia Pictures biographical film which tells a fictionalised life story of Polish pianist and composer Frédéric Chopin...

     (1945), directed by Charles Vidor
    Charles Vidor
    Charles Vidor was a film director.-Biography:Born Károly Vidor to a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary, he served in the Hungarian Army during World War I...

    , starring Merle Oberon
    Merle Oberon
    Merle Oberon was an Indian-born British actress best known for her screen performances in The Scarlet Pimpernel and The Cowboy and the Lady . She began her film career in British films as Anne Boleyn in The Private Life of Henry VIII . She travelled to the United States to make films for Samuel...

     as George Sand and Cornel Wilde
    Cornel Wilde
    Cornel Wilde was an American actor and film director.-Early life:Kornél Lajos Weisz was born in 1912 in Prievidza, Hungary , although his year and place of birth are usually and inaccurately given as 1915 in New York City...

     as Chopin.
  • Song Without End
    Song Without End
    Song Without End, subtitled The Story of Franz Liszt is a biographical film romance made by Columbia Pictures. It was directed by Charles Vidor, who died during the shooting of the picture and was replaced by George Cukor. It was produced by William Goetz from a screenplay by Oscar Millard,...

     (1960), also directed by Vidor (who died during production and direction was assumed by George Cukor
    George Cukor
    George Dewey Cukor was an American film director. He mainly concentrated on comedies and literary adaptations. His career flourished at RKO and later MGM, where he directed What Price Hollywood? , A Bill of Divorcement , Dinner at Eight , Little Women , David Copperfield , Romeo and Juliet and...

    ), in which Dirk Bogarde
    Dirk Bogarde
    Sir Dirk Bogarde was an English actor and novelist. Initially a matinee idol in such films as Doctor in the House and other Rank Organisation pictures, Bogarde later acted in art-house films such as Death in Venice...

     starred as Franz Liszt
    Franz Liszt
    Franz Liszt ; ), was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.Liszt became renowned in Europe during the nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age...

    ; Patricia Morison
    Patricia Morison
    Patricia Morison is an American stage and motion picture actress and mezzo-soprano singer . She made her feature film debut in 1939 after several years on the stage. During her time as a screen actress she was lauded for her patrician beauty, with her blue eyes and extremely long, dark hair among...

     played a cameo role as George Sand
  • Notorious Woman
    Notorious Woman
    Notorious Woman was a 1974 BBC television serial based on the life of French author George Sand. It starred Rosemary Harris in the title role. The seven episodes were written by Harry W...

     (1974), a 7-part BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     miniseries starring Rosemary Harris
    Rosemary Harris
    Rosemary Ann Harris is an English actress and a member of the American Theatre Hall of Fame. Throughout her career she has been nominated for an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award and has won a Golden Globe, an Emmy, a Tony Award, an Obie, and five Drama Desk Awards.-Early life:Harris was born in...

     as George Sand and George Chakiris
    George Chakiris
    George Chakiris is an American-Greek dancer, singer and actor.-Early life:Chakiris was born in Norwood, Ohio, to Steven and Zoe Chakiris, immigrants from Greece. Chakiris studied at the American School of Dance....

     as Chopin.
  • In 1976, the band Ambrosia
    Ambrosia (band)
    Ambrosia is an American rock band formed in southern California in 1970. Ambrosia had five Top Forty hit singles between 1975 and 1980.-Formation and inspiration:...

     recorded the song "Danse With Me, George (Chopin's Plea)", based on Sand and Chopin's romance. It appeared on Ambrosia's Album "Somewhere I've Never Travelled."
  • Impromptu
    Impromptu (1991 film)
    Impromptu is a 1991 movie, based on a screenplay written by Sarah Kernochan, directed by James Lapine, produced by Daniel A. Sherkow and Stuart Oken, and starring Hugh Grant as Chopin and Judy Davis as George Sand. This movie was rated PG-13 by the MPAA...

     (1991), starring Judy Davis
    Judy Davis
    Judy Davis is an Australian actress best known for her roles in Husbands and Wives, Barton Fink, A Passage to India and in the TV miniseries Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows....

     as George Sand and Hugh Grant
    Hugh Grant
    Hugh John Mungo Grant is an English actor and film producer. He has received a Golden Globe Award, a BAFTA, and an Honorary César. His films have earned more than $2.4 billion from 25 theatrical releases worldwide. Grant achieved international stardom after appearing in Richard Curtis's...

     as Chopin.
  • Les Enfants du siècle (1999), starring Juliette Binoche
    Juliette Binoche
    Juliette Binoche is a French actress, artist and dancer. She has appeared in more than 40 feature films, been recipient of numerous international accolades, is a published author and has appeared on stage across the world. Coming from an artistic background, she began taking acting lessons during...

     as George Sand and Benoît Magimel
    Benoît Magimel
    Benoît Magimel is a French actor. A prolific actor who was 14 when he appeared in his first film, Magimel has starred in a variety of roles in French cinema....

     as Alfred de Musset
    Alfred de Musset
    Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836.-Biography:Musset was born on 11 December 1810 in Paris...

  • Chopin
    Chopin: Desire for Love
    Chopin: Desire for Love is a film created by director Jerzy Antczak based on the life story of the famous Polish pianist and composer Fryderyk Chopin.The plot covers the affair between Chopin and feminist writer George Sand...

     (2002), directed by Jerzy Antczak
    Jerzy Antczak
    Jerzy Antczak is a Polish film director. His film Nights and Days was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and was entered into the 26th Berlin International Film Festival....

     starring Danuta Stenka as George Sand and Piotr Adamczyk
    Piotr Adamczyk
    Piotr Adamczyk is a Polish actor.He portrayed Karol Wojtyła, who later became Pope John Paul II, in the movie Karol: A Man Who Became Pope and Karol: The Pope, The Man....

     as Chopin.
  • Sand... George en mal d'Aurore (2003), TV, directed by Françoise-Renée Jamet and Laurent Marocco, with the voice of Lambert Wilson
    Lambert Wilson
    Lambert Wilson is a French actor. He is internationally known for his portrayal of The Merovingian in The Matrix He was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, the son of Georges Wilson, who was an actor, theatrical manager and director of the Theatre National de Paris.Wilson screen tested for The...

  • A song from Cole Porter's 1933 London show, "Nymph Errant" was entitled "Georgia Sand" in reference to Sand.
  • In 2007, Céline Dion recorded the song "Lettre de George Sand à Alfred de Musset." It is included on her French-language album "D'Elles
    D'elles
    D'elles is the title of Céline Dion's French-language album, released between May 18 and June 1, 2007 in certain European countries, on May 22, 2007 in Canada, and February 27, 2008 in Japan. It is her 23rd French album and 35th if counting all longplays...

    ."

Works

  • Voyage en Auvergne (autobiographical sketch, 1827)
  • Compagnon du tour De France (1840)
  • La Petite Fadette (1848)
  • Château des Désertes (1850)
  • Histoire de ma vie (autobiography up to the revolution of 1848; 1855)


Novels

  • Rose et Blanche (1831, with Jules Sandeau)
  • Indiana
    Indiana (novel)
    Indiana is the first novel of George Sand, published in April 1832. It was Amandine Aurore Dupin's first novel published under the pseudonym George Sand. The novel blends the conventions of romanticism, realism, and idealism. The novel is about love and marriage.The novel set partly in France,...

     (1832)
  • Valentine (1832)
  • Lélia (1833)
  • Andréa (1833)
  • Mattéa (1833)
  • Jacques (1833)
  • Kouroglou / Épopée Persane (1833)
  • Leone Leoni (1833)
  • Simon (1835)
  • Mauprat
    Mauprat
    Mauprat is a novel by the French novelist George Sand about love and education. It was published in serial form in April and May 1837. Like many of Sand's novels, Mauprat borrows from various fictional genres- the Gothic novel, chivalric romance, the Bildungsroman, detective fiction, and the...

     (1837)
  • Les Maîtres mosaïtes (1837)
  • L'Oreo (1838)
  • L'Uscoque (1838)
  • Spiridion (1839)
  • Un hiver à Majorque (1839)
  • Pauline (1839)
  • Horace (1840)
  • Consuelo
    Consuelo (novel)
    Consuelo is a novel by George Sand, first published serially in 1842-1843 in La Revue indépendante, a periodical founded in 1841 by Sand, Pierre Leroux and Louis Viardot. According to the Nuttall Encyclopædia, it is "[Sand's] masterpiece; the impersonation of the triumph of moral purity over...

     (1842)
  • La Comtesse de Rudolstadt (1843, a sequel to Consuelo)
  • Jeanne (1844)
  • Teverino (1845)
  • Le Péché de M. Antoine (1845)
  • Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845)
  • La Mare au diable (1846)
  • Lucrezia Floriani (1846)
  • François le Champi (1847)
  • La Petite Fadette
    La Petite Fadette
    La Petite Fadette is an 1849 novel by French novelist George Sand. Sand wrote the rural story together with Francois le Champi in the 1840s as she settled in Châteauroux from Paris. The novel was first officially published in 1900 by Henry Holt and Company...

     (1849)
  • Les Maîtres sonneurs (1853)
  • La Daniella (1857)
  • Elle et Lui (1859)
  • Jean de la Roche (1859)
  • L'Homme de neige (1859)
  • La Ville noire (1860)
  • Marquis de Villemer (1860)
  • Mademoiselle La Quintinie (1863)
  • Laura, Voyage dans le cristal (1864)
  • Le Dernier Amour (1866, dedicated to Flaubert)
  • La Marquise (1834)

Plays

  • Gabriel (1839)
  • François le Champi (1849)
  • Claudie (1851)
  • Le Mariage de Victorine (1851)
  • Le Pressoir (1853, Play)
  • French adaptation of As You Like It (1856)]
  • Le Pavé (1862, "The Paving Stone")
  • Le Marquis de Villemer (1864)
  • Le Lis du Japon (1866, "The Japanese Lily")
  • L'Autre (1870, with Sarah Bernhardt)
  • Un Bienfait n'est jamais perdu (1872, "A Good Deed Is Never Wasted")


See also

  • Pauline Viardot
  • House of George Sand
    House of George Sand
    The House of French writer George Sand is located in the village of Nohant, in the Indre Department of France. It was purchased by the French state in 1952, and has been preserved as it was when Sand wrote many of her books there and hosted many of the most important artists and writers of her...

  • Musée de la Vie Romantique
    Musée de la Vie Romantique
    The Musée de la Vie romantique stands at the foot of Montmartre hill in the IXe arrondissement, 16 rue Chaptal, Paris, France in a 1830 hôtel particulier facing two twin-studios, a greenhouse, a small garden, and a paved courtyard. The museum is open daily except Monday. Permanent collections are...

  • Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
    Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
    Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a commune in the Indre department in central France.It is a medieval village , perched in a curve on a rocky butte overlooking the Portefeuille River in the former province of Berry....


Sources

  • Jean-Albert Bédé, "Sand, George", Encyclopedia Americana
    Encyclopedia Americana
    Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language. Following the acquisition of Grolier in 2000, the encyclopedia has been produced by Scholastic....

    , 1986 ed., vol. 24, pp.218–19.
  • Correspondence (letters) by George Sand and her contemporaries (see "Writings by George Sand"
  • Tad Szulc
    Tad Szulc
    Tadeusz Witold Szulc was a reporter and writer of non-fiction books.-Life:Szulc was born in Warsaw, the son of Seweryn and Janina Baruch Szulc. He attended school in Switzerland. In 1940 he emigrated from Poland to join his family in Brazil...

    , Chopin in Paris: the Life and Times of the Romantic Composer, New York, Scribner, 1998, ISBN 0-684-82458-2.
  • In French:
    • Dictionnaire Encyclopédique de la Langue Française 3ième édition
  • George Sand: The Story of Her Life. Paintault, Micheline (Director). Cerf, Claudine (Author). DVD, France 5, 2004.
  • Yates, Jim: Oh!Père Lachaise:Oscar's Wilde Purgatory, Édition d'Amèlie 2007: ISBN 978-0-9555836-1-2 Oscar Wilde dreams of George Sand and is invited to a soirée at Nohant.

External links

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